Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?
Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS)
                                Phi...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
      Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulat...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations ...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?    What are Numerical Simulations (NS)?
   Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulation...
Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?
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Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?
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Philosophy of Numerical Simulations?
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Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories
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Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories

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An informal talk about genetic algorithms, numerical simulations and scientific discovery. March 2010, HPS, University of Leeds

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Genetic algorithms and the changing face of scientific theories

  1. 1. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophy of GNS Finis References Numerical Simulations and Scientific Discovery paper available at: http://papers.imuntean.net Ioan Muntean Department of Philosophy and History and Philosophy of Science University of Leeds March 9, 2010 1
  2. 2. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Outline 1 Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Philosophical questions Three stances The “glorified slide rule argument” My position 2 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Beyond Turing Survival and chance in computer science Inductive programming (skip) Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) 3 Philosophy of GNS What philosophy for GNS? Arguments for GNS Metaphysics of GNS GNS and mathematics GNS and invariance GNS and laws of nature Objections 4 Finis Risky conclusions Weaker conclusions 5 References 2
  3. 3. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions 3
  4. 4. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions Standard: “the use of a computer to build a model involving equations that we cannot solve analytically”. (P. Humphreys, E. Winsberg) 3
  5. 5. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions Standard: “the use of a computer to build a model involving equations that we cannot solve analytically”. (P. Humphreys, E. Winsberg) Non-Standard: NS track the dynamical evolution of real systems (St. Hartmann). 3
  6. 6. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions Standard: “the use of a computer to build a model involving equations that we cannot solve analytically”. (P. Humphreys, E. Winsberg) Non-Standard: NS track the dynamical evolution of real systems (St. Hartmann). Broad: NS is a computational model that includes the equations of a model, assumptions, corrections, interpretations, justifications, and representations (Humphreys 2004, 110). 3
  7. 7. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions Standard: “the use of a computer to build a model involving equations that we cannot solve analytically”. (P. Humphreys, E. Winsberg) Non-Standard: NS track the dynamical evolution of real systems (St. Hartmann). Broad: NS is a computational model that includes the equations of a model, assumptions, corrections, interpretations, justifications, and representations (Humphreys 2004, 110). History prone NS: more fine-grained, historical distinctions are needed (E. F. Keller). 3
  8. 8. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions Standard: “the use of a computer to build a model involving equations that we cannot solve analytically”. (P. Humphreys, E. Winsberg) Non-Standard: NS track the dynamical evolution of real systems (St. Hartmann). Broad: NS is a computational model that includes the equations of a model, assumptions, corrections, interpretations, justifications, and representations (Humphreys 2004, 110). History prone NS: more fine-grained, historical distinctions are needed (E. F. Keller). 3
  9. 9. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Definitions Standard: “the use of a computer to build a model involving equations that we cannot solve analytically”. (P. Humphreys, E. Winsberg) Non-Standard: NS track the dynamical evolution of real systems (St. Hartmann). Broad: NS is a computational model that includes the equations of a model, assumptions, corrections, interpretations, justifications, and representations (Humphreys 2004, 110). History prone NS: more fine-grained, historical distinctions are needed (E. F. Keller). I take them as “working definitions” I agree that we need to be more philosophically nuanced 3
  10. 10. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position 4
  11. 11. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) 4
  12. 12. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not 4
  13. 13. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not Are numerical experiments mere applications or spinoffs of scientific theories? We’ll discuss this. 4
  14. 14. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not Are numerical experiments mere applications or spinoffs of scientific theories? We’ll discuss this. How do NS contribute to the progress of science? Not yet, not significantly. 4
  15. 15. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not Are numerical experiments mere applications or spinoffs of scientific theories? We’ll discuss this. How do NS contribute to the progress of science? Not yet, not significantly. Witness the philosophical importance of some scientific tools: 4
