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Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 267
www.theinternationaljournal.org
A STUDY ON POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF CUSTOMERS OF...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 268
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Introduction
This study focuses on the post purcha...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 269
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Hyundai Motor India Limited (HMIL) and i10 Branded...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 270
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Review of previous studies
There are number of stu...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 271
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Watkins and Liu (1996) provide general support for...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 272
www.theinternationaljournal.org
No two organizations can have similar set of rules...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 273
www.theinternationaljournal.org
satisfaction level towards after sales service of ...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 274
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Table No.1 Classification of Respondents by Gender...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 275
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Table No.6 Factors motivated the customers to buy ...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 276
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Table No.8
Overall satisfaction of the customers a...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 277
www.theinternationaljournal.org
SATISFACTION = 0.682performance + 0 .446 interior ...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 278
www.theinternationaljournal.org
SATISFACTION = 0.444 delivery time + 0.028 after s...
Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 279
www.theinternationaljournal.org
References
 Arndt, J. (1967) 'Role of Product-Rel...
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  1. 1. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 267 www.theinternationaljournal.org A STUDY ON POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF CUSTOMERS OF HYUNDAI i10 IN CHENNAI CITY, TAMILNADU, INDIA-AN EMPIRICAL STUDY Dr.S.Ramanathan, Dean, CARE School of Business Management, Trichy, Tamilandu, India Dr.P.Balasubramaniyan, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Hindu College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India Dr.S.Balakrishnan, Associate Professor, Vivekananda Institute of Information and Management studies, Tiruchencode Abstract This study focuses on the post purchase behavior of customers of Hyundai with special reference to the new variant i10 in Chennai city. This study helps to identify the post purchase behavior of customers of Hyundai i10 especially in Chennai city. This study also helps to identify the satisfaction level of customers of Hyundai i10 and the effectiveness of after sales service. The sample size was taken as 150. The data from the customers were collected through questionnaire. Descriptive research was adopted in conducting the study. The statistical tools such as percentage analysis, chi square analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for the analysis of the study. This study also suggests the ways to improve the satisfaction level and after sales service of customers of i10 and gives a clear picture of the opinion of the customers towards Hyundai i10.
  2. 2. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 268 www.theinternationaljournal.org Introduction This study focuses on the post purchase behavior of customers of Hyundai with special reference to the new variant i10 in Chennai city. This study helps to identify the post purchase behavior of customers of Hyundai i10 especially in Chennai city. This study also helps to identify the satisfaction level of customers of Hyundai i10 and the effectiveness of after sales service. The sample size was taken as 150. The data from the customers were collected through questionnaire. Descriptive research was adopted in conducting the study. The statistical tools such as percentage analysis, chi square analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for the analysis of the study. This study also suggests the ways to improve the satisfaction level and after sales service of customers of i10 and gives a clear picture of the opinion of the customers towards Hyundai i10. The automotive Industry directly and indirectly employs 13 million individuals in India. The industry is valued at about US$ 35 billion contributing about 3.1% of India’s GDP (nominal). India’s cost-competitive auto components industry is the 2nd largest in the world. In addition, India’s motorcycle market is also the 2nd largest in the world with annual sales of around 5million units (Bernard: 2008) The high growth in the Indian economy has resulted in all major international car manufacturers entering the Indian market. General Motors, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Hyundai and others set up manufacturing plants. Rolls Royce, Bentley and Maybach are examples of the few high end automobile manufacturers which entered India in the recent years. Then on January 2008, Tata Motors launched Tata Nano, as the world’s cheapest car in the passenger car segment at $2500. Maruti registered a 2.1% decline in volumes while Hyundai’s i10 wrested the market share in the A2 segment in March 2008.Hyundai Motor India crossed the 500,000 mark in exports. HMIL doubled its production capacity from 300,000 units to 600,000 units p.a. This has led to an increased target production of 5.3 lakh units and export to 2.12 lakh units with the i10, Santro, Getz and Accent models on the export list for 2008. Some of the major characteristics of Indian Automobile sector are: Second largest two-wheeler market in the world. Also it ranked as Fourth largest commercial vehicle market in the world and 11th largest passenger car market in the world. It is expected to become the world's third largest automobile market by 2030, behind only China and the US. (Source: www.iloveindia.com/economy of India) The passenger car industry in India has grown steadily during the last few years except during the year 2000-01 when there was negative growth due to global economic recession. Passenger car industry in India has 15 manufacturers with an installed capacity of 12, 37,000 units.
