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Ias 36

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  • 1. Impairment of Assets: IAS 36 COACHING CLASSES FOR PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS
  • 2. JOIN KHALID AZIZ
    • ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.
    • FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.
    • COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.
    • CONTACT:
    • 0322-3385752
    • R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
  • 3. Impairment of Assets
    • Related standards
    • IAS 36
    • Current GAAP comparisons
    • IFRS financial statement disclosures
    • Looking ahead
    • End-of-chapter practice
  • 4. Related Standards
    • HB 1581 Business combinations
    • HB 3025 Impaired loans
    • HB 3051 Investments
    • HB 3061 Property, plant and equipment
    • HB 3063 Impairment of long-lived assets
    • HB 3064 Goodwill and intangible assets
    • HB 4211 Life insurance enterprises—specific items
  • 5. Related Standards
    • FAS 157 Fair value measurements
    • FAS 144 Accounting for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets
    • FAS 142 Goodwill and other intangible assets
    • FAS 141 Business combinations
  • 6. Related Standards
    • IFRS 3 Business combinations
    • IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment
    • IAS 17 Leases
    • IAS 27 Consolidated and separate financial statements
    • IAS 28 Investments in associates
    • IAS 31 Interests in joint ventures
    • IAS 38 Intangible assets
    • IAS 40 Investment property
  • 7. IAS 36 – Overview
    • Objective and scope
    • Identifying an asset that might be impaired
    • Recognizing and measuring an impairment loss for an individual asset
    • Recognizing and measuring an impairment loss for cash-generating units and goodwill
    • Reversing an impairment loss
    • Disclosure
  • 8. IAS 36 – Objective and Scope
    • IAS 36 ensures that assets are reported on the statement of financial position at no more than the entity can recover from their use or sale. 
    • May be an impairment loss—“the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset or a cash-generating unit (CGU) exceeds its recoverable amount”
  • 9. IAS 36 – Objective and Scope
    • IAS 36 excludes:
      • inventories
      • assets arising from construction contracts
      • employee benefit assets
      • deferred tax assets
      • financial assets under IAS 39
      • non-current assets or disposal groups held-for-sale
      • investment property, biological assets based on FV measurements
  • 10. IAS 36 – Objective and Scope
  • 11. IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
    • Assets
      • end of each reporting period
      • assess for indications of impairment
      • if indications of impairment, test for impairment
    • Intangibles with indefinite lives, those not yet ready for use, and goodwill
      • annually
      • test for impairment regardless of indications of impairment
  • 12.
    • Indication of impairment? Consider:
    IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
  • 13. IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
    • Testing for impairment:
    • Estimate asset/CGU’s recoverable amount. If recoverable amount is greater than the carrying amount – no impairment.
    • Recoverable amount - higher of:
      • fair value less costs to sell, and
      • value in use
  • 14.
    • For assets that do not generate independent cash flows on their own – group into cash-generating units (CGUs)
    • CGU – “the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows from other assets or groups of assets”
    IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
  • 15.
    • Fair value less costs to sell = proceeds from arm’s-length sale of an asset/CGU between knowledgeable willing parties less incremental direct costs of its disposal
    •   Best measure: arm’s-length bargained price in a binding sales agreement in an active market.
    • Hierarchy of appropriate methods to establish fair value
    • Disposal costs: e.g., legal costs, transaction taxes, removal costs, costs to put in condition for sale
    IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
  • 16.
    • Value in use = present value of the future cash flows expected from asset/CGU’s use and ultimate disposal
    • Two approaches:
      • Most likely cash flows from use and disposal discounted using risk-adjusted discount rate.
      • Probability-weighted cash flows from use and disposal discounted using remaining risk-adjusted discount rate.
    IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
  • 17.
    • E.g., estimated cash flows with a 40% probability they will be $120 and a 60% probability they will be $80. Value in use?
    • Method 1: Most likely cash flows = $80. This amount is discounted using a rate that takes into account all risks including the uncertainty of the cash flow amounts.
    •  
    • Method 2: Expected value of cash flows = (120 × 40%) + (80 × 60%) = $96. This amount is discounted using a rate that includes remaining risks .