  16. 16. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not Are numerical experiments mere applications or spinoffs of scientific theories? We’ll discuss this. How do NS contribute to the progress of science? Not yet, not significantly. Witness the philosophical importance of some scientific tools: the microscope (I. Hacking), 4
  17. 17. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not Are numerical experiments mere applications or spinoffs of scientific theories? We’ll discuss this. How do NS contribute to the progress of science? Not yet, not significantly. Witness the philosophical importance of some scientific tools: the microscope (I. Hacking), the thermometer (H. Chang). 4
  18. 18. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What are they? What is their status? Are numerical simulations similar to models? M. Morrison (2009): they have the same epistemic status) Are NS mere experiments? E. Winsberg, W. Parker: they are not Are numerical experiments mere applications or spinoffs of scientific theories? We’ll discuss this. How do NS contribute to the progress of science? Not yet, not significantly. Witness the philosophical importance of some scientific tools: the microscope (I. Hacking), the thermometer (H. Chang). Why not a philosophy of NS? 4
  19. 19. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Mongrels and halfway houses E. Winsberg: NS are “mongrels” between experiments and theories and have features of both theories and of experiments, without being theories or experiments. 5
  20. 20. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Mongrels and halfway houses E. Winsberg: NS are “mongrels” between experiments and theories and have features of both theories and of experiments, without being theories or experiments. S. Ulam (the father of the Monte Carlo method, late 1940s): NS are a “halfway house” between elegant theory and experimental hardware (quoted in Keller 2003, 205) 5
  21. 21. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Mongrels and halfway houses E. Winsberg: NS are “mongrels” between experiments and theories and have features of both theories and of experiments, without being theories or experiments. S. Ulam (the father of the Monte Carlo method, late 1940s): NS are a “halfway house” between elegant theory and experimental hardware (quoted in Keller 2003, 205) 5
  22. 22. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Mongrels and halfway houses E. Winsberg: NS are “mongrels” between experiments and theories and have features of both theories and of experiments, without being theories or experiments. S. Ulam (the father of the Monte Carlo method, late 1940s): NS are a “halfway house” between elegant theory and experimental hardware (quoted in Keller 2003, 205) 5
  23. 23. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The enthusiasts 6
  24. 24. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The enthusiasts It is thus reasonable to conclude that we are at the threshold of an era of new scientific methodology. In view of further technical developments in the near future, computer experts suggest that we are at present only at the very beginning of this new era. [...] computer simulation offers a new tool for science: theoretical model experiments of a scope and richness far exceeding anything available before. (Rohrlich 1990, 512,516) Galison: NS constitute a new epistemology, as a new method of extracting information from physical measurements, as well as a new metaphysics that presupposed discrete entities interacting through stochastic processes (Galison 1996, 120). 6
  25. 25. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Some skeptical stances
  26. 26. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Some skeptical stances 1 “Old stew in a new pot”: NS are not special for philosophy of science (Frigg and Reiss 2009; Stockler 2000). 7
  27. 27. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Some skeptical stances 1 “Old stew in a new pot”: NS are not special for philosophy of science (Frigg and Reiss 2009; Stockler 2000). 2 “Wait-and-see”: We do not know what are the long-term consequences of the NS 7
  28. 28. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Some skeptical stances 1 “Old stew in a new pot”: NS are not special for philosophy of science (Frigg and Reiss 2009; Stockler 2000). 2 “Wait-and-see”: We do not know what are the long-term consequences of the NS 3 “Rage against the machine”: philosophical arguments pertaining to show that: “computers are dummy” “computers cannot create” etc. 7
  29. 29. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Short answers to skeptics My answer to 1: what is a novel philosophical problem? We risk to get to “nothing new under the sun”
  30. 30. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Short answers to skeptics My answer to 1: what is a novel philosophical problem? We risk to get to “nothing new under the sun” My answer to 2: philosophy of science is the history of future science (so to speak). Wait what? The next Ice Age? NS are here, alive and kicking.
  31. 31. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Short answers to skeptics My answer to 1: what is a novel philosophical problem? We risk to get to “nothing new under the sun” My answer to 2: philosophy of science is the history of future science (so to speak). Wait what? The next Ice Age? NS are here, alive and kicking.
  32. 32. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Short answers to skeptics My answer to 1: what is a novel philosophical problem? We risk to get to “nothing new under the sun” My answer to 2: philosophy of science is the history of future science (so to speak). Wait what? The next Ice Age? NS are here, alive and kicking. I focus on 3 It’s more subtle!
