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Pre natal and post-natal development of maxilla part 2/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different …

The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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  • 1. Pre-natal and Post- natal Development of Maxilla Continued….. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. PALATOGENESIS www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 3. End of 5 TH week IUL 12 TH week IULEnd of 6th Week IUL Beginning of 9th week CRITICAL PERIOD www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 4. The entire palate develops from two primorida – •The primary palate, and •The secondary palate www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 5. Week 6: A cut between the maxillary and the mandibular prominences and tipping the top of the head back allows visualization of the developing palate. •The secondary palatal shelves are considered to be part of the maxillary prominences. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 6. Week 6: The medial nasal prominences merge in the midline to smooth the median furrow. This fusion produces a wedge- shaped mass of mesenchymal tissue known as the intermaxillary segment. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 7. Week 6: After the oronasal membrane ruptures, The intermaxillary segment will form the anterior part of the palate, the primary palate (circled). This section is cut like the last one (b/w maxillary & mandibular prominences) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 8. • A higher magnification view of the circled area illustrates the oronasal membrane that is beginning to break down. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 9. Week 7: A parasagittal cut illustrates that the oronasal membrane breaks down to allow continuity between the nasal pit and the common oral and nasal cavities. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 10. Secondary Palatal Shelves Week 8: A frontal cut illustrates that the tongue is initially interposed between the secondary palatal shelves. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 11. The two lateral maxillary palatal shelves and the primary palate of the frontonasal prominence—are initially widely separated due to the vertical orientation of the lateral shelves on either side of the tongue. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 12. Elevation of head and lower jaw www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 13. Mechanism of palatal shelf elevation *Intrinsic Force within the shelf (accumulation and hydration of hyaluronic acid) *Accumulation of Glycosaminoglycans *EGF(epidermal growth factor) andTGF (transforming growth factor h3) stimulate production of Hyluronan *Increase in vascularity *Contraction of elastic fibres or muscle fibres. *Unequal division in the palatal and the oral epithelium *Neurotransmitters like Serotonin *Increase in MMP-3 *Upregulation of Vimentin expression *Master controlling gene is FSP-1 (gene encoding a fibroblast-specific protein) , ssh www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 14. • Pressure differences between the nasal and oral regions due to tongue muscle contractions may account for the palatal shelf elevation. This occurs at about 8th and 9th week p.c.. It is possible that the nerve supply to tongue is sufficiently developed to provide neuromuscular guidance to the intricate activity of palatal elevation followed by closure. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 15. • Shelf elevation and fusion begin a few days earlier in male than in female embryos, possibly accounting for sex differences in the incidence of cleft palate. www.indiandentalacademy. com
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  • 18. During palate closure, the mandible becomes more prognathic and the vertical dimension of the stomodeal chamber increases, but maxillary width remains stable, allowing shelf contact to occur. Also, forward growth of Meckel’s cartilage relocates the tongue more anteriorly, concomitant with upper-facial elevation. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 19. The transition from vertical to horizontal is completed within hours www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 20. Week 9: The palatal shelves become positioned above the tongue to allow for fusion in the midline. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 21. Week 9: Fusion begins The secondary palatal shelves change their contours towards a midpoint from which they fuse anteriorly and posteriorly. At this point, the nasal septum grows downwardly from the fused medial nasal processes. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 22. Medial Edge Epithelium. (M.E.E.) During the initial stage of the fusion process, MEE cells form a midline epithelial seam (MES) separating mesenchymes of the two apposing shelves. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 23. For the complete fusion of the palate, the MEE acts as a barrier: Epithelium cells of MEE transforms into connective tissue cells. Epithelium undergoes necrosis. (not supported as microscopic structure Doesn’t show any necrotic cells) Epithelial cells migrate towards oral and nasal cells. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 24. • Release of MMP (Matrix metalloproteinase) causes disintegration of the cells and allows the connective tissue to mix up. • Balance between the MMP and TIMMP (Tissue inhibiting MMP) www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 25. The loss of epithelial continuity in the area of the shelf contact was originally described as a classic example of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Two other mechanisms may also play a role in palatal shelf fusion. Migration of the basal cells into the mesenchyme and differentiation of these cells into mesenchymal cells. Cells near the periphery appear to migrate to the nearest epithelial surface, and then differentiate into either oral or nasal epitheliumwww.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 26. • Since the differentiation patterns of MEE cells in the cultured single palatal shelf is similar to that observed during palatal fusion (Mori et al. , 1994; Martínez-Álvarez et al. , 2000), it is clear that terminal differentiation of MEE cells is not necessarily dependent on palatal shelf contact and midline seam formation in vitro Int. J. Dev. Biol. 48: 307-317 (2004) TOSHIYA TAKIGAWA and KOHEI SHIOTA www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 27. Week 10 Fusion of the palatal shelves with each other and with the nasal septum separates the nasal cavities from the oval cavity. