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Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall
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Polymerase chain reaction Rachel Randall


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  • 1. POLYMERASECHAIN REACTION(PCR)BY: Rachel Randall "PCR is the most important new scientific technology to come along in the last hundred years," says Mark R. Hughes, deputy director of the Human Genome Project
  • 2. PCR PCR is a method of heating and cooling of a small amount of DNA to make copies for further testing Billions of copies can be made in a matter of hours with each cycle taking 1-3 minutes The DNA template can undergo at least 30-40 cycles always doubling in quantity An automated Thermo Cycler that can heat and cool the reaction tubes in a short amount of time
  • 3. CREATION Invented by Kary Mullis in 1993  He received a Nobel Prize and Japan Prize for his new innovative method He was developing it for 10 years since its conception in 1983 Created on of the most monumental scientific techniques of the 20th century
  • 4. WHAT’S INVOLVED The small DNA template strand to be amplified DNA nucleotides Two Primers, single-stranded DNAs between 20 and 50 nucleotides long (oligonucleotides)  complementary to a short region on either side of the template DNA Heat-resistant Taq polymerase that speeds up the process
  • 5. STEP ONE: DENATURING break apart the DNA strand by heating to about 94 degrees Celsius This gives access to the rungs that contains the nucleotide bases Stops all enzymatic reactions (the extension from a previous cycle).
  • 6. STEP TWO: ANNEALING allowing two sequences of DNA to form hydrogen bonds annealing of the target sequences and primers is done by cooling the DNA to 55°C If the primers exactly fit the template, the hydrogen bonds are so strong that the primer stays attached
  • 7. STEP THREE: EXTENSION Raise to body temperature or 72 degrees Celsius Winds DNA strands back together Makes more of the needed copies of the template
  • 8. CONTRIBUTIONS Quicker, simpler and more reliable results for more tests like… Gene Expression Analysis The diagnosis of an infectious disease Human genetic testing
  • 9. FUTURE Smaller machines Cost Speed Amount able to copy
  • 10. ETHICS Unethical since DNA is produced so quickly and easily, it might be possible for outside sources to obtain a copy of it for their own use without the owners permission May prevent insurance companies from insuring a person if the have a segment of their DNA that shows they have or carry the genes for a fatal or deadly disease Also, some people think the genetic engineering is unethical altogether, and believe that DNA should be left alone to replicate naturally in the cell
  • 11. BIOGRAPHY