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automatic car parking system

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION: system any number of cars can be parked floor after floor to reduce the wastage ofThere are two types of car parking systems: area. This is developed by using 8051traditional and automated. In the long term, microcontroller.automated car parking systems are likely tobe more cost effective when compared to HISTORY:traditional parking garages. Automatic Over the years, car parking systems and themulti-storey automated car park systems are accompanying technologies have increasedless expensive per parking slot, since they and diversified. Car parking systems havetend to require less building volume and been around almost since the time cars wereless ground area than a conventional facility invented. In any area where there is awith the same capacity. Both automated car significant amount of traffic, there are carparking systems and automated parking parking systems. Car Parking systems weregarage systems reduce pollution cars are not developed in the early 20th century inrunning or circling around while drivers response to the need for storage space forlook for parking spaces. vehicles. In the 1920s, forerunners of automatedNormally we can see in the multiplexes, parking systems appeared in U.S. citiescinema halls, large industries, and function like Los Angeles, Chicago, Newhalls there is problem they have to go and York and Cincinnati. Some of these multi-search which line is empty and which line storey structures are still standing, and havehaving place to park the vehicle, for parking been adapted for new uses. One of the Kentthen they need workers for parking in Automatic Parking Garages in New Yorkcorrect position it is the money consumed (now known as the Sofia Apartments is anprocess. So to avoid this problem Art Deco landmark that was converted intoAutomatic Car Parking System is luxury condominiums in 1983. A systemimplemented. that is now found all over Japan — the “ferris-wheel,” or paternoster system — was created by the Westinghouse Corporation inThis system is used in big companies, 1923 and subsequently built in 1932 onapartments, shopping malls. By using this Chicago‟s Monroe Street. The nash motor 1
  • 2. Company created the first glass enclosed System Overview:version of this system for theChicago Century of Progress Exhibition in The parking system is based around a1933, and it was the precursor to a more micro-controller and U-shaped photorecent version, the Smart Car Towers in sensors. It is quick and efficient inEurope. operation. The micro-controller is interfaced to the PC by serial port through ICL232 which is a dual RS-232 Transmitter/Receiver. Photo sensors, four- phase stepper motor and micro-controller control the entire operation of the car parking control system collectively. The seven segment display and serial interface is used to display the number of cars in the parking lot. Block diagram of the system is shown in figure. Fig1.1: block diagram of system overview 2
  • 3. Basic Components: circuit diagrams of the stepper motor are also shown in the figures below• Stepper motor• U-shaped Photo Sensors• Seven segment Display• Serial Interfacing 3.1Stepper Motor:A stepper motor is a digital device, in thatdigital information is processed toaccomplish an end result, in this case,controlled motion. It is reasonable to assumethat a step motor will faithfully followdigital instructions just as a computer isexpected to. This is the distinguishingfeature of a step motor. Upward arrow shows counterclockwiseIn essence, step motors are electrical motors stepping sequence. Downward arrow showsthat are driven by digital pulses rather than a clockwise stepping sequencecontinuously applied voltage. Each pulseequals one rotary increment, or step (hence, 3.2U-shaped Photo Sensors:step motors), which is only a portion of onecomplete rotation This device has a compact construction where the emitting-light sources and the 8-wire configuration: detectors are located face-to-face on the8-wire configuration of stepper motor used same optical axis. The detector consists ofin Automatic car parking projects , the a phototransistor Transmitter is positionedcontrol is consisting of micro-controller opposite the receiver used for small8051 and some other components in this distances and narrow objectspost you will learn how to configure astepper motor with 8 wire. Some useful 3
  • 4. 3.4Serial Interfacing: 3.3 Seven segment Display: Thermo-controller is interfaced to the PC byThe seven segment display is found in many serial port through ICL232 logic levelelectronic devices. It is just 7 LEDs that converter. An IBM compatible computerhave been combined into one case to make a and 89C51 microcontroller interface is usedconvenient device for the displaying in RS-232 serial communication.numbers and some letters RS-232 Serial Communication: RS-232 is a serial communication standard which enables data to be transferred in serial form between two devices. Data is transmitted and received in serial „bit stream‟ from one point to another. Four parameters specify an RS-232 link between two devices. These are baud rate, data width, parity and stop bits and are described below. • Baud rate: The baud rate (bits per second) determines how much information is transferred over a given time interval. A baud rate is usually be selected between 110Fig3.3: seven segment display and 76800 baud, e.g. a baud rate of 9600 corresponds to 9600 bits per second. • Data width: The data width can be either 8 bits or 7 bits depending upon the nature of data being transferred. • Parity: The parity bit is used to check the 4