    IAS 36 – Identifying an Asset that May Be Impaired
  • 18.
    • If recoverable amount < carrying amount:
    • Dr. Impairment loss $
    • Cr. Accumulated impairment losses $
    • Recalculate depreciation rate.
    •  
    • If recoverable amount > carrying amount: no impairment
    IAS 36 – Recognizing and Measuring an Impairment Loss for an Individual Asset
  • 19. IAS 36 – Recognizing and Measuring an Impairment Loss for CGUs and Goodwill
    • CGU’s carrying amount
    • = carrying amount of all assets used to generate the relevant stream of cash flows
    •  
    • Includes assets
      • directly involved, and
      • those allocated to the CGU on a reasonable basis
  • 20.
    • Goodwill allocated to a CGU or group of CGUs not larger than an “operating segment” that is:
      • expected to benefit from synergies of a combination
      • at lowest level in organization that manages the goodwill
      • not on an arbitrary basis
    IAS 36 – Recognizing and Measuring an Impairment Loss for CGUs and Goodwill
  • 21.
    • If part of CGU with allocated goodwill is sold:
      • allocate goodwill between portion sold and portion remaining
      • base on relative value of the CGU sold to portion retained
    IAS 36 – Recognizing and Measuring an Impairment Loss for CGUs and Goodwill
  • 22.
    • Testing CGUs for impairment
    • CGUs with related G/W not allocated specifically:
      • Test when an indication of impairment
      • Loss = CGU carrying amount excluding G/W - recoverable amount 
    • CGUs with G/W allocated to it
      • Test at least annually
      • Loss = CGU carrying amount including G/W – recoverable amount
    IAS 36 – Recognizing and Measuring an Impairment Loss for CGUs and Goodwill
  • 23.
    • Impairment loss for a CGU or group of CGUs:
      • assign loss to carrying amount of G/W allocated to the CGU or group
      • allocate remainder to assets in CGU on basis of relative carrying amounts
    • Loss is impairment loss for individual assets in CGU
    IAS 36 – Recognizing and Measuring an Impairment Loss for CGUs and Goodwill
  • 24. IAS 36 – Reversing an Impairment Loss
    • No reversal of impairment loss for G/W
    • For other assets, reversal permitted if estimates used to determine recoverable amount have changed
  • 25. IAS 36 – Reversing an Impairment Loss
    • For an individual asset:
      • reversal limited to an increase to what asset would have been, net of depreciation/amortization, if no impairment had been recognized initially
      • unless accounted for under the revaluation model – when full reversal is permitted
  • 26.
    • For a CGU:
      • reversal is allocated to the assets of the unit, excluding G/W
      • on basis of relative carrying amounts
      • restrictions on individual assets still apply
    IAS 36 – Reversing an Impairment Loss
  • 27. IAS36 – Disclosure
    • For each class of assets:
      • amount of impairment loss/loss reversals in P&L
      • line item where loss/reversal is reported
      • amount of impairment loss/loss reversals on revalued assets in OCI
  • 28. IAS36 – Disclosure
    • Individually material loss/reversal:
      • explanation of events and circumstances
      • nature of asset/CGU
      • how recoverable amount is determined
      • amount of loss/reversal
  • 29. IAS36 – Disclosure
    • For G/W and intangibles with indefinite lives:
      • considerably more information provided
      • enable users to assess reliability of impairment testing
      • for individually significant intangible assets/CGUs
      • if individually insignificant, disclose amounts
  • 30. Current GAAP Comparisons
    • To Canadian GAAP
      • Pages 40 to 42 of 91 of http:// www.kpmg.co.uk/pubs/CanadianGAAPCompOview.pdf
    •  
      • Pages 72 to 75 of 118 of http:// www.acsbcanada.org/download.cfm?ci_id =41263&la_id=1&re_id=0
  • 31. Current GAAP Comparisons
    • To US GAAP
      • Pages 19 to 20 of 49 of http://www.ey.com/Global/assets.nsf/International/IFRS_US_GAAP_vs_IFRS/$file/US_GAAP_vs_IFRS.pdf
      • Pages 82 to 84 of 164 of http://www.kpmg.co.uk/pubs/IFRScomparedtoU.S.GAAPAnOverview(2008).pdf
  • 32. IFRS Financial Statement Disclosures
    • Cadbury Schweppes plc
      • http://www.cadbury.com/Reports/2007AnnualReport.pdf  
    • Impairment policy note for goodwill and acquisition intangibles
      • Page 93 of 153
    •  Goodwill Note 14
      • Page 104 of 153
  • 33. Looking Ahead
    • IAS 36
      • two recent revisions
      • resulting from project on business combinations