  3. 3. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 269 www.theinternationaljournal.org Hyundai Motor India Limited (HMIL) and i10 Branded car HMIL is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company, South Korea and is the second largest and the fastest growing car manufacturers in India. HMIL presently markets 34 variants of passenger cars across segments. The production management processes at Hyundai Motor India are overlaid with an organization-wide implementation of manufacturing best practices like Just-in-time inventory management, Kaizen, TPM and TQM, that helps in making the world's best cars in India. HMIL has many awards in its bouquet. Hyundai’s i10 has captured the entire gamut of the most prestigious of Indian automobile awards with its distinction and performance. Taking advantage of the demand for more small cars in the Indian auto industry, Hyundai rolled out i10 with a powerful engine and an upscale interior. It is one of India's most popular 'B+' segment small cars. It is built to take on sub-compact segment cars such as the Chevrolet Spark, Maruti Suzuki Zen Estilo, Maruti Suzuki WagonR, and Tata Indica Xeta. The well-equipped i10 is an affordable small car and a perfect combination of superior technology, roomy interiors, and the stamp of reliability. It gains the confidence of car enthusiasts with its aerodynamic design, array of standard convenience and comfort features, and luxurious fittings. It comes with all elements that would please a buyer looking for a small family car at an affordable price. Need for the Study  Understanding of consumer negative perceptions, fears, inhibitions, and anxieties is one of the critical aspects of consumer buying behavior.  Marketers also need to understand the consumer’s preferences and fears, needs and perceptions thoroughly before attempting to deal with their behavior. Here arises the need for the study.  The study helps the Company to know about satisfaction level and preference of the customers of i10 and the customers’ expectations regarding the after sales service. The study has the following objectives  To identify the post purchase behavior of customers of Hyundai i10 car.  To identify the customers satisfaction level and  To find the effectiveness of after sales service provided to Hyundai i10. Hypotheses of the Study  There is significant relation between income and factors influencing customer to buy Hyundai i10  There is significant relation between income and people perception about i10 value  There is significant relation between age and customer expectation.  Overall satisfaction of the customers and the factors that contribute overall satisfaction was positively contributed.  Overall satisfaction of the customers with delivery time and after sales service has positive contribution
  4. 4. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 270 www.theinternationaljournal.org Review of previous studies There are number of studies conducted on the researched areas on different brands all over the world. Here the researchers concentrate few of meaningful literature to find out the research gap. Engel et al. define consumer behaviour as "... those activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services, including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions." (1993, p. 4). Thus, in the marketing context, the term 'consumer behaviour' refers not only to the act of purchase itself but to any pre- and post-purchase activities (Foxall, 1985, 1997; Ennew, 1993). Pre-purchase activities would include the growing awareness of a want or need, and the search for and evaluation of information about the product and brands that might satisfy it. Post-purchase activities would include the evaluation of the purchased item in use, and any attempt to reduce feelings of anxiety which frequently accompany the purchase of expensive and infrequently bought items like consumer durables. Each of these has implications for purchase and repurchase and they are amenable to marketing communications and the other elements of the marketing mix. Our understanding of both consumer behaviour and the capacity of marketing activities to influence it rest on knowledge of the ways in which consumers form decisions (Foxall, 1985, 1997). Research anchored in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction and complaining literature has focused on the selection of WOM as a post-purchase complaint option. In other words, negative WOM is thought to be one form of customer complaining behaviour. Hirschman (1970) proposed that customers can either voice their dissatisfaction or exit the relationship when faced with unmet expectations. More recently, Richins (1983) differentiates between three reactions to dissatisfaction (1) switching brands or refusing to repatronise the offending store, (b) making a complaint to the seller or to a third party, and (c) telling others about the unsatisfactory product or retailer (negative WOM). This tripartite taxonomy of complaint style was also found by Singh (1988) when applying cluster analysis to complaints data. The potential impact of these responses on a firm can be significant. Data reported by Diener and Greyser (1978) indicated that 34 percent of those dissatisfied with a personal care product told others about their dissatisfaction. If the number of consumers experiencing dissatisfaction is high enough, such responses may have lasting effects in terms of negative image and reduced sales for the firm (Richins, 1983). A study by Richins (1983) indicates that the responses to dissatisfaction are related to the nature of the dissatisfaction problem. In the case of minor dissatisfaction, consumers' responses are often minimal too. Consumers' do not complain nor do they spread negative WOM. When the dissatisfaction is serious enough, consumers tend to complain, regardless of other factors in the situation. It is at moderate levels of dissatisfaction that management policy may have the most impact. If complaints are encouraged (e.g. toll-free telephone numbers to receive customer comments), the retailer has the chance to remedy legitimate complaints and win back a customer who may also spread positive WOM to others. Research by TARP (1979) showed that even if the complaint is not settled to the consumer's satisfaction, he/she is more likely to repurchase than if no complaint is made. However, if complaints are discouraged, fewer consumers may indeed complain; instead, they may tell others of their unsatisfactory experiences and may not repurchase the product. Richins (1983) also showed that negative communication was more likely when the consumer placed the blame for dissatisfaction directly on the manufacturer or retailer and/or when the consumer believed that complaining directly to the source would not do any good.