  33. 33. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Short answers to skeptics My answer to 1: what is a novel philosophical problem? We risk to get to “nothing new under the sun” My answer to 2: philosophy of science is the history of future science (so to speak). Wait what? The next Ice Age? NS are here, alive and kicking. I focus on 3 It’s more subtle! It has a respectable philosophical pedigree (Descartes, Leibniz, Kant)
  34. 34. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Short answers to skeptics My answer to 1: what is a novel philosophical problem? We risk to get to “nothing new under the sun” My answer to 2: philosophy of science is the history of future science (so to speak). Wait what? The next Ice Age? NS are here, alive and kicking. I focus on 3 It’s more subtle! It has a respectable philosophical pedigree (Descartes, Leibniz, Kant) It is mathematically and scientifically challenging (see Godel, Turing, J.R. Lucas)
  35. 35. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 1: “Look! This is something new”?
  36. 36. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 1: “Look! This is something new”? For instance, if, rather than spilling much ink on convincing ourselves that simulations are unlike everything else, we recognize that the epistemological problems presented to us by simulations have much in common with the ones that arise in connection with models, we can take the insights we gain in both fields together and try to make progress in constructing the sought-after new epistemology. (Frigg and Reiss 2009, 611). With this, I agree
  37. 37. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 1: “Look! This is something new”? For instance, if, rather than spilling much ink on convincing ourselves that simulations are unlike everything else, we recognize that the epistemological problems presented to us by simulations have much in common with the ones that arise in connection with models, we can take the insights we gain in both fields together and try to make progress in constructing the sought-after new epistemology. (Frigg and Reiss 2009, 611). With this, I agree I will try to do something similar in last section
  38. 38. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 2: The Greek Chorus attitude 10
  39. 39. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 2: The Greek Chorus attitude Wait and see who’s winning the battle. Do not hedge your bets too early in the game. Philosophers are like Greek chorus, they come at the end to explain the victory. 10
  40. 40. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 3: NS as “glorified slide rules” claim C-1 A computer algorithm is no better than the assumptions which it was built on The Analytical Engine has no pretensions to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. A letter of A. Lovelace quoted in (Hatree, 1949) An argument Computers do not think Science is a creative process that involves reason and skills Computers do not contribute to progress (or discovery) in science Computers are erring in anything, like slide rules do.
  41. 41. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Stance 3: NS as “glorified slide rules” claim C-1 A computer algorithm is no better than the assumptions which it was built on The Analytical Engine has no pretensions to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. A letter of A. Lovelace quoted in (Hatree, 1949) An argument Computers do not think Science is a creative process that involves reason and skills Computers do not contribute to progress (or discovery) in science Computers are erring in anything, like slide rules do.
  42. 42. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Consequences of the glorified slide rules argument Demoting NS again Whenever the analytic solution is discovered, a real experiment is possible or new data is available, NS can be tossed away.
  43. 43. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position Consequences of the glorified slide rules argument Demoting NS again Whenever the analytic solution is discovered, a real experiment is possible or new data is available, NS can be tossed away. Nothing that NS have achieved could not have been done by an “army of well-trained scientists working with slide rules”.
  44. 44. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: 13
  45. 45. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality 13
  46. 46. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). 13
  47. 47. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; 13
  48. 48. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; NS are very brute idealizations (Parker, M. Morgan 2005-2009) etc. argue for or against some of these. 13
  49. 49. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; NS are very brute idealizations (Parker, M. Morgan 2005-2009) etc. argue for or against some of these. NS are fundamentally flawed. 13
  50. 50. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; NS are very brute idealizations (Parker, M. Morgan 2005-2009) etc. argue for or against some of these. NS are fundamentally flawed. computers cannot simulate the continuum quantities of physics, 13
  51. 51. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; NS are very brute idealizations (Parker, M. Morgan 2005-2009) etc. argue for or against some of these. NS are fundamentally flawed. computers cannot simulate the continuum quantities of physics, there are inherent errors of digitization and, 13
  52. 52. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; NS are very brute idealizations (Parker, M. Morgan 2005-2009) etc. argue for or against some of these. NS are fundamentally flawed. computers cannot simulate the continuum quantities of physics, there are inherent errors of digitization and, computer arithmetic is fundamentally limited by G¨del’s o incompleteness theorem. 13
  53. 53. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position The inherently limited nature of NS NS are subordinate in their nature because they do provide novel scientific knowledge only when other, more rigorous ways of representing the real world fail: NS are unreal because unlike experiments and models, they do not latch directly onto reality NS lack materiality; Materiality, maybe the most relevant, is discussed in (Parker 2009). NS bear no causal connection to the world; NS are very brute idealizations (Parker, M. Morgan 2005-2009) etc. argue for or against some of these. NS are fundamentally flawed. computers cannot simulate the continuum quantities of physics, there are inherent errors of digitization and, computer arithmetic is fundamentally limited by G¨del’s o incompleteness theorem. Hence: mathematics can show us what “machines cannot in principle do”. 13
  54. 54. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories;
  55. 55. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories; NS do not explain
  56. 56. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories; NS do not explain NS do not augment scientific knowledge.