  • 5. correctness of the transmitted or receiveddata. Parity can either be even, odd, or noparity bit can specify at all.• Stop bits: The stop bit is used as theterminator bit and it is possible to specifyeither one or two stop bits.Display and Serial Interfacing ofautomatic car parking :Seven Segment Display: Fig3.4: serial cable detailsThis hardware is used to display the numberof cars in the parking lot. Basically, thisboard has six-segment display but usingonly one display can do our work.Microcontroller Port2 is use to handle thedisplay unit.Serial Interfacing:This unit is to display the number of cars inparking lot on the computer. The computermay be placed in any control room.Serial cable is used in null modem mode.We use the DB9 connector for serialinterfacing. In null modem mode pin 7,8 andpin 6,4 are shorted with each other. Whilepin 3 is used for transmit data and pin 2 forreception 5
  • 6. Hardware working: whether the floors are fully filled with the cars or is it having place in a particular floorIn car parking control system the basic or not. There is facility of lift to carry the caremphasis on the control of stepper motor by to up and down. Movement of Lift isblocking the sensors beam. Three sensors controlled by stepper motor. An indicatorare used to control one motor. Remaining with a green and red LED is kept in all thehardware is use to display the number of floors to indicate whether the lift is busy orcars in parking lot. Or in other words how is it ready to take the car up or down. If themany times laser beam is blocked. red LED glows that means the lift is already engaged and the person has to wait for the green LED to glow.The 8051 is the brain of this wholehardware. It reads the input signals and start After this the seven segment displaysending the stepping sequences to the motor. incremented its value, which indicates that aWhen the input beam of S1 is blocked motor car has entered in the parking lot. Thisstart rotating in clockwise direction. This display is basically for the people, which aredirection indicates the opening of the driving the car. Similarly, serial interfacingbarrier, where S1 indicates that a car has is also used to display the number of cars income. The S2 sensor is used as the gate the parking lot. This display is for the personopen limit sensor i.e. when S2=on it means in control room.gate is completely opened. Then a delay The exit gate motor will also work on theroutine is called so that a particular time is same pattern. But after this the sevenadjusted for car to cross the gate. After that segment display and PC decreased themotor start rotating in counter clockwise display number. This indicates that a car hasdirection, which indicates that gate, is left the parking lot.closing now. Finally, when S3=on itindicates that gate is completely closed now.So motor will stop rotating.A display is provided at the ground floorwhich is basically a counter that displaysnumber of cars in each floor. It informs 6
  • 7. one. Lift comes back to its normal position and that time, the motor that drives it , also stops. Now processor sends signal to glow GREEN LED indicating that lift is free. If there no parking taking place, the processor carries out the job according to the following priority:- 1. It checks whether any password is entered. 2. It checks whether any car is entered to lift. 3. It checks whether any car headlight is pressed in front of LDR placed in each floor.Fig4: block diagram of automatic car parking Following are the main sections in this model. When a person needs to come down from a 4.1 Display sectionparticular floor to ground floor, he isexpected to focus the headlight onto the 4.2 Keyboard, indicator & Beeper sectionLDR placed in that floor. Now sensorsection sends signal to motor that the lift has 4.3 Lift & motor sectionto be send back to that particular floor and 4.4 Sensor sectionsends a signal to glow RED LED indicatingthat the lift is busy. As soon as the lift 4.5 LCD sectionreaches that particular floor car should comeinside the lift, the display counter at theground floor decrements by one as toindicate the floor capacity has increased by 7
  • 8. 4.1 DISPLAY SECTION: GREEN&YELLOW. The person, needed to enter the password has to wait until theThis section displays the floor number along GREEN LED glows and when it glows, hewith the number of cars which has been has to press the “START” button first. Thisalready parked in that particular floor. So time the RED LED glows. Then the personwhenever a car is ready to either come down has to enter the password. As soon as it isor go up, the program either decrements the entered, the program checks it with thecount or increments the count automatically already stored passwords. If it is correct,according to the going up or coming down YELLOW LED glows. If the enteredof a car. Display section is done by password is wrong, beeper starts beepinginterfacing with 8255(PPI) of 8051.Here 3 signifying the incorrectness of the passwordports of 8255 are connected to three 7- entered.segment display. Block diagram of thissection is shown. The indicator section contains 2 LED‟s , RED & GREEN which are present in all the floors. RED LED signifies that the lift is presently busy and shall not entertain any car to enter but if GREEN LED glows, it suggests that the lift is ready and the car can enter the particular floor. Beeper and LEDs are connected to port C upper of 8255. One more advantage of beeper is that; when a person tries to enter the lift irrespective of finding the display section to be FFF (means the floors are already filled), program sends a signal to Beeper section and it starts beeping indicating that he is notFig4.1: block diagram of display sec supposed to enter the lift since all the floors4.2 KEYBOARD, INDICATOR & BEEPER: are already filled.In this section,12 switches are connected inmatrix form and it has three LED‟s , RED, 8
