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  • 1. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong BA&BEd (English) Year 2 EDUC 2622 Pedagogy (English) I 2011 – 2012Lecturer: Nicole J. TavaresTel No.: 2859 2175Fax No.: 2858 5649Office: Room 210, Runme Shaw BuildingE-mail: tavaresn@hku.hkCOURSE OBJECTIVESThis course, which aims at empowering student-teachers in maximising the integration ofknowledge in teaching methodology and skills in practical teaching, introduces you to avariety of English Language Teaching theories, approaches and methodologies, with aparticular emphasis on the teaching of the four macro skills – Speaking, Listening, Readingand Writing – in mainstream secondary schools in Hong Kong. You will take an active partin learning tasks and class discussions which require you to plan, implement and evaluatemini-lessons. You will also be expected to pursue independent reading before and after classand to relate coursework to your teaching practicum.Pedagogy (English) I (9 credits) is the first of a series of three courses across Years 2, 3 and4, by the end of which you are expected to be equipped with the full range of knowledge andskills to function as effective teachers of English in local secondary schools.COURSE OUTLINE AND SCHEDULE FOR CLASSES (JAN – APR 2012) Date Time Venue FOCUS OF THE SESSION 11:30 a.m. – RM Exploring Beliefs and Expectations 1 17th Jan 2012 1:25 p.m. 204 ~ Towards Developing Professional Competence 10:30 a.m. – RM English Language Teaching in Hong Kong: 2 19th Jan 2012 ~ The Communicative Approach to Language 12:25 p.m. 204 Teaching Lunar New Year (23rd – 26th February 2012) The Teaching of Speaking I 11:30 a.m. – RM 3 31st Jan 2012 ~ Planning a Good Speaking Lesson: Maximising 1:25 p.m. 204 Learner Talk & Catering for Individual Differences The Teaching of Speaking II 10:30 a.m. – RM 4 2nd Feb 2012 ~ Organising Speaking Activities: Setting the 12:25 p.m. 204 Activity up, Devising Rules and Giving InstructionsPrepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 1 of 12
  • 2. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong The Teaching of Listening 11:30 a.m. – RM ~ The Schema Theory: Top-down and bottom-up 5 7th Feb 2012 1:25 p.m. 204 processing ~ Preparing Students for Real-Life Listening 9:30 a.m. – RM 6 9th Feb 2012 The Teaching of Reading 12:25 p.m. 204 ~ Understanding the Reading Process 11:30 a.m. – RM ~ Developing Students’ Reading Strategies through 7 14th Feb 2012 Well-Staged Reading Lessons 1:25 p.m. 204 The Teaching of Writing I ~ Designing a Good Writing Task: 9:30 a.m. – RM The Significance of Genre, Audience and Purpose 8# 16th Feb 2012 12:25 p.m. 204 -------------------------------------------------------------- Micro-Teaching Workshop I (on The Teaching of Speaking and/or Listening) The Teaching of Writing II 11:30 a.m. – RM 9 21st Feb 2012 ~ The Process- versus Product-Oriented Approach 1:25 p.m. 204 to Teaching Writing Micro-Teaching Workshop II (on The Teaching of Reading and/or Writing) 9:30 a.m. – RM 10# 23rd Feb 2012 -------------------------------------------------------------- 12:25 p.m. 204 Pre-TP Preparation: Questions and Challenges Experiencing a Lesson Study Teaching Practicum (27th February – 16th March 2012) 11:30 a.m. – RM 11 20th Mar 2012 Post-TP Experience Sharing 1:25 p.m. 204 9:30 a.m. – RM 22nd Mar 2012 For Individual/Group Consultations 12:25 p.m. 210 11:30 a.m. – RM 12 27th Mar 2012 Review of the Teaching Practicum I 1:25 p.m. 204 10:30 a.m. – RM 13 29th Mar 2012 Review of the Teaching Practicum II 12:25 p.m. 204 11:30 a.m. – RM 14 3rd Apr 2012 Review of the Teaching Practicum III 1:25 p.m. 204# Session may be extended.Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 2 of 12
  • 3. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong KongCOURSE LEARNING OUTCOMESBy the end of the Year 2 course, students are expected to be able to demonstrate theirability to… Related ProgrammeLO No. Learning Outcome (LO) Statement Learning Outcomes1 describe some of the main approaches to and methodologies of teaching English as a second language, examine their relative potential PLO 1 (i, iii, iv) effectiveness, compare and contrast them in PLO 2 (i) relation to specific teaching and learning contexts, and select appropriate approaches for specific purposes2 formulate lesson objectives and plan a well-staged PLO 1 (i, iv) lesson, justify their pedagogical decisions and PLO 2 (ii, iii, iv) relate them to student needs PLO 3 (iii) PLO 4 (ii)3 design materials and activities, sequence them based on the selected approach(es) and PLO 1 (i, ii, iii, iv) methodology/ies, justify their pedagogical PLO 2 (i, iv) decisions and support them with reference to the PLO 3 (ii) relevant theories of English language teaching and PLO 4 (ii) learning4 identify, analyse and evaluate the strengths and PLO 1 (ii, limitations of (mini-)lessons, tasks/activities and PLO 3 (ii) materials chosen for in-class discussion and PLO 4 (iii) designed by themselves and/or their peers5 develop, articulate and implement in a theory- driven manner, a series of coherent and pedagogically sound teaching and learning PLO 1 (i, iii) activities in one or more lessons based on a PLO 2 (i, ii, iii, iv) theme/topic and a given set of school-based materials6 evaluate the effectiveness of a lesson taught in a PLO 1 (i, iv) real classroom context with reference to the PLO 2 (ii) specific learning outcomes and ELT theories under PLO 3 (i, iv) the guidance of their teaching practicum supervisor PLO 4 (i, ii, iii)7 demonstrate professionalism in their teaching PLO 4 (i, ii, iii) practicePrepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 3 of 12
  • 4. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong KongLEARNING APPROACHESThrough an activity-oriented, experiential learning, problem-solving and inquiry-basedapproach to teaching and learning, you will be given ample opportunities to be activelyengaged in a broad spectrum of individual and collaborative tasks as well as otherinteractive modes of learning, all of which serve as stimuli for reflective and criticalthinking. You should be prepared for constant peer support, evaluation and feedbackthroughout the course. You are also required to complete set readings assigned by thelecturer between sessions and to participate actively in the sharing of your teaching andlearning experiences on Moodle at http://babed.edu.hku.hk/.COURSE REQUIREMENTSAttendance and PunctualityQuoting from the BA&BEd (LangEd) Student Handbook 2011 – 2012, ‘Students are requiredto attend all classes which may or may not be conducted face-to-face. Students will beassessed by diverse forms of assessment, including class activities, throughout their studies.Therefore, students are required to attend all classes for continuous assessment as may beheld from time to time. Students who fail to participate in any in-class assessment will failthat particular assessment and fail that particular course where the assessment contributes to ahigh percentage of the overall result of the course… Application for leave of absence shouldbe sent to the Course Teacher and the Programme Director in writing, together with anysupporting document, at the earliest opportunity.’ (Pg. 5 – 6).ParticipationAs a professional member of the learning community, you are expected to make active,supportive, positive and informed contributions in class.CommunicationBetween sessions, you are encouraged to engage in professional dialogue with yourcoursemates and lecturer in our learning community on Moodle. You are also remindedto check your email regularly and to reply promptly to messages that require action.Emails to your lecturer on questions about and/or feedback on the course are stronglyencouraged.Performance in all the above areas will be taken into consideration when finalisingyour overall course grade.Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 4 of 12
  • 5. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong KongCOURSE ASSESSMENTPart I: Student-Selected Readings and Student-Led Discussion (30%)In teams, you select and prepare readings on a chosen topic either in your area of interestbased on your teaching experiences or in response to a critical incident that arose duringthe Teaching Practicum. Readings and preparatory materials/tasks are expected to reachyour coursemates at least one week prior to the session. During the session, you shouldbe ready to play a vital role in summarising key points raised in the readings, presentingyour personal and critical views on the ideas, posing contextually relevant questions,generating issues for discussion and drawing conclusions from the in-class ‘debate’. Thestudent-led discussion will take place after the Teaching Practicum.Assessment is based on your informed choice as well as the relevance and quality of thereading materials selected, evidence of thorough preparation, presentation skills, thedepth of analysis of the topic, the degree of reflective and critical thinking and yourability to maximise the participation of your coursemates during the session. (Pleaserefer to Appendix 1 on Page 8 for the Assessment Criteria.) All materials prepared for thesession, including readings, materials used in the presentation, tasks designed andpersonal notes, should be submitted after your session.Part II: Essay – Lesson Study (70%)This assignment requires you to put into practice the theories, approaches andmethodologies of English language teaching and learning introduced and explored in thecourse in the planning of a lesson and the development of teaching and learning materialsfor a specific group of students. You are required to select one thirty-five to forty-minuteEnglish lesson you conducted during the Teaching Practicum (except the lessonsobserved by your supervisors in the two school visits) for critical and in-depth analysis.In the essay, you should include the following sections:(i) a brief and relevant introduction to the practicum school, your classroom context and student characteristics and an explanation of how this might have influenced the design of your lesson(ii) a brief overview of the lesson you taught (the teaching approaches and methodologies adopted, your materials and activities) and what you wanted to achieve in terms of student learning together with an explanation of the rationale behind your lesson with reference to methodological principles, relevant theories and studies in the ELT literaturePrepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 5 of 12