  57. 57. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories; NS do not explain NS do not augment scientific knowledge. NS are limited predicting tools, at best, and only when a pre-existing theoretical model permits it.
  58. 58. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories; NS do not explain NS do not augment scientific knowledge. NS are limited predicting tools, at best, and only when a pre-existing theoretical model permits it. Science is about explanation/understanding/unification etc.
  59. 59. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories; NS do not explain NS do not augment scientific knowledge. NS are limited predicting tools, at best, and only when a pre-existing theoretical model permits it. Science is about explanation/understanding/unification etc.
  60. 60. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position science and NS NS are not able to falsify or confirm scientific theories; NS do not explain NS do not augment scientific knowledge. NS are limited predicting tools, at best, and only when a pre-existing theoretical model permits it. Science is about explanation/understanding/unification etc. No philosophy of slide rules In philosophy of science, no country for old slide rules 14
  61. 61. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position A rejoinder to the “glorified slide rules” arguments 15
  62. 62. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position A rejoinder to the “glorified slide rules” arguments How do we argue against the “glorified slide rules” arguments? 1 Deny C-1: computers do help us understanding and explain because they show us how to decompose systems, separate levels and see the organization of mechanisms. (Simon 1969)
  63. 63. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position A rejoinder to the “glorified slide rules” arguments How do we argue against the “glorified slide rules” arguments? 1 Deny C-1: computers do help us understanding and explain because they show us how to decompose systems, separate levels and see the organization of mechanisms. (Simon 1969) 2 Show that historically it is inaccurate (Keller, 2003): Cellular Automata (CA), Neural Networks (NN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) are counterexamples to C2. (CA illustrate the third stage in Keller).
  64. 64. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position A rejoinder to the “glorified slide rules” arguments How do we argue against the “glorified slide rules” arguments? 1 Deny C-1: computers do help us understanding and explain because they show us how to decompose systems, separate levels and see the organization of mechanisms. (Simon 1969) 2 Show that historically it is inaccurate (Keller, 2003): Cellular Automata (CA), Neural Networks (NN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) are counterexamples to C2. (CA illustrate the third stage in Keller). 3 Quantum computing may be the “best” candidate for surpassing C-1.
  65. 65. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position A rejoinder to the “glorified slide rules” arguments How do we argue against the “glorified slide rules” arguments? 1 Deny C-1: computers do help us understanding and explain because they show us how to decompose systems, separate levels and see the organization of mechanisms. (Simon 1969) 2 Show that historically it is inaccurate (Keller, 2003): Cellular Automata (CA), Neural Networks (NN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) are counterexamples to C2. (CA illustrate the third stage in Keller). 3 Quantum computing may be the “best” candidate for surpassing C-1. Here I combine 1 and 2, but insist on the paradigm shift ` la a Keller.