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 28. • Fusion of the three palatal components initially produces a flat unarched roof to the mouth. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 29. Ossification • Ossification of the palate proceeds during the 8th week post conception from the spread of bone into the mesenchyme of the fused lateral palatal shelves and from trabeculae appearing in the primary palate as ―premaxillary centers,‖ all derived from the single primary ossification centers of the maxillae. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 30. • Posteriorly, the hard palate is ossified by trabeculae spreading from the single primary ossification centers of each of the palatine bones. Most posterior part - no ossification - soft palate www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 31. Week 10 The four maxillary incisors develop within the primary palate. Fusion completes at week 12. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 32. Note: tongue has been removed. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 33. MID PALATAL SUTURE • Appears at 10 ½ wk IU • Growth ceases b/w 1 - 2 yrs • But no synostosis till adulthood • RME can be done • Obliteration starts in adolesence but complete fusion occurs by 30 yrs. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 34. Palatal Vault • Eruption of teeth – Deepening of palatal vault www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 35. Musculature of palate • Tensor veli palatini 40 days 1st arch • Palatopharangeous 45 days • Levator veli palatini 8th week 2nd arch • Palatoglossus 9th week • Uvular muscle 11thweek 2nd arch www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 36. MAXILLARY SINUS • First to develop at 10th week IU. • Develop from middle meatus by primary pneumatization in ecto- ethmoidal cartilage • Secondary pneumatization in ossifying maxilla starts at 5th month IU. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 37. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 38. Post natal growth of maxilla www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 39. • General features • Three dimensional growth of maxilla Height (Vertical) Width (Transverse) Length (Ant-Post) • Theories of growth Sutural Cartilaginous Functional matrix theory • Key factors in Nasomaxillary remodelling www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 40. Displacement • Primary displacement • Secondary displacement www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 41. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 42. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 43. Reversal line • Directions of growth sequentially undergo reversals • A reversal line showing the crossover between resorptive and depository growth fields seen in microscope • Factors affecting reversal shape of bone muscle attachments rotations growth fields www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 44. Post natal growth of maxilla apposition resorption MOSS Transformation Translation SUTURES Displacement Surface remodeling CRANIAL BASE MAXILLA www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 45. Mechanism of growth • Sutural • Nasal septum • Surface apposition and resorption on periosteal and endosteal surfaces • Alveolar process • Spheno occipital synchondrosis www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 46. • Surface apposition • Sutural growth • Nasal septum growth • Spheno occipital synchondrosis www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 47. • In contrast to cranial base maxilla is dominated by intra membranous ossification • Endochondral bone growth seen at the ethmoid bone and nasal septum www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 48. Surface apposition www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 49. Growth according to various theories • Sutural Theory (Weinman &Sicher) • Cartilagenous Theory ( Scott) • Functional Matrix Theory (Moss) www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 50. Sutural Theory Bone growth in various maxillary sutures Causes pushing apart of bone Resultant thrust on whole maxilla in forward and downward direction www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 51. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 52. Shortcomings of sutural theory • Not pressure related - Tension adapted tissue. • No innate growth potential. • Crouzon’s syndrome www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 53. Cartilagenous Theory www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 54. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 55. www.indiandentalacademy. com
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  • 64. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 65. Primary Pneumatization • Ethmoid air cells from the middle and superior meatus and sphenoethmoid recess invade the ectethmoid nasal capsule (primary pneumatization), from the 4th month post conception. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 66. Secondary Pneumatization • Secondary pneumatization occurs between birth and 2 years as groups of 3 to 15 air cells grow irregularly to form the ethmoid labyrinth www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 67. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 68. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 69. www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 70. Vimentin • Vimentin is a member of the intermediate filament family of proteins. Intermediate filaments are an important structural feature of eukaryotic cells. They, along with microtubules and actin microfilaments, make up the cytoskeleton www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 71. • Human fibroblast stromelysin (also called transin or matrix metalloproteinase-3) is a proteoglycanase closely related to collagenase (MMP1) with a wide range of substrate specificities. It is a secreted metalloprotease produced predominantly by connective tissue cells. Together with other metalloproteases, it can synergistically degrade the major components of the extracellular matrix (Sellers and Murphy, 1981). Stromelysin is capable of degrading proteoglycan, fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen, but not interstitial type I collagen. matrix metalloproteinase-3 www.indiandentalacademy. com
  • 72. www.indiandentalacademy. com Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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