Doctrine 2
       Enterprise Persistence
           Layer for PHP



Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolab...
What is different in Doctrine 2?




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
100% re-written code




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
Requires PHP 5.3




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
New concepts




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
New workflow




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
Fully Namespaced
• Doctrine makes use of PHP 5.3 namespaces.
  Currently we have the following
  namespaces:

      – Doct...
Common
• Standalone package containing all common
  code shared between DBAL and ORM

      – Cache drivers
      – Annota...
DBAL
• Database Abstraction Layer built on top of
  PDO.

      – Multiple DBMS supported
             •   MySQL
         ...
ORM
• Object Relational Mapper built on top of
  Common and DBAL

      – Inheritance
      – Doctrine Query Language
    ...
Complete separation of your
    domain model and persistence
                layer



Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.or...
We learned lots building Doctrine
 1 and we used that to help us
        build Doctrine 2



Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-pro...
Some performance comparisons
   between Doctrine 1 and 2




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
Performance of Doctrine 1



                     To hydrate 5000 records
                       in Doctrine 1 it takes
  ...
Performance of Doctrine 2



                Under Doctrine 2, hydrating
              those same 5000 records only
      ...
Performance of Doctrine 2


              ...and with 10000 records it still
               only takes about 3.5 seconds.
...
Why is it faster?
• PHP 5.3 gives us a huge performance
  improvement when using a heavily OO
  framework like Doctrine

•...
Why kill the magic?
• Eliminate the WTF factor of Doctrine 1




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
The Doctrine 1 magical
               features are both a
              blessing and a curse

Doctrine 2     www.doctrine-...
Blessing and a Curse
• Magic is great when it works
• The magic you love is also the cause of all
  the pain you’ve felt w...
How will we replace the magic?
      This new thing called OOP :)

•    Object Composition
•    Inheritance
•    Aggregati...
Will Doctrine 2 have behaviors?




                             Yes and No



Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www...
The No
• We won’t have any concept of “model
  behaviors”

• Behaviors were a made up concept for
  Doctrine 1 to work wit...
The Yes
• Everything you can do in Doctrine 1 you can
  do in Doctrine 2, just in a different way.

• “Behavior” like func...
What did we use to build
                   Doctrine 2?




Doctrine 2    www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
Doctrine 2 Tool Belt
•    phpUnit 3.4.10 - Unit Testing
•    Phing - Packaging and Distribution
•    Symfony YAML Componen...
Doctrine 2 Architecture
• Entities
• Lightweight persistent domain object
• Regular PHP class
• Does not extend any base D...
Doctrine 2 Architecture
• Your entities in Doctrine 2 don’t require
  that you extend a base class like in Doctrine
  1! N...
Doctrine 2 Architecture
• The EntityManager
• Central access point to the ORM functionality provided by
  Doctrine 2. API ...
Unit Testing
• Tests are ran against multiple DBMS types.
  This is something that was not possible
  with the Doctrine 1 ...
Unit Testing
• 859 Test Cases
• 2152 Assertions
• Tests run in a few seconds compared to
  30-40 seconds for Doctrine 1
• ...
Database Abstraction Layer
• Separate standalone package and
  namespace (DoctrineDBAL).

• Can be used standalone.

• Muc...
Database Abstraction Layer
• Hopefully Doctrine 2 DBAL can be the
  defacto standard DBAL for PHP 5.3 in the
  future like...
DBAL Data API
•    prepare($sql) - Prepare a given sql statement and return the DoctrineDBAL
     DriverStatement instance...
DBAL Introspection API
•    listDatabases()
•    listFunctions()
•    listSequences()
•    listTableColumns($tableName)
• ...
DBAL Schema Representation
             $platform = $em->getConnection()->getDatabasePlatform();

             $schema = n...
DBAL Schema Representation
// ......

// get queries to safely delete this schema.
$dropSchema = $schema->toDropSql($platf...
Comparing Schemas
• Lets take our original my_table schema as
  our “from schema”...
      $fromSchema = new DoctrineDBALS...
Compare DBAL Schemas
• Then later you want to add a new column to
  the schema and easily deploy the change.