  5. 5. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 271 www.theinternationaljournal.org Watkins and Liu (1996) provide general support for the contention that consumers dissatisfied with durables will exhibit higher levels of voice and lower levels of exit than for non-durables. Singh (1990) sees this phenomenon explained by the relative investment of the consumer in the product and thus the value of any redress. As already noted, after purchases are made, consumers often engage in a post- purchase evaluation of the product. If the product's perceived performance is below the consumer's expectation, he/she might sense dissonance. Since such psychological discomfort is not pleasant, the consumer will be motivated to act to reduce the amount of dissonance he/she is experiencing. One strategy for customers who experience discomfort from cognitive dissonance is to seek WOM from sources which can reduce the discomfort (Buttle, 1998; Dibb et al., 1997; Assael, 1992). CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR Post-purchase behavior involves all the consumers’ activities and the experiences that follow the purchase. Usually, after making a purchase, consumers experience post-purchase dissonance. In other words, they regret their purchase decision. The reasons for high post- purchase dissonance can be attractiveness and performance of forgone alternatives, difficult purchase decision, large number of alternatives, etc. A high level of post-purchase dissonance is negatively related to the level of satisfaction the consumer draws out of product usage. While experiencing post-purchase dissonance, consumers become actually aware of the marketers’ communication. To reduce post–purchase dissonance, consumers may sometimes even return or exchange the product. Marketers, therefore, can use these opportunities to reduce consumers’ risk perception by way of good return/exchange policies and reduce their post-purchase dissonance by messages targeted at this segment of their consumers. Post-Purchase Evaluation - Cognitive Dissonance The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as “cognitive dissonance”. The customer, having bought a product, may feel that an alternative would have been preferable. In these circumstances that customer will not repurchase immediately, but is likely to switch brands next time. To manage the post- purchase stage, it is the job of the marketing team to persuade the potential customer that the product will satisfy his or her needs. Then after having made a purchase, the customer should be encouraged that he or she has made the right decision. Post Purchase Behavior The post purchase behavior and research shows that there exists a common trait amongst purchasers of products. Manufacturers of products clearly want recent consumers to feel proud of their purchase; it is therefore just as important for manufacturers to advertise for the sake of their recent purchaser so consumers feel comfortable that they own a product from a strong and reputable organization. This limits post purchase behavior.
