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- 1. A probabilistic & functional approach to perspectivism With two case studies Ioan Muntean U. of North Carolina, Asheville U. of Texas, Rio Grande Valley Western Carolina U. European Congress of Analytic Philosophy (ECAP 10) August, 2020
- 2. 1 Perspectivism as realism 2 DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Perspectives and mapping K in DEKI 3 Functionalism & Bayesianism Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability 4 Sketch of two case studies 5 Finale
- 3. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions 3
- 4. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? 3
- 5. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. 3
- 6. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models 3
- 7. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: 3
- 8. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: Representational success 3
- 9. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: Representational success Explanatory success 3
- 10. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: Representational success Explanatory success Predictive success 3
- 11. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: Representational success Explanatory success Predictive success Contributing to our understanding of the target system 3
- 12. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: Representational success Explanatory success Predictive success Contributing to our understanding of the target system Do perspectives contribute to the success of models? 3
- 13. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Issues & Questions How do we link scientiﬁc models to perspectives? perspectives and model-building. Perspectives and epistemic values of models The epistemology of models and their success: Representational success Explanatory success Predictive success Contributing to our understanding of the target system Do perspectives contribute to the success of models? How do perspectives make models represent? 3
- 14. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Aims
- 15. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Aims To make precise the functional and probabilistic role of perspectives in the representational success of models 4
- 16. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Aims To make precise the functional and probabilistic role of perspectives in the representational success of models To show how this approach improves the realist component of perspectivism by promoting the ideas of: 4
- 17. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Aims To make precise the functional and probabilistic role of perspectives in the representational success of models To show how this approach improves the realist component of perspectivism by promoting the ideas of: Perspectival convergence 4
- 18. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Aims To make precise the functional and probabilistic role of perspectives in the representational success of models To show how this approach improves the realist component of perspectivism by promoting the ideas of: Perspectival convergence Stability of perspectives 4
- 19. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions
- 20. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions A major component of the success of (most) models is representation
- 21. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions A major component of the success of (most) models is representation Accuracy is a component of representation
- 22. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions A major component of the success of (most) models is representation Accuracy is a component of representation Other models do not need to be accurate (ex: exploratory models, hypothetical models, etc.)
- 23. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions A major component of the success of (most) models is representation Accuracy is a component of representation Other models do not need to be accurate (ex: exploratory models, hypothetical models, etc.) Perspectives are strongly related to the epistemology of scientiﬁc models (endorsed by Massimi, Teller, Giere, i.a.), and less to the epistemology of scientiﬁc theories.
- 24. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions A major component of the success of (most) models is representation Accuracy is a component of representation Other models do not need to be accurate (ex: exploratory models, hypothetical models, etc.) Perspectives are strongly related to the epistemology of scientiﬁc models (endorsed by Massimi, Teller, Giere, i.a.), and less to the epistemology of scientiﬁc theories. We can formalize the representational function of models in probabilistic terms.
- 25. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Working assumptions A major component of the success of (most) models is representation Accuracy is a component of representation Other models do not need to be accurate (ex: exploratory models, hypothetical models, etc.) Perspectives are strongly related to the epistemology of scientiﬁc models (endorsed by Massimi, Teller, Giere, i.a.), and less to the epistemology of scientiﬁc theories. We can formalize the representational function of models in probabilistic terms. (not all are widely accepted) 5
- 26. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap 6
- 27. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism 6
- 28. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) 6
- 29. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) Assume that perspectives relate to the representational function of models 6
- 30. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) Assume that perspectives relate to the representational function of models Ascertain the probabilistic view (Bayesian) on accuracy of models as part of K (mapping of properties of M onto T) 6
- 31. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) Assume that perspectives relate to the representational function of models Ascertain the probabilistic view (Bayesian) on accuracy of models as part of K (mapping of properties of M onto T) Analyze the issue of convergence of models based on the change of perspective. 6
