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Landmines Detection


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It is graduate course seminar ppt.

Landmines Detection

  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>The problem of landmines </li></ul><ul><li>Current detection methods </li></ul><ul><li>Ground penetrating radar </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram of GPR </li></ul><ul><li>Working of GPR </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Problem : Land mines and UXO <ul><li>There are nearly 50 million unexploded land mines in 60 countries around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>These land mines kill and maim approximately 26,000 people annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Large portions of land go unused </li></ul><ul><li>due to fear of mines. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>United Nations relief operations are made more difficult and dangerous due to mining of roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern mines can be constructed with plastics and composites. </li></ul><ul><li>The low metal content of mines makes detection extremely difficult. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Current Detection Methods: <ul><li>Metal detectors--- capable of finding even low-metal content mines in mineralized soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear magnetic resonance, fast neutron activation and thermal neutron activation. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal imaging and electro-optical sensors detect evidence of buried objects. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Biological sensors such as dogs, pigs, bees and birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical sensors such as thermal fluorescence--- detect airborne and waterborne presence of explosive vapors. </li></ul>
  7. 7. GPR : Ground penetrating radar <ul><li>The impulse GPR system has been developed in the International Research Center for Telecommunications-transmission and Radar (IRCTR). </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an ultra wide band radar which provides centimeter resolution to locate even small targets. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two distinct types of GPR, time-domain and frequency domain. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Time domain or impulse GPR transmits discrete pulses of nanosecond duration and digitizes the returns at GHz sample rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency domain GPR systems transmit single frequencies and the amplitude and phase of the return signal is measured. The resulting data is converted to the time domain. </li></ul><ul><li>These techniques allow GPR to locate even non metallic mines. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Block Diagram
  10. 10. Basic Components Impulse GPR system comprises of <ul><li>Impulse generator </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse extender </li></ul><ul><li>A/D converter </li></ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Visual display. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WORKING: <ul><li>The impulse generator produces 0.8ns monocycle pulses. </li></ul><ul><li>The generator spectrum covers a wide frequency band from 500MHz till 2GHz on 3dB level. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulses are transmitted by the Tx antenna into the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>After striking the mine, pulses return and are received by the Rx antenna. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pulse extender amplifies the ground reflection signal up to the maximum level acquired by A/D converter. </li></ul><ul><li>A/D converter converts the signal into digital signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Processor filters the signal and shows the presence or absence of surrogate mine in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual display helps to see the range of targets. It displays the exact position of landmine. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>GPR images the dielectric properties of the soils, and any discontinuities appear as an error signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus false alarms are easily generated from the background itself . </li></ul><ul><li>To overcome the problem Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms are employed by impulse-based GPR systems typically calculate and remove background. </li></ul>DRAWBACKS
  14. 14. <ul><li>It tries to detect the hyperbolic signatures that are characteristic in size and shape of landmine targets in GEO-CENTERS 400. </li></ul><ul><li>The sensor such as GPR is larger and heavier. </li></ul><ul><li>GPR is more power hungry. </li></ul>
  15. 15. DEPLOYMENT PLATFORM T echnological development for land mine detection tends to be a vehicular based system. This vehicular based system is shown below
  16. 16. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Impulse GPR system is used for detecting anti-tank and antipersonnel mines. </li></ul><ul><li>Through iterative design, build test cycles, and blind and scored testing at Army mine lanes, steady progress is being made. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Queries ?
  18. 18. THANK YOU