• Lets add a...
Compare DBAL Schemas
• You can easily compare one schema to
  another to deploy the changes!
             $comparator = ne...
Annotations
                    <?php

                    namespace Entities;

                    /**
                  ...
Things to Notice
• Entities no longer require you to extend a
  base class

• Your domain model has absolutely no
  magic
...
YAML
                                    EntitiesAddress:
                                      type: entity
             ...
XML
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<doctrine-mapping xmlns="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mappi...
Setup
• PHP “use” all necessary namespaces and
  classes

             use DoctrineCommonClassLoader,
                 Doc...
Setup
• Require the Doctrine ClassLoader



      require '/path/to/doctrine/lib/Doctrine/Common/ClassLoader.php';




Doc...
Setup
• Setup autoloading for Doctrine classes
• ...core classes
• ...entity classes
• ...proxy classes

$doctrineClassLoa...
Setup
• Configure your Doctrine implementation

               // Set up caches
               $config = new Configuration;...
Setup
• Create your database connection and entity
  manager

             // Database connection information
            ...
Setup
• In production you would lazily load the
  EntityManager
• Example: $em = function()
             {
               ...
use DoctrineCommonClassLoader,
                            DoctrineORMConfiguration,
                            DoctrineO...
Setup
• Now you can start using your models and
  persisting entities


             $user = new User;
             $user-...
Insert Performance
• Inserting 20 records with Doctrine

             for ($i = 0; $i < 20; ++$i) {
                 $user...
Insert Performance
• Compare it to some raw PHP code


$s = microtime(true);
for ($i = 0; $i < 20; ++$i) {
    mysql_query...
Insert Performance
• The results might be surprising to you.
  Which do you think is faster?




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine...
Insert Performance



             Doctrine 2                 0.0094 seconds

             mysql_query 0.0165 seconds




...
Insert Performance
• Doctrine 2 is faster than some raw PHP
  code? What?!?!?! HUH?

• It does a lot less, provides no fea...
Insert Performance
• Doctrine 2 is not faster than some raw PHP
  code

• The example demonstrates that simple
  developer...
Insert Performance
• Here is the same raw PHP code re-visited
  with proper transaction usage.

$s = microtime(true);
mysq...
Insert Performance
• This time around it only takes 0.0028
  seconds compared to the previous 0.0165
  seconds. That’s a p...
Doctrine Query Language
• DQL parser completely re-written from
  scratch

• ...DQL is parsed by a top down recursive
  de...
Doctrine Query Language
• Here is an example DQL query



      $q = $em->createQuery('select u from MyProjectEntitiesUser...
Doctrine Query Language
• Here is that same DQL query using the
  QueryBuilder API

             $qb = $em->createQueryBui...
Doctrine Query Builder
• QueryBuilder API is the same as
  Doctrine_Query API in Doctrine 1
• Query building and query exe...
Cache Drivers
• Public interface of all cache drivers

• fetch($id) - Fetches an entry from the
  cache.
• contains($id) -...
Cache Drivers
• Wrap existing Symfony, ZF, etc. cache driver
  instances with the Doctrine interface




Doctrine 2   www....
Cache Drivers
• deleteByRegex($regex) - Deletes cache
  entries where the key matches a regular
  expression

• deleteByPr...
Cache Drivers
• Each driver extends the AbstractCache class
  which defines a few abstract protected
  methods that each of...
APC Cache Driver
• To use the APC cache driver you must have
  it compiled and enabled in your php.ini


             $cac...
Memcache Cache Driver
• To use the memcache cache driver you
  must have it compiled and enabled in your
  php.ini

      ...
Xcache Cache Driver
• To use the xcache cache driver you must
  have it compiled and enabled in your
  php.ini

          ...
Result Cache
• First you need to configure the result cache
                $cacheDriver = new DoctrineCommonCacheApcCache(...
Result Cache
• Now you can clear the cache for that query
  by using the delete() method of the cache
  driver


         ...
Command Line Interface
• Re-written command line interface to help
  developing with Doctrine




Doctrine 2    www.doctri...
dbal:run-sql
• Execute a manually written SQL statement
• Execute multiple SQL statements from a file




Doctrine 2   www....
orm:clear-cache
•    Clear   all query, result and metadata cache
•    Clear   only query cache
•    Clear   only result c...
orm:convert-mapping
• Convert metadata information between
  formats
• Convert metadata information from an
  existing dat...
orm:ensure-production-settings
• Verify that Doctrine is properly configured
  for a production environment.

• Throws an e...
orm:generate-proxies
• Generate the proxy classes for entity
  classes.

• A proxy object is an object that is put in
  pl...
orm:run-dql
• Execute a DQL query from the command
  line




Doctrine 2   www.doctrine-project.org   www.sensiolabs.com
orm:schema-tool
• Drop, create and update your database
  schema.

