University of St Andrews
                                        School of Computer Science




Energy Aware Clouds
  St A...
University of St Andrews
                                               School of Computer Science


                   Ju...
University of St Andrews
                                                   School of Computer Science


              Clo...
University of St Andrews
                                             School of Computer Science




                Is th...
University of St Andrews
                                                              School of Computer Science



    I...
University of St Andrews
                                                   School of Computer Science


  One man & a cre...
University of St Andrews
                                                      School of Computer Science


              ...
University of St Andrews
                                     School of Computer Science


                       Cooling
...
University of St Andrews
                                      School of Computer Science


           Virtualization
• Vi...
University of St Andrews
                                              School of Computer Science


 Energy-Aware Computin...
University of St Andrews
                                                       School of Computer Science


        Power...
University of St Andrews
                                          School of Computer Science


        Task Consolidation...
University of St Andrews
                                              School of Computer Science


          Resource Sca...
University of St Andrews
                                 School of Computer Science


Load Balancing




• Traditional mo...
University of St Andrews
                                      School of Computer Science


       Load Skewing




• Ener...
University of St Andrews
                                                          School of Computer Science


       Pow...
University of St Andrews
                                                 School of Computer Science


                   ...
University of St Andrews
             School of Computer Science




Questions?




                        18
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Reading partymay2010

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A talk given by me at the 2010 Reading Party on the current state of the "Green Cloud"

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  • Reading partymay2010

    1. 1. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Energy Aware Clouds St Andrews Cloud Computing co-laboratory James W. Smith jws7@cs.st-andrews.ac.uk
    2. 2. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Justification • Total Carbon Footprint of the IT industry was 2% of all human activity in 2007 – 830 MtCO2e – Energy powering devices is 75% of this total – Need to build sci-fi power or improve efficiency • Energy Aware Computing – reducing power on chips – cooling – build efficient systems – software? 2
    3. 3. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Cloud Computing • Defined by characteristics: – On Demand Self-Service – Broad Network Access – Resource Pooling – Rapid Elasticity – Measured Service • Datacentres – Concentrated Centres of Computation – Always on – Cost effective? • Nearly every major corporation in IT has interest in Cloud Computing... – $150bn market by 2013? 3
    4. 4. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Is this new? John McCarthy (1961): “computation may someday be organised as a public utility” 4
    5. 5. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Is this just Grid Computing? Grids Clouds On demand Self-Service Broad Network Access Resource Pooling Rapid Elasticity Measured Service Disclaimer: I didn’t come up with this, Ian Foster et al did... 5
    6. 6. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science One man & a credit card Can now access one of the largest computing resources in the world 6
    7. 7. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Datacentres • Smart Construction – Location, Location, Location • Monitoring – Tough Job (Yi) • Power Usage Effectiveness – Total Facility Power / IT Equipment Power • Cooling – Is the massive amount of cooling required a good thing or a bad thing? 7
    8. 8. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Cooling • Why do we need to cool? – Preserve lifetime of components • Mechanical Engineering – Air or water? – Direct Heat Exchange • Computer Science – Smart load balancing? 8
    9. 9. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Virtualization • Virtualization makes clouds run – Run multiple VMs on each physical machine – Improves utilization, cost effectiveness • Save Energy – Increase Utilization – Migrate work? • Clouds – Can we save even more energy? S.E.P. 9
    10. 10. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Energy-Aware Computing • Cost of purchase is now exceed by cost of operation – Enterprise is not good at estimating operational costs – And it varies with workload...? • So how do we construct Energy Aware Systems? – Power Down – Consolidate Tasks – Scale Resources – Balance Work Smartly 10
    11. 11. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Power Management • Migrate Components between Power States • How much do we switch off? – Laptop analogy • Sending to sleep still costs energy • Shutting down would save more at the cost of additional time • Performance & Response Times vs. Energy Savings 11
    12. 12. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Task Consolidation • Keep machines well utilised • Bin packing problem – Tasks are objects – Servers are bins – Resources are dimensions • Relies upon being able to accurately predict tasks resource requirements – performance adjusting applications? 12
    13. 13. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Resource Scaling • Use only the amount of resource required to complete a task – Give each task a deadline – Only give resources to allow completion within that deadline • Speed Scaling – Adjust CPU speed – Save energy & cooling costs • Fine for individual components, but how do we do 13
    14. 14. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Load Balancing • Traditional model – Distribute work evenly – Each node has equal workload 14
    15. 15. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Load Skewing • Energy efficient model – “Skew” load – Give work to nodes while they can handle it – Power down unused nodes 15
    16. 16. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Power Efficient Software • Different devices consume different amounts of energy doing (roughly) the same task. – i.e. Making a call, playing a song – Why? Difference in hardware & Difference in software implementation • Is it possible to produce energy efficient software? – Optimise for time, scalability, robustness, but energy? • Principles: – 1) Work done corresponds to resources consumed – 2) Event based rather than polling – 3) Take care with memory – 4) Batch Additional resource requests 16
    17. 17. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Future Work • Virtualisation – Measure performance derogation – Energy savings? – Is the power cloud more efficient? • Modify Allocation algorithms – Taking into consideration Energy-Aware principles • Power Efficient Software – Experiment to see if its possible – Draw up guidelines 17
    18. 18. University of St Andrews School of Computer Science Questions? 18

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