  • 9. 4.3 LIFT AND MOTOR SECTION: In lift section, there is a light beam 4.5LCD SECTION:and LDR to know whether a car hasentered the lift or not. When the GREEN LCD is used to display some messagesLED of indicator section glows, that means which is useful to car owners. Here 2X16the lift is ready for the car to enter. When LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display) is used. Thisthe car enters the lift, the light beam falls on is used to display messages likeLDR present in the lift gets cut and it gives a WELCOME TO CAR PARKINGsignal that a car has entered the lift. Then SYSTEMprogram decides which floor lift has to goand gives a signal to motor section. LIFT IS BUSY PLEASE WAIT The motor section is a mechanical part PLEASE ENTER YOURof the model which is used for taking the PASSWORDlift up/down. When the lift has to go up,program gives the signal and the TYPES OF AUTOMATIC CARmotor rotates clockwise and if it has to go PARKING:down, it rotates anticlockwise. • Lift Box Type4.4 SENSOR SECTION: • Park Type Sensor section contains LDRs • Z Park • ELEPARK.These LDRs are connected to each floor to • Elegant Parkgive information if any car has to come • Round Typedown. When a person needs to come down • Various Typesfrom a particular floor to ground floor, he isexpected to focus the headlight the car ontothe LDR placed in that floor. When lightfalls on LDR its resistance decreases. 9
  • 10. Lift Box Type: for shops, office buildings, and apartment houses. ELEPARK: Elevator Type Car Parking System: The combination of cutting edge technologies realize compactness, and low noise. Effectively utilizing open spaces in urban areas.• 2 Park Type:• No digging required.• No Hydraulic parts.• Electric device• Reliable & smooth operation.• Requires minimum Maintenance.Z-Park:Multi-storied car parking system, wherespace is utilized effectively atcomparatively lower cost, which is morethan twice that of the limited parkingspace on the ground. Abundant product lineup, includingthe ascending/descending mechanism,satisfies a wide range of parking needs 10
  • 11. Advantages of Multi-story carparking system:Automatic multi-storey car parks providelower building cost per parking slot, as they optimum parking solution. A fast parkingtypically require less building volume and process in which the driver does not have toless ground area than a conventionalfacility with the same capacity. However, maneuver his car or drive backwards,the cost of the mechanical equipment within guarantees highest comfort and security. Athe building that is needed to transport cars single lift serves 6 to 12 parking spaces perinternally needs to be added to the lower level taking up a minimum of space. Time-building cost to determine the total costs. saving vertical and horizontal movementsOther costs are usually lower too, for take place simultaneously ensuring fastexample there is no need for an energy parking andintensive ventilating system, since cars arenot driven inside and human cashiers orsecurity personnel may not be needed.A multi-storey car parks offer greatestpossible flexibility for the realization of 11
  • 12. Limitations of a multi-storey car 6. However, larger municipalities now require retention basins to catch runoff toparking system: reduce the stress on sewer systems.1.The subjective analysis has shown that the Many areas today also require minimumgreatest effects of a Multi-Storey Car Park landscaping in parking lots. This usuallyon Surrounding Residential Blocks are the principally means the planting of trees toair and noise pollution caused by the motor provide shade.vehicles. 7.Customers have long preferred shaded2.Parking lots also tend to be subject to parking spaces in the summer, but parkingcontamination with concentrated spots of lot providers have long been antagonistic topollutants such as motor oil. planting trees because of the extra cost of3.Also, they often cover large contiguous cleaning the parking lot .areas with impermeable paving surface. Thismeans that virtually all of the rain (minusevaporation) that falls becomes runoff.4. The parking lot must be built toeffectively channel and collect runoff.5.Traditionally, the runoff has been shunteddirectly into storm sewers, streams, or evensanitary sewers. 12
  • 13. CONCLUSION: REFERENCES:Automatic car parking is one of the 1. How car parking system works.important factor in traffic areas, multiplexs, 2. Shannon Saunders McDonaldapartments, etc; Car parking system that is “Automated Parking Saves Space indiscussed here is automated without human Tight places.being that means if the driver leaves it at the 3. Parking systemsstarting of this system the elevator takes the http://www.directpark.decar to the parking slot. 4. Microcontrollers http://www.nxp.com We have to used the equipments of 5. www.seminarsonly.commicrocontroller, Infrared transmitters andinfrared receivers for each and every parking 6. www.101seminartopics.comslot, IR receivers should be connected to the 7. www.parking images.commicrocontroller. Stepper motor plays a vital role in thissystem for lifting the car and display i.e;seven segment display is used at each andevery floor. Sensors are used for sensing thecar when it enters the areana and when itleave.Automated car parking is very useful in thismodern world where finding a small placehave become a big problem. This system ispresent in DELHI, MUMBAI, BANGLOREin our country. 13