• --create option creates the initial tables for
  your...
Inheritance
• Doctrine 2 fully supports inheritance. We
  allow the following types of inheritance:

• ...Mapped Superclas...
Mapped Superclasses
             /** @MappedSuperclass */
             class MappedSuperclassBase
             {
         ...
Mapped Superclasses


    CREATE TABLE EntitySubClass (mapped1 INTEGER NOT NULL,
    mapped2 TEXT NOT NULL,
    id INTEGER...
Single Table Inheritance
         /**
           * @Entity
           * @InheritanceType("SINGLE_TABLE")
           * @Dis...
Single Table Inheritance
• All entities share one table.

• To distinguish which row represents which
  type in the hierar...
Class Table Inheritance
 namespace MyProjectModel;

 /**
   * @Entity
   * @InheritanceType("JOINED")
   * @DiscriminatorC...
Class Table Inheritance
• Each class in a hierarchy is mapped to
  several tables: its own table and the tables
  of all p...
Batch Processing
• Doctrine 2 offers the ability to do some
  batch processing by taking advantage of
  the transactional ...
Bulk Inserts
• Insert 10000 objects with a batch size of 20


             $batchSize = 20;
             for ($i = 1; $i <...
Bulk Update
• Bulk update with DQL



       $q = $em->createQuery('update MyProjectModelManager m set
       m.salary = m...
Bulk Update
• Bulk update by iterating over the results
  using the Query::iterate() method to avoid
  loading everything ...
Bulk Delete
• Bulk delete with DQL




       $q = $em->createQuery('delete from MyProjectModelManager m
       where m.sa...
Bulk Delete
• Just like the bulk updates you can iterate
  over a query to avoid loading everything
  into memory all at o...
NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping
• The NativeQuery class is used to execute
  raw SQL queries

• The ResultSetMapping class ...
NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping
• Here is a simple example
      $rsm = new ResultSetMapping;
      $rsm->addEntityResult('...
NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping
• The result of $users would look like


             array(
                 [0] => User (...
NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping
• This means you will always be able to
  fallback to the power of raw SQL without
  losing...
Questions?
     Jonathan H. Wage
     jonathan.wage@sensio.com
     +1 415 992 5468

     sensiolabs.com | doctrine-projec...
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Doctrine 2 - Enterprise Persistence Layer For PHP

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Doctrine 2 - Enterprise Persistence Layer For PHP