  6. 6. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 272 www.theinternationaljournal.org No two organizations can have similar set of rules for maintaining relationship. Even if on a particular occasion a situation prompted a particular behavior, it is not necessary that a similar behavior is necessary on another occasion. The time, place and group of person might be the same but behave in different way, though circumstances and situations might be identical. To a great extent relationship depends upon the: character of contracting parties. This is thus a study of human behavior and forms part of the behavioral science. Customers Expectations Customer’s expectation plays a major role in determining their post purchase behavior. If the product matches the expectations of the customer then the customer get satisfied, if it exceeds their expectation then they will be delighted likewise if the product doesn’t matches their then they will be dissatisfied. Research suggests that customers go through a five-stage decision-making process in any purchase. Post purchase decision is very essential and important for any manufacturer by which the product fulfilled the consumers’ demand and preferences. This model is important for anyone making marketing decisions. It forces the marketer to consider the whole buying process rather than just the purchase decision (when it may be too late for a business to influence the choice!)The model implies that customers pass through all stages in every purchase. However, in more routine purchases, customers often skip or reverse some of the stages. Research methodology The questionnaire had been administered with strict accordance without deviating from the research objectives and recording the response precisely as given in terms of measurement that one called for. The questionnaires were circulated among the customers who came for servicing their cars in various service centers, situated in and around Chennai. The sampling size was restricted to 150. The sampling technique used was Simple Random Sampling. In this study primary data along with some secondary data had been used to carry out the research work. Primary data had been collected through the structured questionnaire designed especially for measuring post purchase behavior of the customers of Hyundai i10 in Chennai City alone. Secondary data was collected from the journals, magazines, old research reports and from the Company website. Tools used for the study Decision making scale of Likert’s type, constructed and validated by investigators, has been used. The reliability of the tool is found to be 0.82. The scale consists of 17 statements with one open ended question along with personal details of the respondents. Analysis of the data Descriptive (Table 1 – Table 7) statistics and Inferential statistics i.e., chi square test (Table 8 and 9) have been employed for testing the hypotheses. The data were analyzed using Percentage Analysis (Table 1 – Table 7) Percentage Analysis had been employed to assess the Gender, age, occupation, income, factors influence the customers to go in for Hyundai i10, factors that motivated the customers to go in for Hyundai i10 and the customers’
  7. 7. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 273 www.theinternationaljournal.org satisfaction level towards after sales service of Hyundai i10. Chi-square test was employed to identify if there was any significant difference between income and motivating factors, income and customers’ perception, income and customers’ satisfaction, and age and customers’ satisfaction. Regression test was employed to identify if there exists any positive contribution between the factors taken for the study as well as the delivery time with after sales service. Limitations of the Study  The study has been limited to the customers within Chennai city with a sample size of 150.The study deals only about the post purchase behavior of customers of Hyundai i10 and not for the other variants of Hyundai. Summary of Findings  Of the 150 respondents, 87 were male and the rest were female.  82% of the respondents, whose age group is 25 and above have owned Hyundai i10.  65% of the respondents, who, owned Hyundai i10 are, employed somewhere.  Surprisingly, 60% of the respondents whose income was less than Rs. 5 lakhs have owned this car.  The factors such as stylish, space and interior, comfort and technology have influenced 91% of the respondents to switch over their preference to Hyundai i10.  The motivating factors such as stylish, special features, brand image, comfort and mileage and after sales service were some of the factors, which influenced 62% of the respondents to prefer Hyundai i10.  94% of the respondents agreed that Hyundai i10 is a fuel efficient car.  All the respondents were agreed in the same line that Hyundai i10 is a spacious car.  All the respondents were agreed that Pick up of the car was excellent.  93% of the respondents were agreed that the said car fulfills the expectation of the customer.  100% of the respondents were agreed that Hyundai i10 is value for their money.  86% of the respondents were satisfied with after sales service.  91% of the respondents have recommended their close circle to go in for Hyundai i10.  Income was found as one of the motivating factors, which influence the respondents to prefer Hyundai i10.  It was found that performance, interior, gear box and suspension contributes positively towards the overall satisfaction of the customer experience with Hyundai i10.  It was found that both delivery time and after sales service contributes positively towards the overall satisfaction of customers.