      • changes to IAS 27 and IFRS 3 – released in 2008
      • related to impairment test for goodwill
    • Impairment
      • part of longer term convergence
      • no short or medium term changes likely
  • 34. End-of-Chapter Practice
    • 16-1 Three years ago, Ace Airlines (AA) was granted permission to schedule flights on the popular and profitable Newalta to Oldsford route, provided it also serviced Remoteville which is considerably further north than Oldsford. As a result, AA set up a facility in Oldsford and a small office and maintenance bay in Remoteville. Remoteville is sparsely populated and not accessible except by air. AA’s controller now wants to review the Remoteville assets for impairment due to the continuing losses on the Oldford-Remoteville route, but is not familiar with IAS 36.
    •  
    • Instructions
    • Write a short memo to AA’s controller, identifying how he should proceed in determining whether the Remoteville assets are impaired.
  • 35. End-of-Chapter Practice
    • 16-2 Waix Ltd. (WL) is a manufacturer with a number of product lines, one of which is the production of parts for residential telephone sets. Recently there have been indications that the market for this product is likely to decline significantly, and WL is assessing various assets for impairment. The following assets are used specifically to manufacture these parts:
      • Cost Accumulated
      • ____ Depreciation
      • Tools and dies $ 10 $ 6
      • Specialized equipment 50 35
      • General equipment 30 18
      •  
    • The tools and dies and specialized equipment have no resale value other than for scrap, although the general equipment could be sold or used profitably in one of WL’s other product lines. WL plans on continuing production of these parts for two more years in order to fill its existing commitments. The present value of the net cash flows from the next two years’ production of these parts is $26 and the estimated net amount that could be recovered if these assets were sold today is $15.
  • 36. End-of-Chapter Practice
    • Instructions
      • Briefly discuss whether these assets should be assessed for impairment individually or as part of a cash-generating unit.
      • Assuming the assets are allocated to a CGU made up of the three types of assets identified, determine whether an impairment loss needs to be recognized, and if so, in what total amount.
      • Prepare the entry needed to record any impairment loss indicated, assuming these assets are reported in separate asset classes.
  • 37. End-of-Chapter Practice
    • 16-3 Firstall Corp. (FC) acquired four divisions of a competitor eight years ago in a business combination transaction, paying $25 more than the fair value of the identifiable assets acquired. The goodwill was determined to be 100% attributable to the operations of the East Division and the South Division. Although these two divisions are cash-generating units in their own right, there was no basis on which to allocate the goodwill between them. FC has identified the combined divisions as one CGU for assessing goodwill impairment on an annual basis. At the end of the most recent year, the following information is available:
    • Carrying Amount
    • East Division $ 75
    • South Division 125
    • Goodwill 25
    •  
    • FC has determined that the estimated recoverable value of the two divisions together is $215.
  • 38. End-of-Chapter Practice
    • 16-3 Instructions
      • Identify the asset, cash-generating unit, or group of CGUs that FC should use to test for impairment.
      • Is there an impairment loss at the end of the current year? Explain how you determined your answer.
      • If applicable, indicate how any impairment loss should be accounted for. Be specific.
  • 39. End-of-Chapter Practice
    • 16-4 In this chapter, flag icons identify areas where there are GAAP differences between IFRS requirements and national standards.
    • Instructions
    • Access the website(s) identified on the inside back cover of this book, and prepare a concise summary of what the differences are that are flagged throughout the chapter material.
  • 40.  
  • 41. JOIN KHALID AZIZ
    • ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.
    • FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.
    • COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.
    • CONTACT:
    • 0322-3385752
    • R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

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