H R M

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H R M

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Managing Information
  2. 2. What Would You Do? <ul><li>The PC industry is very competitive </li></ul><ul><li>How can Dell and its suppliers work more closely together? </li></ul><ul><li>How can Dell handle all the information it generates? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Moore’s Law <ul><li>Prediction that every 18 months, the cost of computing will drop by 50 percent as computer-processing power doubles. </li></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 5.1
  4. 4. Learning Objectives: Why Information Matters <ul><li>After reading this section, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. explain the strategic importance of information </li></ul><ul><li>2. describe the characteristics of useful information </li></ul>
  5. 5. Strategic Importance of Information <ul><li>First-mover advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining a competitive advantage </li></ul>
  6. 6. Using Information to Sustain a Competitive Advantage <ul><li>Does the information create value? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information different across firms? </li></ul><ul><li>Can another firm create or buy the technology? </li></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 5.2
  7. 7. Characteristics of Useful Information <ul><li>Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Costs of Useful Information <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Objectives: Getting and Sharing Information <ul><li>After reading the next two sections, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>3. explain the basics of capturing, processing, and protecting information </li></ul><ul><li>4. describe how companies can share and access information and knowledge </li></ul>
  10. 10. Capturing Information <ul><li>Manual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>completing forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bar code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>optical character recognition </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Kinds of Storage Devices <ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilm </li></ul><ul><li>CDs </li></ul><ul><li>DVDs </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>RAID </li></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 5.3
  12. 12. Processing Information <ul><li>Processing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transforming raw data into meaningful information that can be used in decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of discovering unknown patterns and relationships in large amounts of data </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Data Mining <ul><li>Data warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supervised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unsupervised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>association or affinity patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sequence patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predictive patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data clusters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Protecting Information <ul><li>Protecting information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of insuring that data are reliably and consistently retrievable for authorized users only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>firewalls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data encryption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>virtual private networks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Security Threats to Data and Data Networks <ul><li>Denial of service </li></ul><ul><li>Web server attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate network attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized access to PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses, worms, Trojan horses </li></ul><ul><li>Malicious scripts and applets </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail snooping </li></ul><ul><li>Keystroke monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Referrers </li></ul><ul><li>Spam </li></ul><ul><li>Cookies </li></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 5.4
  16. 16. Accessing and Sharing Information <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Internal access and sharing </li></ul><ul><li>External access and sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge and expertise </li></ul>
  17. 17. Communication <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Voice messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Conferencing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Document conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Application sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop videoconferencing </li></ul>
  18. 18. Internal Access and Sharing <ul><li>Executive Information System (EIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul>
  19. 19. Executive Information System <ul><li>Uses internal and external sources of data </li></ul><ul><li>Used to monitor and analyze organizational performance </li></ul><ul><li>Must be easy to use and must provide information that managers want and need </li></ul>
  20. 20. Characteristics of Best-selling Executive Information Systems <ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>few commands, important views saved, 3-D charts, geographic dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sales tracking, easy-to-understand displays, time periods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification of problems and exceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compare to standards, trigger exceptions, drill down, detect and alert newspaper, detect and alert robots </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 5.5
  21. 21. Intranets <ul><li>Private company networks </li></ul><ul><li>Allow employees to easily access, share, and publish information using Internet software </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why 80% of Companies Now Use Intranets <ul><li>Intranets: </li></ul><ul><li>are inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>increase efficiencies and reduce costs </li></ul><ul><li>are intuitive and easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>work across all computer systems and platforms </li></ul><ul><li>can be built on top of existing networks </li></ul><ul><li>work with programs to convert electronic documents to HTML </li></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 5.6
  23. 23. External Access and Sharing Electronic Data Exchange Extranet Internet
  24. 24. Sharing Knowledge and Expertise <ul><li>Knowledge is the understanding one gains from information. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support systems (DSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use models to acquire and analyze information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicate experts’ decisions </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. What Really Happened? <ul><li>Dell shares information with suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Dell is on the cutting edge of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Dell uses information to determine actual sales </li></ul>

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