  8. 8. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 274 www.theinternationaljournal.org Table No.1 Classification of Respondents by Gender Gender No. of Respondents Percentage MALE 87 58 FEMALE 63 42 Table No.2 Classification of Respondents according to Age Age Classification No. of Respondents Percentage Under 25 27 18 26 – 35 63 42 36 - 50 41 27 50 & above 19 13 Total 150 100 Table No.3 Classification of Respondents according to the Occupation Occupation No. of Respondents Percentage Self employed 53 35 Employed 97 65 Total 150 100 Table No.4 Classification of Respondents according to Income Income Classification No. of Respondents Percentage < 5lakhs 91 60 5 - 7lakhs 31 21 7 – 10lakhs 27 18 Above 10lakhs 1 1 Total 150 100 Table No.5 Factors Influenced the Customers who used other Cars and switched over to Hyundai I10 Factors No. of Respondents Percentage European style 31 46 Space & interior 17 25 Comfort 9 14 Technology 4 6 Others 6 9 Total 67 100
  9. 9. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 275 www.theinternationaljournal.org Table No.6 Factors motivated the customers to buy Hyundai I10 Factors No. of Respondents Percentage Price 12 8 Brand image 10 7 Features 29 19 After sales service 11 7 Comfort 12 8 Power steering 2 2 Mileage 13 9 Safety 0 0 Power 0 0 Space 7 4 Drivability 7 4 Word of mouth 3 2 Style 33 22 Advertisement 9 6 Brand ambassador 2 2 Availability of service outlet 0 0 Easy availability of finance 0 0 Others 0 0 Total 150 100 Table No.7 Customers Satisfaction level towards after Sales Service Satisfaction Level No. of Respondents Percentage Highly satisfied 37 25 Satisfied 91 61 Neither/ nor dissatisfied 22 14 Dissatisfied 0 0 Highly dissatisfied 0 0 Total 150 100
  10. 10. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 276 www.theinternationaljournal.org Table No.8 Overall satisfaction of the customers and factors that contributes to Overall satisfaction Model Summary .966a .933 .926 .132 Model 1 R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Predictors: (Constant), pick, design, interior, space, perf or, gear, suspensi, ac, handling, engine, creat, right, dy na, power, fuel a. ANOVAb 32.758 15 2.184 125.304 .000a 2.335 134 .017 35.093 149 Regression Residual Total Model 1 Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Predictors: (Constant), pick, design, interior, space, perf or, gear, suspensi, ac, handling, engine, creat, right, dy na, power, fuel a. Dependent Variable: OVERSb. Variables Entered/Removedb pick, design, interior, space, perf or, gear, suspensi, ac, handling, engine, creat, right, dyna, power, fuel a . Enter Model 1 Variables Entered Variables Removed Method All requested v ariables entered.a. Dependent Variable: OVERSb.
  11. 11. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 277 www.theinternationaljournal.org SATISFACTION = 0.682performance + 0 .446 interior + 0.302 gearbox + 0.211 suspension + 0.103 ride quality - 0.063 design - 0.097 power - 0.134 engine – 0.081fuel efficiency – 0 .092 dynamic ability - 0.150 creature comfort - 0.133 space - 0.010 handling – 0.132 a/c - 0.070 pickup Table No.9.Overall satisfaction level of the customers with delivery time and after sales service Variables Entered/Removedb ASS, LOSa . Enter Model 1 Variables Entered Variables Removed Method All requested v ariables entered.a. Dependent Variable: OVERSb. Model Summary .718a .515 .509 .340 Model 1 R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Predictors: (Constant), ASS, LOSa. Coefficientsa .226 .066 3.425 .001 -.063 .053 -.071 -1.191 .236 -.097 .070 -.186 -1.387 .168 .302 .059 .480 5.114 .000 -.134 .073 -.183 -1.840 .068 .682 .051 .916 13.400 .000 -.081 .084 -.153 -.964 .337 -.092 .078 -.178 -1.176 .242 -.150 .102 -.192 -1.480 .141 -.133 .047 -.169 -2.837 .005 .446 .075 .485 5.948 .000 .211 .042 .355 5.018 .000 .103 .062 .181 1.667 .098 -.010 .045 -.017 -.224 .823 -.132 .054 -.211 -2.426 .017 -.070 .067 -.112 -1.037 .301 (Constant) design power gear engine perfor fuel dyna creat space interior suspensi Ride handling ac pick Model 1 B Std. Error Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Dependent Variable: OVERSa.