  1. 1. Doctrine 2 Enterprise Persistence Layer for PHP Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  2. 2. What is different in Doctrine 2? Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  3. 3. 100% re-written code Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  4. 4. Requires PHP 5.3 Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  5. 5. New concepts Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  6. 6. New workflow Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  7. 7. Fully Namespaced • Doctrine makes use of PHP 5.3 namespaces. Currently we have the following namespaces: – DoctrineCommon – DoctrineDBAL – DoctrineORM Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  8. 8. Common • Standalone package containing all common code shared between DBAL and ORM – Cache drivers – Annotations Parser – Command Line Interface – Class Loaders – Lexer Parser – ...and other various utilities Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  9. 9. DBAL • Database Abstraction Layer built on top of PDO. – Multiple DBMS supported • MySQL • Sqlite • Pgsql • etc. – Database Introspection – DDL Statment API Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  10. 10. ORM • Object Relational Mapper built on top of Common and DBAL – Inheritance – Doctrine Query Language – XML, YAML or Annotations Metadata – Query Cache – Result Cache – ...much more Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  11. 11. Complete separation of your domain model and persistence layer Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  12. 12. We learned lots building Doctrine 1 and we used that to help us build Doctrine 2 Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  13. 13. Some performance comparisons between Doctrine 1 and 2 Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  14. 14. Performance of Doctrine 1 To hydrate 5000 records in Doctrine 1 it takes roughly 4.3 seconds. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  15. 15. Performance of Doctrine 2 Under Doctrine 2, hydrating those same 5000 records only takes 1.4 seconds. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  16. 16. Performance of Doctrine 2 ...and with 10000 records it still only takes about 3.5 seconds. Twice the data and still faster than Doctrine 1 Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  17. 17. Why is it faster? • PHP 5.3 gives us a huge performance improvement when using a heavily OO framework like Doctrine • Better optimized hydration algorithm • Killed the magical aspect of Doctrine 1 • All around more explicit and less magical code results in better and faster code. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  18. 18. Why kill the magic? • Eliminate the WTF factor of Doctrine 1 Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  19. 19. The Doctrine 1 magical features are both a blessing and a curse Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  20. 20. Blessing and a Curse • Magic is great when it works • The magic you love is also the cause of all the pain you’ve felt with Doctrine 1 • When it doesn’t work it is hard to debug • Edge cases are hard to fix • Edge cases are hard to work around • Edge cases, edge cases, edge cases • Everything is okay until you try and go outside the box the magic provides • ...magic is slow Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  21. 21. How will we replace the magic? This new thing called OOP :) • Object Composition • Inheritance • Aggregation • Containment • Encapsulation • ...etc Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  22. 22. Will Doctrine 2 have behaviors? Yes and No Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  23. 23. The No • We won’t have any concept of “model behaviors” • Behaviors were a made up concept for Doctrine 1 to work with its extremely intrusive architecture. • It tries to do things that PHP does not allow and is the result of lots of problems in Doctrine 1 Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  24. 24. The Yes • Everything you can do in Doctrine 1 you can do in Doctrine 2, just in a different way. • “Behavior” like functionality will be bundled as extensions for Doctrine 2 and will just contain normal OO PHP code that wraps/ extends Doctrine code or is meant to be wrapped or extended by your entities. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  25. 25. What did we use to build Doctrine 2? Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  26. 26. Doctrine 2 Tool Belt • phpUnit 3.4.10 - Unit Testing • Phing - Packaging and Distribution • Symfony YAML Component • Sismo - Continuous Integration • Subversion - Source Control • Jira - Issue Tracking and Management • Trac - Subversion Timeline, Source Code Browser, Changeset Viewer Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  27. 27. Doctrine 2 Architecture • Entities • Lightweight persistent domain object • Regular PHP class • Does not extend any base Doctrine class • Cannot be final or contain final methods • Any two entities in a hierarchy of classes must not have a mapped property with the same name • Supports inheritance, polymorphic associations and polymorphic queries. • Both abstract and concrete classes can be entities • Entities may extend non-entity classes as well as entity classes, and non-entity classes may extend entity classes Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  28. 28. Doctrine 2 Architecture • Your entities in Doctrine 2 don’t require that you extend a base class like in Doctrine 1! No more imposing on your domain model! namespace Entities; class User { private $id; private $name; private $address; } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  29. 29. Doctrine 2 Architecture • The EntityManager • Central access point to the ORM functionality provided by Doctrine 2. API is used to manage the persistence of your objects and to query for persistent objects. • Employes transactional write behind strategy that delays the execution of SQL statements in order to execute them in the most efficient way • Execute at end of transaction so that all write locks are quickly releases • Internally an EntityManager uses a UnitOfWork to keep track of your objects Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  30. 