  66. 66. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? 16
  67. 67. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. 16
  68. 68. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. 16
  69. 69. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. More attention to the historical developments of NS (` la a Keller and Galison) 16
  70. 70. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. More attention to the historical developments of NS (` la a Keller and Galison) Some NS are able to: 16
  71. 71. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. More attention to the historical developments of NS (` la a Keller and Galison) Some NS are able to: build models, 16
  72. 72. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. More attention to the historical developments of NS (` la a Keller and Galison) Some NS are able to: build models, find invariants, 16
  73. 73. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. More attention to the historical developments of NS (` la a Keller and Galison) Some NS are able to: build models, find invariants, discover non-trivial conserved quantities etc. 16
  74. 74. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Philosophical questions Philosophy of GNS Three stances Finis The “glorified slide rule argument” References My position What do i argue for? Pace Frigg&Reiss, there is philosophical novelty in NS. Not all NS are “dumb slide rules”; Some are more interesting than others. More attention to the historical developments of NS (` la a Keller and Galison) Some NS are able to: build models, find invariants, discover non-trivial conserved quantities etc. The NS under scrutiny here are: Genetic Algorithms 16
  75. 75. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Outline 1 Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? What are Numerical Simulations (NS)? Philosophical questions Three stances The “glorified slide rule argument” My position 2 Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Beyond Turing Survival and chance in computer science Inductive programming (skip) Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) 3 Philosophy of GNS What philosophy for GNS? Arguments for GNS Metaphysics of GNS GNS and mathematics GNS and invariance GNS and laws of nature Objections 4 Finis Risky conclusions Weaker conclusions 5 References 17
  76. 76. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochasticity and NS Biomimetics Q-1: How can computers be made to do what needs to be done, without being told exactly how to do it? The “glorified slide rules” argument uses the Turing machine paradigm. 18
  77. 77. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochasticity and NS Biomimetics Q-1: How can computers be made to do what needs to be done, without being told exactly how to do it? The “glorified slide rules” argument uses the Turing machine paradigm. Are all machine Turing machines? 18
  78. 78. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochasticity and NS Biomimetics Q-1: How can computers be made to do what needs to be done, without being told exactly how to do it? The “glorified slide rules” argument uses the Turing machine paradigm. Are all machine Turing machines? Build machines inspired by learning, discovery, game playing, solving real-life problems, etc.
  79. 79. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochasticity and NS Biomimetics Q-1: How can computers be made to do what needs to be done, without being told exactly how to do it? The “glorified slide rules” argument uses the Turing machine paradigm. Are all machine Turing machines? Build machines inspired by learning, discovery, game playing, solving real-life problems, etc. Hence adopt biomimetics
  80. 80. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochasticity and NS Biomimetics Q-1: How can computers be made to do what needs to be done, without being told exactly how to do it? The “glorified slide rules” argument uses the Turing machine paradigm. Are all machine Turing machines? Build machines inspired by learning, discovery, game playing, solving real-life problems, etc. Hence adopt biomimetics 1 Go stochastic in building algorithms!
  81. 81. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochasticity and NS Biomimetics Q-1: How can computers be made to do what needs to be done, without being told exactly how to do it? The “glorified slide rules” argument uses the Turing machine paradigm. Are all machine Turing machines? Build machines inspired by learning, discovery, game playing, solving real-life problems, etc. Hence adopt biomimetics 1 Go stochastic in building algorithms! 2 Go Darwinian in programming computers
  82. 82. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Do philosophers talk about non-Turing machines? CA, GA and NN can go beyond what a Turing machine is able to do. So did the Monte Carlo method (first NS).
  83. 83. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Do philosophers talk about non-Turing machines? CA, GA and NN can go beyond what a Turing machine is able to do. So did the Monte Carlo method (first NS). Are these solutions philosophically attractive?
  84. 84. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Do philosophers talk about non-Turing machines? CA, GA and NN can go beyond what a Turing machine is able to do. So did the Monte Carlo method (first NS). Are these solutions philosophically attractive? The literature on NS ignores GA
  85. 85. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Do philosophers talk about non-Turing machines? CA, GA and NN can go beyond what a Turing machine is able to do. So did the Monte Carlo method (first NS). Are these solutions philosophically attractive? The literature on NS ignores GA There are interesting discussions on CA and NN. (Keller, 2003) (Barberousse, Franceschelli, and Imbert 2007) and, more dogmatically, (Wolfram 2002).
  86. 86. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Do philosophers talk about non-Turing machines? CA, GA and NN can go beyond what a Turing machine is able to do. So did the Monte Carlo method (first NS). Are these solutions philosophically attractive? The literature on NS ignores GA There are interesting discussions on CA and NN. (Keller, 2003) (Barberousse, Franceschelli, and Imbert 2007) and, more dogmatically, (Wolfram 2002). The literature on NN is well-known to philosophers: (Paul and Patricia Churchland)
  87. 87. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Do philosophers talk about non-Turing machines? CA, GA and NN can go beyond what a Turing machine is able to do. So did the Monte Carlo method (first NS). Are these solutions philosophically attractive? The literature on NS ignores GA There are interesting discussions on CA and NN. (Keller, 2003) (Barberousse, Franceschelli, and Imbert 2007) and, more dogmatically, (Wolfram 2002). The literature on NN is well-known to philosophers: (Paul and Patricia Churchland) I focus here on GA and GP
  88. 88. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms 20
  89. 89. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948.