  • 6. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong(iii) a critical and objective evaluation of the effectiveness of the lesson in terms of the extent to which the objective(s) of the selected lesson was/were achieved and the effectiveness of the teaching methodologies and strategies used(iv) a valid, objective and accurate assessment of the strengths and limitations of the lesson(v) concrete modifications proposed to address the problems identified(vi) an appendix including detailed lesson plans of both the original and modified lesson, all teaching/learning materials both original and modified, a representative sample of students’ work (if applicable) and a video of the selected lesson on a CD-Rom.(vii) A reference listYour essay should contain evidence of your ability to relate your teaching experiencesand practical knowledge to the theories discussed in the sessions and to the importantliterature in ELT. The essay should not exceed 2000 words and should be written inconnected prose and not in point form. You are advised to use headings and sub-headingswhen appropriate to help you organise your writing.The assignment must be word-processed using 12-pt Times Roman, 1.5-line spacing,with 1-inch margins on all sides and page numbers. Printing should be on single-sided A4paper. Paragraphs should be indented with 1-tab space or block format should be used.Please use appropriate capital letters, bold and/or italics for headings.Your submission should be reader-friendly and accessible; it should therefore besubmitted in an organised file/binder. Original materials such as laminated flash cardsand props which you used should not be included. Instead, you should produce reducedsize, colour photocopies of these items, and a clear description of how these materialswere used.Note:  The chosen lesson MUST be video-recorded on a CD-Rom. Please make sure you seek prior approval from your mentor(s) as well as the principal of the school before any video-taping of your lessons.  The lesson on a CD-Rom and written transcriptions of classroom teaching episodes (if applicable) should be included as evidence to support your observations, analysis, arguments and reflections.  You are expected to demonstrate effective articulation between your discussion and the theories of teaching and learning, as well as the artifacts/evidence attached. Clear cross-referencing to the artifacts must be provided in the essay (for example, through quoting the relevant section of the lesson plan, indicating specific steps referred to in the lesson, citing counter numbers on the CD-Rom, transcribing teacher/student talk, … … ).  You are reminded that your essay should be written in the style of formal academic writing.  Adhere to the APA style recommended by the University when citing references.Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 6 of 12
  • 7. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong For details visit the American Psychological Association website at http://www.liu.edu/CWIS/CWP/library/workshop/citapa.htm.  Avoid over-citing your lecture notes or using too many second-hand references.  Please proofread your work very carefully before submission to avoid spelling and grammatical mistakes.  Indicate the number of words used at the end of your main text (excluding references and appendices). You are reminded that only text within the word limit (up to 2000 words) will be assessed.For details on the Assessment Criteria, please refer to Appendix 2 on Pages 9 – 10.DEADLINE FOR THE SUBMISSION OF THE ESSAYBy 5:00 p.m., 17th April 2012FEEDBACK SESSION18th May 2012 (2:00 – 3:00 p.m.)MAJOR REFERENCESCDC (1999). Syllabuses for secondary schools English Language Secondary 1 – 5. HongKong: Curriculum Development Council.http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?langno=1&nodeID=2770Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. Harlow, Essex: Longman.Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 7 of 12
