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NICOTINE - A HARMFUL DRUG
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NICOTINE - A HARMFUL DRUG

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Presentation on nicotine

Presentation on nicotine


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  • 1. DRUGS AND MEDICINES ? • FROM CHEMISTRY POINT OF VIEW, THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE TERMS DRUGS AND MEDICINES, i.e, ALL DRUGS ARE MEDICINES AND ALL MEDICINES ARE DRUGS. HOWEVER, OUR SOCIETY AND LAW MAKE A CLEAR-CUT DISTINCTION BETWEEN THESE TWO TERMS AS FOLLOW: A MEDICINE IS A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE WHICH CURES THE DISEASE, IS SAFE TO USE, HAS NEGLIGIBLE TOXICITY AND DOES NOT ADDICTION. IN CONTRAST, A DRUG IS A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE WHICH ALSO CURES THE DISEASE BUT IS HABIT FORMING, CAUSES ADDICTION AND HAS SERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS
  • 2. MAIN RESEARCH TOPIC- NICOTINE • NICOTINE IS A POTENT PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC ALKALOID FOUND IN THE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY OF PLANTS (SOLANACEAE) AND A STIMULANT DRUG. IT IS A NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR AGONIST. IT IS MADE IN THE ROOTS AND ACCUMULATES IN THE LEAVES OF THE PLANTS. IT CONSTITUTES APPROXIMATELY 0.6–3.0% OF THE DRY WEIGHT OF TOBACCO AND IS PRESENT IN THE RANGE OF 2–7 µG/KG OF VARIOUS EDIBLE PLANTS. IT FUNCTIONS AS AN ANTIHERBIVORE CHEMICAL; THEREFORE, NICOTINE WAS WIDELY USED AS AN INSECTICIDE IN THE PAST.
  • 3. • ACCORDING TO THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, NICOTINE ADDICTION HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN ONE OF THE HARDEST ADDICTIONS TO BREAK, WHILE THE PHARMACOLOGICALAND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS THAT DETERMINE TOBACCO ADDICTION ARE SIMILAR TO THOSE DETERMINING ADDICTION TO HEROIN AND COCAINE. THE NICOTINE CONTENT OF POPULAR AMERICAN-BRAND CIGARETTES HAS SLOWLY INCREASED OVER THE YEARS, AND ONE STUDY FOUND THAT THERE WAS AN AVERAGE INCREASE OF 1.78% PER YEAR BETWEEN THE YEARS OF 1998 AND 2005. THIS WAS FOUND FOR ALL MAJOR MARKET CATEGORIES OF CIGARETTES. • RESEARCH IN 2011 HAS FOUND THAT NICOTINE INHIBITS CHROMATIN-MODIFYING ENZYMES; THIS INHIBITION HAS BEEN SHOWN TO INCREASE THE ABILITY OF COCAINE TO CAUSE AN ADDICTION
  • 4. HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF NAME • NICOTINE IS NAMED AFTER THE TOBACCO PLANT NICOTIANATABACUM, WHICH IN TURN IS NAMED AFTER THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR INPORTUGAL, JEAN NICOT DE VILLEMAIN, WHO SENT TOBACCO AND SEEDS TO PARIS IN 1560, AND WHO PROMOTED THEIR MEDICINAL USE. • THE TOBACCO AND SEEDS WERE BROUGHT TO AMBASSADOR NICOT FROM BRAZIL BY LUIS DE GOIS, A PORTUGUESE COLONIST IN SÃO PAULO. NICOTINE WAS FIRST ISOLATED FROM THE TOBACCO PLANT IN 1828 BY PHYSICIAN WILHELM HEINRICH POSSELTAND CHEMIST KARL LUDWIG REIMANN OF GERMANY, WHO CONSIDERED IT A POISON. • ITS CHEMICAL EMPIRICAL FORMULA WAS DESCRIBED BY MELSENS IN 1843,ITS STRUCTURE WAS DISCOVERED BY ADOLF PINNER AND RICHARD WOLFFENSTEIN IN 1893, AND IT WAS FIRST SYNTHESIZED BY AMÉ PICTET AND A. ROTSCHY IN 1904.
  • 5. CHEMISTRY OF NICOTINE NICOTINE IS A HYGROSCOPIC, OILY LIQUID THAT IS MISCIBLE WITH WATER IN ITS BASE FORM. AS A NITROGENOUS BASE, NICOTINE FORMS SALTS WITH ACIDS THAT ARE USUALLY SOLID AND WATER SOLUBLE, FOR EXAMPLE NICOTINE SULFATE WHICH, BEING A SOLID, IS EASIER TO HANDLE IN ITS USE AS AN INSECTICIDE. (FOR RETAIL USE IT IS SOLD AS SOLUTION IN WATER READY FOR SPRAYING.) ITS FLASH POINT IS 95°C AND ITS AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE IS 244°C.