  90. 90. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948. Based on genetic or evolutionary search by which a “combination of genes is looked for, the criterion being the survival value”.
  91. 91. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948. Based on genetic or evolutionary search by which a “combination of genes is looked for, the criterion being the survival value”. Turing in Mind (1950): “the child-machine needs to be taught and surveyed. Then another child-machine tried and compared to the first etc.”
  92. 92. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948. Based on genetic or evolutionary search by which a “combination of genes is looked for, the criterion being the survival value”. Turing in Mind (1950): “the child-machine needs to be taught and surveyed. Then another child-machine tried and compared to the first etc.” the child machine = hereditary material,
  93. 93. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948. Based on genetic or evolutionary search by which a “combination of genes is looked for, the criterion being the survival value”. Turing in Mind (1950): “the child-machine needs to be taught and surveyed. Then another child-machine tried and compared to the first etc.” the child machine = hereditary material, the changes within it = genetic mutation and
  94. 94. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948. Based on genetic or evolutionary search by which a “combination of genes is looked for, the criterion being the survival value”. Turing in Mind (1950): “the child-machine needs to be taught and surveyed. Then another child-machine tried and compared to the first etc.” the child machine = hereditary material, the changes within it = genetic mutation and natural selection = “judgment of the experimenter”
  95. 95. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Evolution of algorithms Speculated by Turing in 1948. Based on genetic or evolutionary search by which a “combination of genes is looked for, the criterion being the survival value”. Turing in Mind (1950): “the child-machine needs to be taught and surveyed. Then another child-machine tried and compared to the first etc.” the child machine = hereditary material, the changes within it = genetic mutation and natural selection = “judgment of the experimenter” In a unpublished paper, Turing realized that such a genetic search implied randomness (Turing 1996).
  96. 96. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References The 1970s and 1980s Alien (1979) Aliens (1986) Alien (1992) Alien Resurrection (1997) ABBA’s “Take a chance on me” Koza, Holland et al.: Birth of the Genetic Programming and Genetic Algorithms: 1986 to 1995 21
  97. 97. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming 22
  98. 98. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. 22
  99. 99. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced 22
  100. 100. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced Offspring have some (randomly chosen) features of the predecessors. 22
  101. 101. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced Offspring have some (randomly chosen) features of the predecessors. The best competitor wins and constitutes the solutions of the problem. 22
  102. 102. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced Offspring have some (randomly chosen) features of the predecessors. The best competitor wins and constitutes the solutions of the problem. GA are implementations of the biological evolution 22
  103. 103. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced Offspring have some (randomly chosen) features of the predecessors. The best competitor wins and constitutes the solutions of the problem. GA are implementations of the biological evolution Optimization: searching for the best solution is based on some pre-established criteria 22
  104. 104. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced Offspring have some (randomly chosen) features of the predecessors. The best competitor wins and constitutes the solutions of the problem. GA are implementations of the biological evolution Optimization: searching for the best solution is based on some pre-established criteria Unlike in Turing, selection occurs at the level of population, not at the level of individual algorithms. 22
  105. 105. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References J. Holland’s genetic programming Starts from a given number of initial programs randomly distributed in a given space of solutions. Based on relative results, the best competitors are chosen and reproduced Offspring have some (randomly chosen) features of the predecessors. The best competitor wins and constitutes the solutions of the problem. GA are implementations of the biological evolution Optimization: searching for the best solution is based on some pre-established criteria Unlike in Turing, selection occurs at the level of population, not at the level of individual algorithms. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (1975) 22
  106. 106. Philosophy of Numerical Simulations? Beyond Turing Genetic Algorithms in Numerical Simulations (GNS) Survival and chance in computer science Philosophy of GNS Inductive programming (skip) Finis Genetic numerical algorithms (GNS) References Stochastic algorithms Output is manifestly stochastic. 23
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