  • 8. Appendix 1 BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong KongASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR THE STUDENT-SELECTED READINGS AND STUDENT-LED DISCUSSIONS (30%) Language Use and Content Organisation and Coherence Delivery Research Expression of Ideas6 Excellent focus and An extremely well-structured and Highly effective, clear and smooth Widely supportive ELT Understanding is never impeded by |in-depth analysis and coherent presentation. delivery of presentation with excellent literature on the topic cited. language use. reflection of the topic. awareness of the audience’s interests Excellent use of relevant Can communicate ideas with Interesting new / and needs. references. maximum clarity and effectiveness renewed insights into to the audience. the topic shown. Very effective use of visual aids to help expression of ideas.5 Very good focus and A well-structured and coherent Very effective delivery of presentation Sound awareness of ELT Understanding is seldom impeded by in-depth analysis and presentation. with sound awareness of the literature on the topic shown. language use. reflection of the topic. audience’s interests and needs. References are very clear, Can communicate ideas very clearly New / renewed insights relevant and supportive. and effectively to the audience. into the topic shown. Effective use of visual aids to enhance understanding most of the time.4 Good focus and The presentation is structured and Good delivery of presentation with a Good awareness of ELT Understanding is not usually impeded sufficiently in-depth coherent most of the time, although reasonably good awareness of the literature on the topic shown. because of language use. analysis and reflection its overall flow could be audience’s interests and needs. References are clear, relevant Can communicate ideas clearly and of the topic. strengthened. and appropriate. effectively to the audience. Some new / renewed Visual aids often help to enhance insights into the topic understanding of the ideas being shown. explored.3 Relevant focus and The presentation occasionally Presentation delivered with some Some awareness of ELT Understanding is occasionally sufficient analysis and lacks a clear structure and awareness of the audience’s interests literature on the topic shown. impeded by language use. reflection of the topic. coherence. and needs. Basic referencing is evident. Can communicate ideas quite clearly Limited new / renewed and effectively to the audience. insights into the topic Visual aids are used to some extent shown. to enhance understanding.2 Attempts at some focus, The presentation lacks structure Presentation delivered with very little Limited reference is made to Understanding is sometimes analysis and reflection and coherence most of the time. awareness of the audience’s interests relevant and appropriate ELT impeded by language use. of the topic. and needs. literature. Visual aids are rarely used to enhance understanding.1 A lack of understanding The presentation is not structured Presentation delivered with almost no Little or no evidence of relevant Understanding is often impeded by and analysis of the topic. and very few links are made from understanding of the audience’s ELT literature is read / used. the lack of control of language use. one part to the next. interests and needs. Referencing is inadequate and Very limited or no visual aids are inappropriate. used to enhance understanding. Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 8 of 12
  • 9. Appendix 2 BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR THE LESSON STUDY (70%)Overall CriteriaAssignments will be graded on the basis of the following criteria:1. Ability to demonstrate depth of reflection, and thorough and critical analysis of the selected lesson;2. Ability to critically evaluate the effectiveness of the selected lesson in relation to the objective(s) set and student characteristics;3. Ability to identify and present the strengths as well as limitations of the lesson, teaching materials and tasks used, teaching methodology/ies adopted and strategies employed;4. Ability to make and illustrate suggestions on essential modifications to be made to the lesson;5. Ability to display an awareness of the educational and language-learning theories and important ELT literature in the areas relevant to your discussion;6. Ability to make accurate and interesting observations of your own; and7. Ability to produce a clear and coherent piece of academic writing.Please note that any evidence of plagiarism will lead to a fail grade.Criteria for Each GradeGRADE A You have demonstrated an excellent and in-depth analysis of your chosen lesson in terms of its overall effectiveness, and have shown a thorough and profound understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of your lesson. You have displayed sharp awareness and sound knowledge of the problems underlying the weakness(es) of the lesson, successfully identified salient problems in specific areas of the actual planning and teaching, and given concrete suggestions on essential as well as appropriate modifications to the lesson. Examples