  • 6. IUPAC NAME , CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL DATA • IUPAC NAME OF NICOTINE IS- 3-(-1-METHYLPYRROLIDIN-2-YL ) PYRIDINE) • FORMULA C10 H14 N2 • MOL. MASS 162.12 G/MOL • DENSITY 1.01 G/CM³ • MELT. POINT -79 °C (-110 °F) • BOILING POINT 247 °C (477 °F)
  • 7. STRUCTURE OF NICOTINE
  • 8. HOW BENEFICIAL IS NICOTINE OR CIGARETTE???
  • 9. PSYCHOACTIVE EFFECTS • NICOTINE'S MOOD-ALTERING EFFECTS ARE DIFFERENT BY REPORT: IN PARTICULAR IT IS BOTH A STIMULANT AND A RELAXANT. FIRST CAUSING A RELEASE OF GLUCOSE FROM THE LIVER AND EPINEPHRINE(ADRENALINE) FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA, IT CAUSES STIMULATION. USERS REPORT FEELINGS OF RELAXATION, SHARPNESS,CALMNESS, AND ALERTNESS. LIKE ANY STIMULANT, IT MAY VERY RARELY CAUSE THE OFTEN UNCOMFORTABLE EFFECT OF AKATHISIA. BY REDUCING THEAPPETITE AND RAISING THE METABOLISM, SOME SMOKERS MAY LOSE WEIGHT AS A CONSEQUENCE. • WHEN A CIGARETTE IS SMOKED, NICOTINE-RICH BLOOD PASSES FROM THE LUNGS TO THE BRAIN WITHIN SEVEN SECONDS AND IMMEDIATELY STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF MANY CHEMICAL MESSENGERS SUCH AS ACETYLCHOLINE etc. • THIS RELEASE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND HORMONES IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MOST OF NICOTINE'S EFFECTS. NICOTINE APPEARS TO ENHANCE CONCENTRATION AND MEMORY DUE TO THE INCREASE OF ACETYLCHOLINE. • MOST CIGARETTES (IN THE SMOKE INHALED) CONTAIN 1 TO 3 MILLIGRAMS OF NICOTINE.
  • 10. • RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT, WHEN SMOKERS WISH TO ACHIEVE A STIMULATING EFFECT, THEY TAKE SHORT QUICK PUFFS, WHICH PRODUCE A LOW LEVEL OF BLOOD NICOTINE. • THIS STIMULATES NERVE TRANSMISSION. WHEN THEY WISH TO RELAX, THEY TAKE DEEP PUFFS, WHICH PRODUCE A HIGH LEVEL OF BLOOD NICOTINE, WHICH DEPRESSES THE PASSAGE OF NERVE IMPULSES, PRODUCING A MILD SEDATIVE EFFECT. • AT LOW DOSES, NICOTINE POTENTLY ENHANCES THE ACTIONS OF NOREPINEPHRINE AND DOPAMINE IN THE BRAIN, CAUSING A DRUG EFFECT. • AT HIGHER DOSES, NICOTINE ENHANCES THE EFFECT, PRODUCING A CALMING, PAIN-KILLING EFFECT. NICOTINE IS UNIQUE IN COMPARISON TO MOST DRUGS, AS ITS PROFILE CHANGES FROM STIMULANT TO SEDATIVE/PAIN KILLER IN INCREASING DOSAGES AND USE.
  • 11. NICOTINE AS INSECTICIDE NICOTINE SULFATE SOLD FOR USE AS A PESTICIDE IS LABELED "DANGER," INDICATING THAT IT IS HIGHLY TOXIC.
  • 12. SIDE EFFECTS OF NICOTINE
  • 13. SURPRISING FACT • TOOTHPASTES ALSO CONTAIN SOME AMOUNT OF NICOTINE • A STUDY BY THE DELHI INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH (DIPSAR) HAS FOUND THAT MANY OF THE TOOTHPASTE MANUFACTURERS ARE ADULTERATING TOOTHPASTES AND TOOTHPOWDERS WITH HIGH QUANTITY OF NICOTINE.
  • 14. CONCLUDING • NICOTINE IS A VERY POTENT DRUG - HIGHLY ADDICTIVE WHEN REGULARLY CONSUMED - AND ITS USE SHOULD BE AVOIDED. • GIVEN THE SERIOUS HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH CIGARETTE SMOKING, PRIMARILY MAINTAINED BY THE ADDICTIVE PROPERTIES OF NICOTINE, THE BEST ADVICE IS NOT TO START. • NICOTINE IS ONLY FOR USED AS INSECTICIDES, SO ITS BETTER TO BE USED IT TO KILL INSECTS OR PESTICIDES , NOT HUMAN BEING.
  • 15. BY- JASHANPREET SINGH R010113019 B.TECH-CSE-CCVT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, SHILLONG