30. Unit Testing • Tests are ran against multiple DBMS types. This is something that was not possible with the Doctrine 1 test suite. • ...Sqlite • ...MySQL • ...Oracle • ...PgSQL • ...more to come Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  31. 31. Unit Testing • 859 Test Cases • 2152 Assertions • Tests run in a few seconds compared to 30-40 seconds for Doctrine 1 • Much more granular and explicit unit tests • Easier to debug failed tests • Continuously integrated by Sismo :) Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  32. 32. Database Abstraction Layer • Separate standalone package and namespace (DoctrineDBAL). • Can be used standalone. • Much improved over Doctrine 1 in regards to the API for database introspection and schema management. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  33. 33. Database Abstraction Layer • Hopefully Doctrine 2 DBAL can be the defacto standard DBAL for PHP 5.3 in the future like MDB and MDB2 were in PEAR • Maybe we can make this happen for PEAR2? Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  34. 34. DBAL Data API • prepare($sql) - Prepare a given sql statement and return the DoctrineDBAL DriverStatement instance. • executeUpdate($sql, array $params) - Executes a prepared statement with the given sql and parameters and returns the affected rows count. • execute($sql, array $params) - Creates a prepared statement for the given sql and passes the parameters to the execute method, then returning the statement. • fetchAll($sql, array $params) - Execute the query and fetch all results into an array. • fetchArray($sql, array $params) - Numeric index retrieval of first result row of the given query. • fetchBoth($sql, array $params) - Both numeric and assoc column name retrieval of the first result row. • fetchColumn($sql, array $params, $colnum) - Retrieve only the given column of the first result row. • fetchRow($sql, array $params) - Retrieve assoc row of the first result row. • select($sql, $limit, $offset) - Modify the given query with a limit clause. • delete($tableName, array $identifier) - Delete all rows of a table matching the given identifier, where keys are column names. • insert($tableName, array $data) - Insert a row into the given table name using the Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  35. 35. DBAL Introspection API • listDatabases() • listFunctions() • listSequences() • listTableColumns($tableName) • listTableConstraints($tableName) • listTableDetails($tableName) • listTableForeignKeys($tableName) • listTableIndexes($tableName) • listTables() Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  36. 36. DBAL Schema Representation $platform = $em->getConnection()->getDatabasePlatform(); $schema = new DoctrineDBALSchemaSchema(); $myTable = $schema->createTable("my_table"); $myTable->addColumn("id", "integer", array("unsigned" => true)); $myTable->addColumn("username", "string", array("length" => 32)); $myTable->setPrimaryKey(array("id")); // get queries to create this schema. $queries = $schema->toSql($platform); Array ( [0] => CREATE TABLE my_table (id INTEGER NOT NULL, username VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY("id")) ) Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  37. 37. DBAL Schema Representation // ...... // get queries to safely delete this schema. $dropSchema = $schema->toDropSql($platform); Array ( [0] => DROP TABLE my_table ) Does the reverse of what toSql() does, dropping the created tables Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  38. 38. Comparing Schemas • Lets take our original my_table schema as our “from schema”... $fromSchema = new DoctrineDBALSchemaSchema(); $myTable = $fromSchema->createTable("my_table"); $myTable->addColumn("id", "integer", array("unsigned" => true)); $myTable->addColumn("username", "string", array("length" => 32)); $myTable->setPrimaryKey(array("id")); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  39. 39. Compare DBAL Schemas • Then later you want to add a new column to the schema and easily deploy the change. • Lets add an email column to the table: $toSchema = new DoctrineDBALSchemaSchema(); $myTable = $toSchema->createTable("my_table"); $myTable->addColumn("id", "integer", array("unsigned" => true)); $myTable->addColumn("username", "string", array("length" => 32)); $myTable->addColumn("email", "string", array("length" => 255)); $myTable->setPrimaryKey(array("id")); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  40. 40. Compare DBAL Schemas • You can easily compare one schema to another to deploy the changes! $comparator = new DoctrineDBALSchemaComparator(); $schemaDiff = $comparator->compare($fromSchema, $toSchema); // queries to get from one to another schema. $queries = $schemaDiff->toSql($platform); print_r($queries); Array ( [0] => ALTER TABLE my_table ADD email VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL ) Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  41. 41. Annotations <?php namespace Entities; /** * @Entity @Table(name="users") */ class User { /** @Id @Column(type="integer") @GeneratedValue */ private $id; /** @Column(length=50) */ private $name; /** @OneToOne(targetEntity="Address") */ private $address; } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  42. 42. Things to Notice • Entities no longer require you to extend a base class • Your domain model has absolutely no magic • Not imposed on by Doctrine and is defined by raw PHP objects and normal OO programming Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  43. 43. YAML EntitiesAddress: type: entity table: addresses id: id: type: integer generator: strategy: AUTO fields: street: type: string length: 255 oneToOne: user: targetEntity: User mappedBy: address Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  44. 