cited from the lesson are very appropriate and fully illustrate the analyses made. Appropriate references to key methodological principles, important theories and studies in the literature have been made. In addition to referring to theoretical underpinnings in the literature, you have made interesting and insightful observations of your own. The discussion, analysis and observations have been presented clearly and coherently in the style of academic writing.GRADE B You have demonstrated a good and sufficiently in-depth analysis of your chosen lesson in terms of its overall effectiveness, and have shown a thorough understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of your lesson. You have displayed good knowledge of the problems underlying the weakness(es) of the lesson, successfully identified major problems in specific areas of the actual planning and teaching, and given concrete suggestions on essential as well as appropriate modifications to the lesson. Examples cited from the lesson are valid and illustrate the analyses made. Appropriate references to methodological principles, relevant theories and studies in the literature have been made. In addition to referring to theoretical underpinnings in the literature, you have made some interesting and insightful observations of your own. The discussion, analysis and observations have been presented clearly and coherently in the style of academic writing. Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 9 of 12
  • 10. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong KongGRADE C You have demonstrated a fairly good and clear analysis of your chosen lesson in terms of its overall effectiveness, and have shown a reasonably good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of your lesson. You have displayed sufficient knowledge of the problems underlying the weakness(es) of the lesson, identified relevant problems in specific areas of the actual planning and teaching, and suggested appropriate modifications to the lesson. Examples cited from the lesson are mostly valid and aptly illustrate the analyses made. Appropriate references to some methodological principles, relevant theories and studies in the literature have been made. In addition to referring to theoretical underpinnings in the literature, you have made an attempt to include some interesting and insightful observations of your own, although not all of them are valid. The discussion, analysis and observations have been presented clearly and coherently in the style of academic writing.GRADE D You have provided analysis of your chosen lesson in terms of its overall effectiveness, and have shown an understanding of some of the important features of the strengths and weaknesses of your lesson. You have displayed basic knowledge of the problems underlying the weakness(es) of the lesson, identified some problems in specific areas of the actual planning and teaching, and suggested possible modifications to the lesson. Only some of the examples cited from the lesson are valid and illustrate the analyses made. Appropriate references to theories and studies in the literature have been made. In addition to referring to theoretical underpinnings in the literature, you have made an attempt to include some interesting and insightful observations of your own, although not all of them are valid. The discussion, analysis and/or observations are comprehensible but lack clarity and coherence. The essay is written in the style of academic writing.GRADE F You have provided analysis of your chosen lesson in terms of its overall effectiveness, but have shown a lack of understanding or even misunderstanding of important features of the strengths and weaknesses of your lesson. You have not displayed sufficient knowledge of the problems underlying the weakness(es) of the lesson; you have had difficulty identifying the problems in specific areas of the actual planning and teaching, and have not been able to suggest appropriate modifications to the lesson. Examples cited from the lesson are largely inappropriate and fail to illustrate the analyses made. References to theories and studies in the literature have been far from adequate. Arguments raised in the literature have been poorly summarised and you have made no attempt to put forward observations of your own. The discussion, analysis and/or observations are comprehensible but lack clarity and coherence. The essay is not written in the style of academic writing.Please note: (i) Detailed lesson plans of both the original and modified lesson, (ii) all teaching materialsrelevant to the lesson and referred to in the essay and (iii) representative samples of students’ work shouldbe attached as appendices, and (iv) audio/video recordings of the selected lesson should be submitted withthe essay. Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 10 of 12
