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Surveyors and surveying/ dentistry dental implants
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Surveyors and surveying/ dentistry dental implants

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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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  • 1. SURVEYORSURVEYOR && SURVEYINGSURVEYING INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. DENTAL SURVEYOR: It has been defined as an instrument used to determine the relative parallelism of two or more surfaces of the teeth or other parts of the cast of a dental arch. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. Dr. A.J. Fortunati is thought to be the first person to employ a mechanical device to determine the relative parallelism of tooth surfaces. The first such device to be produced commercially, the Ney instrument, remains the most widely used surveyor in the dental field. The Wills surveyor by Jelenko is second most widely used. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. The aims and objectives of surveying are as follows: • To determine the most advantageous path of insertion/ removal for the RPD. • To locate proximal tooth surfaces that are or can be made parallel to act as guiding surfaces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. •To locate and measure recesses or undercuts for mechanical retention. •To identify areas of potential hard or soft tissue interferences. •To determine a path of insertion/ dislodgement consistent with esthetic requirements. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. •To delineate the height of contour of the abutment teeth and identify the areas of undercut that must be avoided, reduced, blocked out or preserved. •To help in planning restorative procedures . www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. •To record the most ideal cast position for future reference. •To establish a formal plan for RPD design and the required mouth preparation. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. The parts of dental surveyor are : • A level platform that is parallel to the bench top and on which the cast holder is moved. • A vertical arm that supports the superstructure. • A horizontal arm that extends at a right angle form the vertical column from which extends the other part of the superstructure, the surveying arm.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. In the Ney surveyor the horizontal arm is fixed, whereas in the Wills instrument it may revolve horizontally around the vertical column. • A surveying arm drops vertically from the horizontal arm. The surveying arm is capable of movement in a vertical direction. In the Wills surveyor the surveying arm is spring loaded www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. • A cast holder, or surveying table, to which the cast to be studied is attached. The table equipped with a clamp to lock the cast in place, is mounted on the ball and socket joint that permits the cast to be oriented in various horizontal places so that the axial surfaces of the teeth as well as other areas of the cast can be analyzed in relation to the vertical plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. • An analyzing rod or paralleling tool. This tool contacts the convex surface of the object being studied in the same way a tangent contacts a curve. In this way, the parallelism of one surface to another may be determined. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. • Additional tools that may be attached to vertical surveying arm and used in conjunction with the surveyor a) Undercut gauges: These gauges are used to identify the specific amount and location of desired retentive undercut on the surface of the abutment tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. b) Wax knife: This instrument is used in late stages of removable partial denture construction to eliminate or block out areas of undesirable undercuts with wax on the cast before the framework is made. c) Carbon marker: The marker may be used to scribe the survey line and to delineate an undercut area of the soft tissue or ridge www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • 16. Diagnostic survey : The diagnostic cast must be surveyed before the treatment plan for the patient can be formulated. Soft tissue contours must also be studied to determine what effect they may have on the partial denture that is being planned. Undercuts in the soft tissue areas may require surgical removal before the prosthesis will go to place in the mouth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. The position of the cast being studied can be changed on the surveying table to allow the designer to analyze what effect this changing the tilt will play on the relative parallelism of the structures. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. The surveyor is also used to scribe the survey line on the teeth after the final tilt of the cast has been determined. The significance of the survey line is that all rigid components of the partial denture must be kept occlusal to it. Normally only the terminal third of the retentive clasp arm is placed gingival to the survey line. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. The procedures to be followed during diagnostic survey are as follows: a). The cast is placed on the surveying table with the occlusal surface parallel to the horizontal plane. b). The analyzing table is initially given an anteroposterior tilt, then left and right lateral tilt and analyzed in each position. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. c). The degree of tilt is altered while the operator looks for the maximum number of parallel surfaces which may act as guides during insertion of the denture, yet at the same time offer resistance to displacement of the denture during function. d). Once analysis is complete, a note is made of the results of the various possible tilts and the analyzing rod is exchanged for an undercut gauge. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. e). The teeth and tissue are re-analyzed using an undercut gauge. f). Final analysis is carried out bearing in mind the principle of denture design. Once the path of insertion has been decided the surveying table is locked in position. g). Finally tripoding is carried out on the diagnostic cast. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. Tilt: Tilt is referred to as ‘changing the long axis of each tooth relative to the horizontal plane’. Tilting is used to obtain the most advantageous path of insertion. Tilting may be used to increase desirable undercuts and to decrease undesirable undercuts. Tilting can also be used to distribute available undercuts to produce more uniform retention throughout the available teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. Tilting is also used to develop a path of insertion that will permit the most effective use of an anterior space for replacement. Tilting can also minimize unfavorable undercuts both on the teeth and soft tissues to facilitate better position of major and minor connectors. It should be remembered that if a cast does not have usable undercuts, tilting in it would not produce them. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. Survey Line : It is the line which is marked on the abutment tooth by the surveyor spindle to indicate its greatest circumference in a given horizontal plane. Significance of the survey line is that all rigid components of the partial denture must be kept occlusal to it. Normally only the terminal third of the retentive clasp arm is placed gingival to the survey line. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. The survey line also helps to locate areas of undesirable tooth undercut that must be avoided or eliminated by contouring or placing restorations on the teeth. Survey line divides the tooth into Supra bulge and Infra bulge area. The area occlusal to the survey line is supra bulge area and the area gingival to the survey line is infra bulge area. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. Blockout After the establishment of the path of placement and the location of the undercut areas on the master cast, any undercut areas that will be crossed by rigid parts of the denture (which is every part of the denture framework but the retentive clasp terminals) must be eliminated by block out. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. In the broader sense the term blockout includes not only the areas crossed by the denture framework during seating and removal, but also those areas not involved that are blocked out for convenience. Ledges on which clasp patterns are to be placed. Relief beneath connectors to avoid tissue impingement, and Relief to provide for later attachment of the denture base to the framework. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. Ledges or shelves (shaped block out) for locating the clasp patterns may or may not be used. However, this should not be confused with the actual blocking out of undercut area that would offer interference to the placement of the denture framework. Only the latter is made on the surveyor, with the surveyor blade or the diagnostic stylus being used as a paralleling device www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. Tripoding: After the final tilt of the cast has been selected, it must be recorded so that the cast may later be repositioned precisely. This procedure is referred to as Tripoding. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. The simplest method consists of placing 3 cross marks on the tissue position of the cast, lingual to the remaining teeth at widely separated points while the cast and the vertical arm of the surveyor are held at fixed position. This will establish 3 points on the same horizontal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. Surveying the master cast: After the surveying of the diagnostic cast mouth preparation is done and the master cast is obtained. The master cast is placed on the surveyor table. The 3 points selected from the diagnostic cast must be identified with the analyzing rod held at the fixed vertical position; the cast is tilted in various ways until the tip of the analyzing rod contacts the points on the same horizontal plane. The tilt of the diagnostic cast and the master cast will be same nowwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com