Chapter 14 Cross Cultural Consumer Behavior


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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 14 Cross Cultural Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior: An International Perspective
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Imperative to Be Multinational </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Multinational Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Psychographic Segmentation </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Imperative to Be Multinational <ul><li>Global Trade Agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAFTA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquiring Exposure to Other Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Country-of-origin Effects </li></ul>
  4. 4. Table 14.1 The World’s Most Valuable Brands <ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul><ul><li>GE </li></ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><li>Disney </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota </li></ul><ul><li>Marlboro </li></ul>
  5. 5. Most of these brands offer different Web sites for each country. weblink
  6. 6. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What challenges may Toyota have faced to get this status? </li></ul><ul><li>What might they have done right in their marketing strategy to achieve this status? Consider the 4Ps. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Country of Origin Effects: Negative and Positive <ul><li>Many consumers may take into consideration the country of origin of a product. </li></ul><ul><li>Some consumers have animosity toward a country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s Republic of China has some animosity to Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish consumers avoid German products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand and Australian consumers boycott French products </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Swiss Watches
  9. 9. More Swiss Watches
  10. 10. Can’t Beat the Engineering The “American” Twist
  11. 11. This U.S. Government Web site helps those who want to buy USA products. weblink
  12. 12. National Identity Figure 14.2
  13. 13. Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis The effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations are similar or different.
  14. 14. Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis <ul><li>Similarities and differences among people </li></ul><ul><li>The growing global middle class </li></ul><ul><li>The global teenage market </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the similarity between nations, the more feasible to use relatively similar marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers often speak to the same “types” of consumers globally </li></ul>Issues
  15. 15. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Are people becoming more similar? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Table 14.2 Comparisons of Chinese and American Cultural Traits <ul><li>Chinese Cultural Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Centered on Confucian doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Submissive to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor worship </li></ul><ul><li>Values a person’s duty to family and state </li></ul><ul><li>American Cultural Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Individual centered </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on self-reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Primary faith in rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Values individual personality </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis <ul><li>Similarities and differences among people </li></ul><ul><li>The growing global middle class </li></ul><ul><li>The global teenage market </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Growing in Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers should focus on these markets </li></ul>Issues
  18. 18. Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis <ul><li>Similarities and differences among people </li></ul><ul><li>The growing global middle class </li></ul><ul><li>The global teenage market </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>There has been growth in an affluent global teenage and young adult market </li></ul><ul><li>They appear to have similar interests, desires, and consumption behavior no matter where they live. </li></ul>Issues
  19. 19. The iPod has global appeal to the young market. weblink
  20. 20. Cross-Cultural Consumer Analysis <ul><li>Similarities and differences among people </li></ul><ul><li>The growing global middle class </li></ul><ul><li>The global teenage market </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers must learn everything that is relevant about the usage of their product and product categories in foreign countries </li></ul>Issues
  21. 21. Table 14.6 Basic Research Issues in Cross-Cultural Analysis FACTORS Differences in language and meaning Differences in market segmentation opportunities Differences in consumption patterns Differences in the perceived benefits of products and services EXAMPLES Words or concepts may not mean the same in two different countries. The income, social class, age, and sex of target customers may differ dramatically in two different countries. Two countries may differ substantially in the level of consumption or use of products or services. Two nations may use or consume the same product in very different ways.
  22. 22. Table 14.6 continued FACTORS Differences in the criteria for evaluating products and services Differences in economic and social conditions and family structure Differences in marketing research and conditions Differences in marketing research possibilities EXAMPLES The benefits sought from a service may differ from country to country. The “style” of family decision making may vary significantly from country to country. The types and quality of retail outlets and direct-mail lists may vary greatly among countries. The availability of professional consumer researchers may vary considerably from country to country.
  23. 23. World Brands Products that are manufactured, packaged, and positioned the same way regardless of the country in which they are sold.
  24. 24. Are Global Brands Different? <ul><li>According to a survey – yes. </li></ul><ul><li>Global brands have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global myth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Multinational Reactions to Brand Extensions <ul><li>A global brand does not always have success with brand extentions </li></ul><ul><li>Example Coke brand extension – Coke popcorn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern culture saw fit and accepted the brand extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western culture did not see fit </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Adaptive Global Marketing <ul><li>Adaptation of advertising message to specific values of particular cultures </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s uses localization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example Ronald McDonald is Donald McDonald in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese menu includes corn soup and green tea milkshakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often best to combine global and local marketing strategies </li></ul>
  27. 27. Discussion Question <ul><li>If your university is considering a satellite business program in Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How would they need to adapt the program? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would prompt these changes? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Alternative Multinational Strategies: Global Versus Local <ul><li>Framework for Assessing Multinational Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Table 14.8 A Framework for Alternative Global Marketing Strategies PRODUCT STRATEGY COMMUNICATON STRATEGY STANDARDIZED COMMUNICATIONS LOCALIZED COMMUNICATIONS STANDARDIZED PRODUCT Global strategy: Uniform Product/ Uniform Message Mixed Strategy: Uniform Product/ Customized Message LOCALIZED PRODUCT Mixed strategy: Customized Product/ Uniform Message Local Strategy: Customized Product/ Customized Message
  30. 30. Cross-Cultural Psychographic Segmentation <ul><li>The only ultimate truth possible is that humans are both deeply the same and obviously different. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Table 14.10 Six Global Consumer Segments Strivers 23% Altruists 18% Devouts 22% Fun Seekers 12% Creatives 10% Intimates 15%