  • 11. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG FACULTY OF EDUCATIONProposed Common Programme Learning Outcomes (PLO) for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmesviz. BEd, BEd(LangEd) (including BA&BEd[LangEd]) and PGDE1. Curriculum and pedagogical content knowledge(i) Identify, appraise and critically evaluate the aims, framework and content of the relevant subjectcurriculum and its alignment with the broader educational aims(ii) Demonstrate a firm technology-supported pedagogical content knowledge base for the relevant subjectarea, and apply such knowledge in curriculum design, implementation and evaluation for improvement inteaching and learning(iii) Plan and implement evidence-based, contextually responsive, and innovative teaching to constructeffective learning experiences; apply effective strategies and skills to deal with unanticipated situationsarising in professional practice(iv) Explore and apply appropriate assessment and evaluation strategies, and reflect on students’ performanceto enhance teaching and learning2. Learners and learning(i) Demonstrate a critical understanding of theories of learning and whole-person development and the abilityto construct an environment conducive to effective learning(ii) Identify appropriate learning outcomes, evaluate the achievement of those outcomes and communicatesuitable feedback to the learners(iii) Identify learners’ individual differences and implement strategies to provide support for their diverselearning needs(iv) Draw on human, curriculum and technological resources to promote cross-curricular learning and multi-literacies3. Education in context(i) Communicate ideas, concepts and issues effectively to stakeholders in education, including students,parents and colleagues(ii) Network and collaborate effectively with stakeholders to respond to changes in education and play aleadership role in promoting the enhancement of teaching and learning(iii) Demonstrate inter-cultural understanding and interpersonal skills for engagement with people of diversecultures(iv) Demonstrate, as a local and global citizen, critical awareness of social, economic, cultural, technologicaland environmental issues, and participate actively in promoting the well-being of humankind4. Professional ethics(i) Demonstrate awareness of the importance of upholding professional ethics and commitment to the code ofconduct for teachers1.(ii) Show sensitivity to and respect for the diverse interests and backgrounds of other stakeholders in theeducation community(iii) Reflect critically on personal strengths and weaknesses to develop knowledge, skills and strategies forcontinuing professional improvement 1 For the current context, refer to the Council on Professional Conduct in Education‘s document titled ‗Code for the Education Profession in Hong Kong‘ in http://cpc.edb.org.hk/english/code02.htm Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 11 of 12
  • 12. BA&BEd Year 2 Programme, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong The University of Hong Kong Educational AimsTo enable our students to develop their capabilities in:Aim 1: Pursuit of academic / professional excellence, critical intellectual enquiry and life-longlearning1.1 Develop in-depth knowledge of specialist disciplines and professions1.2 Maintain highest standards of intellectual rigor and academic integrity1.3 Critique received knowledge from multiple perspectives1.4 Sustain intellectual curiosity and enthusiasm for learningAim 2: Tackling novel situations and ill-defined problems2.1 Respond positively to unanticipated situations and problems2.2 Identify and define problems in unfamiliar situations2.3 Generate and evaluate innovative solutions to problemAim 3: Critical self-reflection, greater understanding of others, and upholding personal andprofessional ethics3.1 Maintain highest standards of personal integrity and ethical practice in academic, social andprofessional settings3.2 Heighten awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses3.3 Respect individual differences and preferencesAim 4: Intercultural understanding and global citizenship4.1 Heighten awareness of own culture and other cultures4.2 Develop cultural sensitivity and interpersonal skills for engagement with people of diverse cultures4.3 Perform social responsibilities as a member of the global communityAim 5: Communication and collaboration5.1 Communicate effectively in academic, professional and social settings5.2 Work with others and make constructive contributionsAim 6: Leadership and advocacy for the improvement of the human condition6.1 Play a leading role in improving the well-being of fellow citizens and humankind6.2 Uphold the core values of a democratic society: human rights, justice, equality and freedom of speech6.3 Participate actively in promoting the local and global social, economic and environmentalsustainability. Prepared by Nicole J. Tavares, January 2012 Page 12 of 12