44. XML <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doctrine-mapping xmlns="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mapping" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mapping http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/orm/doctrine-mapping.xsd"> <entity name="EntitiesUser" table="users"> <id name="id" type="integer"> <generator strategy="AUTO"/> </id> <field name="name" type="string" length="50"/> <one-to-one field="address" target-entity="Address"> <join-column name="address_id" referenced-column-name="id"/> </one-to-one> </entity> </doctrine-mapping> Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  45. 45. Setup • PHP “use” all necessary namespaces and classes use DoctrineCommonClassLoader, DoctrineORMConfiguration, DoctrineORMEntityManager, DoctrineCommonCacheApcCache, EntitiesUser, EntitiesAddress; Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  46. 46. Setup • Require the Doctrine ClassLoader require '/path/to/doctrine/lib/Doctrine/Common/ClassLoader.php'; Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  47. 47. Setup • Setup autoloading for Doctrine classes • ...core classes • ...entity classes • ...proxy classes $doctrineClassLoader = new ClassLoader('Doctrine', '/path/to/doctrine'); $doctrineClassLoader->register(); $entitiesClassLoader = new ClassLoader('Entities', '/path/to/entities'); $entitiesClassLoader->register(); $proxiesClassLoader = new ClassLoader('Proxies', '/path/to/proxies'); $proxiesClassLoader->register(); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  48. 48. Setup • Configure your Doctrine implementation // Set up caches $config = new Configuration; $cache = new ApcCache; $config->setMetadataCacheImpl($cache); $config->setQueryCacheImpl($cache); // Proxy configuration $config->setProxyDir('/path/to/proxies/Proxies'); $config->setProxyNamespace('Proxies'); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  49. 49. Setup • Create your database connection and entity manager // Database connection information $connectionOptions = array( 'driver' => 'pdo_sqlite', 'path' => 'database.sqlite' ); // Create EntityManager $em = EntityManager::create($connectionOptions, $config); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  50. 50. Setup • In production you would lazily load the EntityManager • Example: $em = function() { static $em; if (!$em) { $em = EntityManager::create($connectionOptions, $config); } return $em; } • In the real world I wouldn’t recommend that you use the above example • Symfony DI would take care of this for us Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  51. 51. use DoctrineCommonClassLoader, DoctrineORMConfiguration, DoctrineORMEntityManager, DoctrineCommonCacheApcCache, EntitiesUser, EntitiesAddress; require '/path/to/doctrine/lib/Doctrine/Common/ClassLoader.php'; $doctrineClassLoader = new ClassLoader('Doctrine', '/path/to/doctrine'); $doctrineClassLoader->register(); $entitiesClassLoader = new ClassLoader('Entities', '/path/to/entities'); $entitiesClassLoader->register(); $proxiesClassLoader = new ClassLoader('Proxies', '/path/to/proxies'); $proxiesClassLoader->register(); // Set up caches $config = new Configuration; $cache = new ApcCache; $config->setMetadataCacheImpl($cache); $config->setQueryCacheImpl($cache); // Proxy configuration $config->setProxyDir('/path/to/proxies/Proxies'); $config->setProxyNamespace('Proxies'); // Database connection information $connectionOptions = array( 'driver' => 'pdo_sqlite', 'path' => 'database.sqlite' ); // Create EntityManager $em = EntityManager::create($connectionOptions, $config); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  52. 52. Setup • Now you can start using your models and persisting entities $user = new User; $user->setName('Jonathan H. Wage'); $em->persist($user); $em->flush(); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  53. 53. Insert Performance • Inserting 20 records with Doctrine for ($i = 0; $i < 20; ++$i) { $user = new User; $user->name = 'Jonathan H. Wage'; $em->persist($user); } $s = microtime(true); $em->flush(); $e = microtime(true); echo $e - $s; Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  54. 54. Insert Performance • Compare it to some raw PHP code $s = microtime(true); for ($i = 0; $i < 20; ++$i) { mysql_query("INSERT INTO users (name) VALUES ('Jonathan H. Wage')", $link); } $e = microtime(true); echo $e - $s; Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  55. 55. Insert Performance • The results might be surprising to you. Which do you think is faster? Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  56. 56. Insert Performance Doctrine 2 0.0094 seconds mysql_query 0.0165 seconds Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  57. 57. Insert Performance • Doctrine 2 is faster than some raw PHP code? What?!?!?! HUH? • It does a lot less, provides no features, no abstraction, etc. • Why? The answer is transactions! Doctrine 2 manages our transactions for us and efficiently executes all inserts in a single. The raw PHP code executes 1 transaction for each insert. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  58. 58. Insert Performance • Doctrine 2 is not faster than some raw PHP code • The example demonstrates that simple developer oversights and can cause significant performance problems Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  59. 59. Insert Performance • Here is the same raw PHP code re-visited with proper transaction usage. $s = microtime(true); mysql_query('START TRANSACTION', $link); for ($i = 0; $i < 20; ++$i) { mysql_query("INSERT INTO users (name) VALUES ('Jonathan H. Wage')", $link); } mysql_query('COMMIT', $link); $e = microtime(true); echo $e - $s; Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  60. 60. Insert Performance • This time around it only takes 0.0028 seconds compared to the previous 0.0165 seconds. That’s a pretty huge improvement! • You can read more about this on the Doctrine Blog http://www.doctrine-project.org/blog/transactions-and-performance Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  61. 61. Doctrine Query Language • DQL parser completely re-written from scratch • ...DQL is parsed by a top down recursive descent parser that constructs an AST (abstract syntax tree). • ...The AST is used to generate the SQL to execute for your DBMS http://www.doctrine-project.org/documentation/manual/2_0/en/dql-doctrine-query-language Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  62. 