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Landmines

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Transcript

  • 1. Landmines www.un.org www.mineaction.org
  • 2. History of Landmines
    • Used extensively in WWII, technology employed in US Civil War
    • Goal to maim—wounded use more resources
    • Cost between $1-$3 each to make and set
    • Cost between $300-$1000 to clear
  • 3. Landmine Distribution
    • Over 80 countries; unknown number, est. at least 110 million
  • 4. Landmine Proliferation
    • Annually 100,000 landmines cleared, but 2 million new landmines laid
    • At current pace estimated 1,100 years to clear all landmines if no new ones are laid
    • Many countries have halted production and trade of mines
    • Countries continuing: Burma, China, India, Nepal, N. Korea, S. Korea, Iran, Pakistan, Singapore, Vietnam, Cuba, Russia, and United States
  • 5. Ottowa Landmine Ban
    • Signed in 1997 by over 100 nations
  • 6. Landmine Cost
    • 20,000 casualties of landmines per year, half are children
      • Blindness, burns, loss of limb, shrapnel wounds, blood loss
    • Persist long after conflict ends
    • Prevent refugees from returning home
    • Hamper reconstruction, delivery of aid and environmental restoration
  • 7. Mozambique
    • Civil war from 1975 - 1992
    • Approx. 3 million landmines remaining, only 51% of land officially cleared
    • 20+ casualties a month; 60% die due to lack of treatment
  • 8. Mozambique
    • Mined features include power lines, roads, bridges, railroads, and airports, schools, factories
    • Farmland: Mines rendered Mozambique’s arable land unusable - exacerbating poverty and malnutrition
    • Mines also injure/kill endangered wildlife
  • 9. Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Civil war between ethnic groups 1992-1995
    • Over 12,000 micro-locations still need to be cleared
    • Mines are low density and random
    • Still being set in non-mined areas to discourage resettlement
  • 10. Clearing Landmines
    • Prodding
    • Metal detection
      • Scraps, shrapnel etc.
        • Only 1 of 1,000 pings was actual mine
      • Modern mines have plastic shells
    • Dogs
      • Lengthy training time
      • Can only smell old mines
      • Can trigger mines
  • 11. New Technology
    • Mozambique
      • Sniffer rats
    • Bosnia
      • Honeybees
        • Explosives smell like food
        • Can be trained in about a week
        • Do not set off mines
    • US Naval Research
      • Nuclear quadropole resonance, like MRI
      • 100% detection, quick clearing