POLYMERASECHAIN REACTION(PCR)BY: Rachel Randall                     "PCR is the most important new                     sci...
PCR PCR is a method of heating and cooling of a small amount of  DNA to make copies for further testing Billions of copi...
CREATION Invented by Kary Mullis in 1993      He received a Nobel Prize and Japan Prize for his new innovative method  ...
WHAT’S INVOLVED The small DNA template strand to be amplified DNA nucleotides Two Primers, single-stranded DNAs between...
STEP ONE: DENATURING break apart the DNA strand by heating to about 94 degrees  Celsius This gives access to the rungs t...
STEP TWO: ANNEALING allowing two sequences of DNA to form hydrogen bonds annealing of the target sequences and primers i...
STEP THREE: EXTENSION Raise to body temperature or 72 degrees Celsius Winds DNA strands back together Makes more of the...
CONTRIBUTIONS Quicker, simpler and more reliable results for more tests like… Gene Expression Analysis The diagnosis of...
FUTURE Smaller machines Cost Speed Amount able to copy
ETHICS Unethical since DNA is produced so quickly and easily, it might be  possible for outside sources to obtain a copy ...
BIOGRAPHY http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110421104508.htm http://www.horizonpress.com/pcr/pdf/rtpcr/rtpcr0...
Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall
Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall
Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall
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Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall

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Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall

  1. 1. POLYMERASECHAIN REACTION(PCR)BY: Rachel Randall "PCR is the most important new scientific technology to come along in the last hundred years," says Mark R. Hughes, deputy director of the Human Genome Project
  2. 2. PCR PCR is a method of heating and cooling of a small amount of DNA to make copies for further testing Billions of copies can be made in a matter of hours with each cycle taking 1-3 minutes The DNA template can undergo at least 30-40 cycles always doubling in quantity An automated Thermo Cycler that can heat and cool the reaction tubes in a short amount of time
  3. 3. CREATION Invented by Kary Mullis in 1993  He received a Nobel Prize and Japan Prize for his new innovative method He was developing it for 10 years since its conception in 1983 Created on of the most monumental scientific techniques of the 20th century
  4. 4. WHAT’S INVOLVED The small DNA template strand to be amplified DNA nucleotides Two Primers, single-stranded DNAs between 20 and 50 nucleotides long (oligonucleotides)  complementary to a short region on either side of the template DNA Heat-resistant Taq polymerase that speeds up the process
  5. 5. STEP ONE: DENATURING break apart the DNA strand by heating to about 94 degrees Celsius This gives access to the rungs that contains the nucleotide bases Stops all enzymatic reactions (the extension from a previous cycle).
  6. 6. STEP TWO: ANNEALING allowing two sequences of DNA to form hydrogen bonds annealing of the target sequences and primers is done by cooling the DNA to 55°C If the primers exactly fit the template, the hydrogen bonds are so strong that the primer stays attached
  7. 7. STEP THREE: EXTENSION Raise to body temperature or 72 degrees Celsius Winds DNA strands back together Makes more of the needed copies of the template
  8. 8. CONTRIBUTIONS Quicker, simpler and more reliable results for more tests like… Gene Expression Analysis The diagnosis of an infectious disease Human genetic testing
  9. 9. FUTURE Smaller machines Cost Speed Amount able to copy
  10. 10. ETHICS Unethical since DNA is produced so quickly and easily, it might be possible for outside sources to obtain a copy of it for their own use without the owners permission May prevent insurance companies from insuring a person if the have a segment of their DNA that shows they have or carry the genes for a fatal or deadly disease Also, some people think the genetic engineering is unethical altogether, and believe that DNA should be left alone to replicate naturally in the cell
  11. 11. BIOGRAPHY http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110421104508.htm http://www.horizonpress.com/pcr/pdf/rtpcr/rtpcr01.pdf http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/polymerase.php http://www.nhlcyberfamily.org/tests/pcr.htm
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