62. Doctrine Query Language • Here is an example DQL query $q = $em->createQuery('select u from MyProjectEntitiesUser u'); $users = $q->execute(); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  63. 63. Doctrine Query Language • Here is that same DQL query using the QueryBuilder API $qb = $em->createQueryBuilder() ->select('u') ->from('MyProjectEntitiesUser', 'u'); $q = $qb->getQuery(); $users = $q->execute(); http://www.doctrine-project.org/documentation/manual/2_0/en/query-builder Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  64. 64. Doctrine Query Builder • QueryBuilder API is the same as Doctrine_Query API in Doctrine 1 • Query building and query execution are separated • True builder pattern used • QueryBuilder is used to build instances of Query • You don’t execute a QueryBuilder, you get the built Query instance from the QueryBuilder and execute it Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  65. 65. Cache Drivers • Public interface of all cache drivers • fetch($id) - Fetches an entry from the cache. • contains($id) - Test if an entry exists in the cache. • save($id, $data, $lifeTime = false) - Puts data into the cache. • delete($id) - Deletes a cache entry. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  66. 66. Cache Drivers • Wrap existing Symfony, ZF, etc. cache driver instances with the Doctrine interface Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  67. 67. Cache Drivers • deleteByRegex($regex) - Deletes cache entries where the key matches a regular expression • deleteByPrefix($prefix) - Deletes cache entries where the key matches a prefix. • deleteBySuffix($suffix) - Deletes cache entries where the key matches a suffix. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  68. 68. Cache Drivers • Each driver extends the AbstractCache class which defines a few abstract protected methods that each of the drivers must implement to do the actual work • _doFetch($id) • _doContains($id) • _doSave($id, $data, $lifeTime = false) • _doDelete($id) Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  69. 69. APC Cache Driver • To use the APC cache driver you must have it compiled and enabled in your php.ini $cacheDriver = new DoctrineCommonCacheApcCache(); $cacheDriver->save('cache_id', 'my_data'); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  70. 70. Memcache Cache Driver • To use the memcache cache driver you must have it compiled and enabled in your php.ini $memcache = new Memcache(); $memcache->connect('memcache_host', 11211); $cacheDriver = new DoctrineCommonCacheMemcacheCache(); $cacheDriver->setMemcache($memcache); $cacheDriver->save('cache_id', 'my_data'); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  71. 71. Xcache Cache Driver • To use the xcache cache driver you must have it compiled and enabled in your php.ini $cacheDriver = new DoctrineCommonCacheXcacheCache(); $cacheDriver->save('cache_id', 'my_data'); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  72. 72. Result Cache • First you need to configure the result cache $cacheDriver = new DoctrineCommonCacheApcCache(); $config->setResultCacheImpl($cacheDriver); • Then you can configure each query to use the result cache or not. $query = $em->createQuery('select u from EntitiesUser u'); $query->useResultCache(true, 3600, 'my_query_name'); • Executing this query the first time would populate a cache entry in $cacheDriver named my_query_name Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  73. 73. Result Cache • Now you can clear the cache for that query by using the delete() method of the cache driver $cacheDriver->delete('my_query_name'); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  74. 74. Command Line Interface • Re-written command line interface to help developing with Doctrine Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  75. 75. dbal:run-sql • Execute a manually written SQL statement • Execute multiple SQL statements from a file Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  76. 76. orm:clear-cache • Clear all query, result and metadata cache • Clear only query cache • Clear only result cache • Clear only metadata cache • Clear a single queries result cache • Clear keys that match regular expression • Clear keys that match a prefix • Clear keys that match a suffix Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  77. 77. orm:convert-mapping • Convert metadata information between formats • Convert metadata information from an existing database to any supported format (yml, xml, annotations, etc.) • Convert mapping information from xml to yml or vice versa • Generate PHP classes from mapping information with mutators and accessors Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  78. 78. orm:ensure-production-settings • Verify that Doctrine is properly configured for a production environment. • Throws an exception when environment does not meet the production requirements Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  79. 79. orm:generate-proxies • Generate the proxy classes for entity classes. • A proxy object is an object that is put in place or used instead of the "real" object. A proxy object can add behavior to the object being proxied without that object being aware of it. In Doctrine 2, proxy objects are used to realize several features but mainly for transparent lazy-loading. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  80. 80. orm:run-dql • Execute a DQL query from the command line Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  81. 81. orm:schema-tool • Drop, create and update your database schema. • --create option creates the initial tables for your schema • --drop option drops the the tables for your schema • --update option compares your local schema information to the database and updates it accordingly Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  82. 82. Inheritance • Doctrine 2 fully supports inheritance. We allow the following types of inheritance: • ...Mapped Superclasses • ...Single Table Inheritance • ...Class Table Inheritance Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  83. 