  12. 12. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 278 www.theinternationaljournal.org SATISFACTION = 0.444 delivery time + 0.028 after sales service. Conclusion and suggestions  Some more choice of colors of car can be made available to the car pearl white, cycus grey, quartz black, metallic midnight black, brilliant yellow etc. because the customers felt that more colors are available among the competitors.  The price of the car is ok now but if the company reduces the price of the car, for sure it will increase the sales because nowadays cars are available at very lower price in the market from the competitors by focusing on middle income group.  Most of the customers do not have enough time to let their car for service to the service center. In order to please the customers the company can introduce an innovative method. Through this method the company can give a centralized helpline number to their customers especially for service. So, if the customers wants service to their car or they wants to repair their car they can call to that number and by telling their location the company personnel can go directly to that location and they can pick the car and service the car. Finally, the service personnel should let their car back to the place of the customer after service. There can be a piece of metal till the engine block so that the engine won’t be affected in case of any accident as it is few inches ahead of the dash board. The company can increase the number of service centers in Chennai. The service personnel should maintain prompt delivery after servicing the cars. Therefore the study categorically said that i10 is the most successful car of Hyundai motors and it beats the success of santro in all aspects. On the whole the customers of Hyundai i10 are satisfied with the car after purchase and this itself a great achievement to the company. It gives the feel of luxury to the customers and a convenience of smaller cars in the crowded area. It is the most stylish car ever manufactured by Hyundai when compared to other cars. ANOVAb 18.082 2 9.041 78.125 .000a 17.011 147 .116 35.093 149 Regression Residual Total Model 1 Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Predictors: (Constant), ASS, LOSa. Dependent Variable: OVERSb. Coefficientsa .386 .090 4.267 .000 .444 .069 .687 6.463 .000 .028 .083 .036 .337 .737 (Constant) DT ASS Model 1 B Std. Error Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Dependent Variable: OVERSa.
  13. 13. Volume:01, Number:05, Sep-2011 Page 279 www.theinternationaljournal.org References  Arndt, J. (1967) 'Role of Product-Related Conversations in the Diffusion of a New Product', Journal of Marketing Research, 4(August), 291-295.  Assael, H. (1992) Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Company.  Bearden, W. O. and Etzel, M. J. 'Reference Group Influence on Product and Brand Purchase Decisions', Journal of Consumer Research, 9(September), 183-194.  Belk, R. W. (1971) 'Occurrence of Word-of-Mouth Buyer Behavior as a Function of Situation and Advertising Stimuli', in F. C. Alvine (ed.), Proceedings of the American Marketing Association's Educators Conference, Chicago: American Marketing Association.  Bloch, P. H., Sherrell, D. L. and Ridgway, N. M. (1986) 'Consumer Search: An Extended Framework', Journal of Consumer Research, 13(June), 119-126.  Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. (1997) Principles of Marketing, London: Pitman Publishing  Brown, J. J. and Reingen, P. H. (1987) 'Social Ties and Word-of-Mouth Referrral Behavior', Journal of Consumer Research, 14(December), 350-362.  Rao, A. R. and Monroe, K. B. (1988) 'The Moderating Effect of Prior Knowledge on Cue Utilization in Product Evaluations', Journal of Consumer Research, 15(September), 253-264.  Rao, A. R. and Seiben, W. A. (1992) 'The Effect of Prior Knowledge on Price Acceptability and the Type of Information Examined', Journal of Consumer Research, 19(September), 256-271.  Reynolds, F. D. and Darden, W. R. (1971) 'Mutually Adaptive Effects of Interpersonal Communication', Journal of Marketing Research, 8(November), 449- 454.  Richins, M. L. (1983) 'Negative Word-of-Mouth by Dissatisfied Consumers: A Pilot study', Journal of Marketing, 47(Winter), 68-78.  Richins, M. L. and Root-Shaffer, T. (1987) 'The Role of Involvement and Opinion Leadership in Consumer Word-of-Mouth: An Implicit Model Made Explicit', in M. J. Houston (ed.), Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 32-36.  Robertson, T. S. (1971) Innovative Behaviour and Communication, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  Rogers, E. M. (1962) Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press.  Sheth, J. N. (1971) 'Word-of-Mouth in Low-Risk Innovations', Journal of Advertising, 11(June), 15-18.  Singh, J. (1988) 'Consumer complaints intentions and behavior: definitional and taxonomical issues', Journal of Marketing, 52(January), 93-107.  Wilkie, W. L. (1994) Consumer Behavior, New York: John Wiley and Sons.  Wilson, J. R. (1994) Word-of-Mouth Marketing, New York: John Wiley and Sons.  Whyte, W. H. Jr. (1954) 'The Web of Word of Mouth', Fortune, 50(November), 140- 143.  Zeithaml, V. A. and Bitner, M. J. (1996) Services Marketing, New York: McGraw- Hill.

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