83. Mapped Superclasses /** @MappedSuperclass */ class MappedSuperclassBase { /** @Column(type="integer") */ private $mapped1; /** @Column(type="string") */ private $mapped2; /** * @OneToOne(targetEntity="MappedSuperclassRelated1") * @JoinColumn(name="related1_id", referencedColumnName="id") */ private $mappedRelated1; // ... more fields and methods } /** @Entity */ class EntitySubClass extends MappedSuperclassBase { /** @Id @Column(type="integer") */ private $id; /** @Column(type="string") */ private $name; // ... more fields and methods } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  84. 84. Mapped Superclasses CREATE TABLE EntitySubClass (mapped1 INTEGER NOT NULL, mapped2 TEXT NOT NULL, id INTEGER NOT NULL, name TEXT NOT NULL, related1_id INTEGER DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY(id)) http://www.doctrine-project.org/documentation/manual/2_0/en/inheritance-mapping#mapped-superclasses Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  85. 85. Single Table Inheritance /** * @Entity * @InheritanceType("SINGLE_TABLE") * @DiscriminatorColumn(name="discr", type="string") * @DiscriminatorMap({"person" = "Person", "employee" = "Employee"}) */ class Person { // ... } /** * @Entity */ class Employee extends Person { // ... } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  86. 86. Single Table Inheritance • All entities share one table. • To distinguish which row represents which type in the hierarchy a so-called discriminator column is used. http://www.doctrine-project.org/documentation/manual/2_0/en/inheritance-mapping#single-table-inheritance Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  87. 87. Class Table Inheritance namespace MyProjectModel; /** * @Entity * @InheritanceType("JOINED") * @DiscriminatorColumn(name="discr", type="string") * @DiscriminatorMap({"person" = "Person", "employee" = "Employee"}) */ class Person { // ... } /** @Entity */ class Employee extends Person { // ... } http://www.doctrine-project.org/documentation/manual/2_0/en/inheritance-mapping#single-table-inheritance Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  88. 88. Class Table Inheritance • Each class in a hierarchy is mapped to several tables: its own table and the tables of all parent classes. • The table of a child class is linked to the table of a parent class through a foreign key constraint. • A discriminator column is used in the topmost table of the hierarchy because this is the easiest way to achieve polymorphic queries. Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  89. 89. Batch Processing • Doctrine 2 offers the ability to do some batch processing by taking advantage of the transactional write-behind behavior of an EntityManager Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  90. 90. Bulk Inserts • Insert 10000 objects with a batch size of 20 $batchSize = 20; for ($i = 1; $i <= 10000; ++$i) { $user = new CmsUser; $user->setStatus('user'); $user->setUsername('user' . $i); $user->setName('Mr.Smith-' . $i); $em->persist($user); if ($i % $batchSize == 0) { $em->flush(); $em->clear(); // Detaches all objects from Doctrine! } } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  91. 91. Bulk Update • Bulk update with DQL $q = $em->createQuery('update MyProjectModelManager m set m.salary = m.salary * 0.9'); $numUpdated = $q->execute(); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  92. 92. Bulk Update • Bulk update by iterating over the results using the Query::iterate() method to avoid loading everything into memory at once $batchSize = 20; $i = 0; $q = $em->createQuery('select u from MyProjectModelUser u'); $iterableResult = $q->iterate(); foreach($iterableResult AS $row) { $user = $row[0]; $user->increaseCredit(); $user->calculateNewBonuses(); if (($i % $batchSize) == 0) { $em->flush(); // Executes all updates. $em->clear(); // Detaches all objects from Doctrine! } ++$i; } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  93. 93. Bulk Delete • Bulk delete with DQL $q = $em->createQuery('delete from MyProjectModelManager m where m.salary > 100000'); $numDeleted = $q->execute(); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  94. 94. Bulk Delete • Just like the bulk updates you can iterate over a query to avoid loading everything into memory all at once. $batchSize = 20; $i = 0; $q = $em->createQuery('select u from MyProjectModelUser u'); $iterableResult = $q->iterate(); while (($row = $iterableResult->next()) !== false) { $em->remove($row[0]); if (($i % $batchSize) == 0) { $em->flush(); // Executes all deletions. $em->clear(); // Detaches all objects from Doctrine! } ++$i; } Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  95. 95. NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping • The NativeQuery class is used to execute raw SQL queries • The ResultSetMapping class is used to define how to hydrate the results of that query Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  96. 96. NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping • Here is a simple example $rsm = new ResultSetMapping; $rsm->addEntityResult('DoctrineTestsModelsCMSCmsUser', 'u'); $rsm->addFieldResult('u', 'id', 'id'); $rsm->addFieldResult('u', 'name', 'name'); $query = $this->_em->createNativeQuery( 'SELECT id, name FROM cms_users WHERE username = ?', $rsm ); $query->setParameter(1, 'romanb'); $users = $query->getResult(); Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  97. 97. NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping • The result of $users would look like array( [0] => User (Object) ) Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  98. 98. NativeQuery + ResultSetMapping • This means you will always be able to fallback to the power of raw SQL without losing the ability to hydrate the data to your entities Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
  99. 99. Questions? Jonathan H. Wage jonathan.wage@sensio.com +1 415 992 5468 sensiolabs.com | doctrine-project.org | sympalphp.org | jwage.com You should follow me on http://www.twitter.com/jwage for updates about Doctrine You can contact Jonathan about Doctrine and Open-Source or for training, consulting, application development, or business related questions at jonathan.wage@sensio.com Doctrine 2 www.doctrine-project.org www.sensiolabs.com
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