- 32. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) Assume that perspectives relate to the representational function of models Ascertain the probabilistic view (Bayesian) on accuracy of models as part of K (mapping of properties of M onto T) Analyze the issue of convergence of models based on the change of perspective. Appraise the issue of stability of a perspective relative to a class of models 6
- 33. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) Assume that perspectives relate to the representational function of models Ascertain the probabilistic view (Bayesian) on accuracy of models as part of K (mapping of properties of M onto T) Analyze the issue of convergence of models based on the change of perspective. Appraise the issue of stability of a perspective relative to a class of models Back up this approach with two case studies 6
- 34. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Roadmap Review perspectivism qua realism Adopt a version of DEKI: the “representation-as” approach to models, (Elgin, Frigg&Nguyen) Assume that perspectives relate to the representational function of models Ascertain the probabilistic view (Bayesian) on accuracy of models as part of K (mapping of properties of M onto T) Analyze the issue of convergence of models based on the change of perspective. Appraise the issue of stability of a perspective relative to a class of models Back up this approach with two case studies Reiterate the advantages of the functional/probabilistic approach vs. existing standard approaches 6
- 35. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Outline 1 Perspectivism as realism 2 DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Perspectives and mapping K in DEKI 3 Functionalism & Bayesianism Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability 4 Sketch of two case studies 5 Finale 7
- 36. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance 8
- 37. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP)
- 38. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016)
- 39. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016) The “visual metaphor”: perspectives are like pictorial perspectives in 3D (Giere 2006)
- 40. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016) The “visual metaphor”: perspectives are like pictorial perspectives in 3D (Giere 2006) The metaphors are useful in showing that SP:
- 41. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016) The “visual metaphor”: perspectives are like pictorial perspectives in 3D (Giere 2006) The metaphors are useful in showing that SP: Can be uniﬁed
- 42. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016) The “visual metaphor”: perspectives are like pictorial perspectives in 3D (Giere 2006) The metaphors are useful in showing that SP: Can be uniﬁed Not all perspectives are equally good
- 43. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016) The “visual metaphor”: perspectives are like pictorial perspectives in 3D (Giere 2006) The metaphors are useful in showing that SP: Can be uniﬁed Not all perspectives are equally good See R. Giere (2006), M. Massimi (Massimi 2016, 2018, 2019; Massimi and McCoy 2020) and P. Teller (Teller 2018, 2020) 8
- 44. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism at a glance M. Massimi: Truth of scientiﬁc claims depend on a scientiﬁc perspective ( SP) The “elephant metaphor of perspectivism”: The experience of each blind person, depending on what part of the elephant she has access to, will make her represent the elephant as a rope, a tree, a wall, a snake, etc. (Saxe 2016) The “visual metaphor”: perspectives are like pictorial perspectives in 3D (Giere 2006) The metaphors are useful in showing that SP: Can be uniﬁed Not all perspectives are equally good See R. Giere (2006), M. Massimi (Massimi 2016, 2018, 2019; Massimi and McCoy 2020) and P. Teller (Teller 2018, 2020) 8
- 45. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? 9
- 46. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP?
- 47. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists
- 48. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists They are similar to: norms, paradigms, theories, assumptions, scales, levels of organization, etc. But can we deﬁne them through these concepts?
- 49. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists They are similar to: norms, paradigms, theories, assumptions, scales, levels of organization, etc. But can we deﬁne them through these concepts? The risk: trivializing perspectives and render them powerless 9
- 50. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists They are similar to: norms, paradigms, theories, assumptions, scales, levels of organization, etc. But can we deﬁne them through these concepts? The risk: trivializing perspectives and render them powerless The current proposal is to integrate perspectives into models and delineate them functionally, rather than deﬁne them by necessary and suﬃcient conditions
- 51. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists They are similar to: norms, paradigms, theories, assumptions, scales, levels of organization, etc. But can we deﬁne them through these concepts? The risk: trivializing perspectives and render them powerless The current proposal is to integrate perspectives into models and delineate them functionally, rather than deﬁne them by necessary and suﬃcient conditions Two options:
- 52. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists They are similar to: norms, paradigms, theories, assumptions, scales, levels of organization, etc. But can we deﬁne them through these concepts? The risk: trivializing perspectives and render them powerless The current proposal is to integrate perspectives into models and delineate them functionally, rather than deﬁne them by necessary and suﬃcient conditions Two options: Teller: perspectives are “modelling schemes” (2018)
- 53. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Deﬁning scientiﬁc perspectives (SP)? What is a SP? perspectives are contexts of scientiﬁc inquiry, which are intrinsically limited, contingent, and dependent on the goals, desires, intentions, etc., of communities of scientists They are similar to: norms, paradigms, theories, assumptions, scales, levels of organization, etc. But can we deﬁne them through these concepts? The risk: trivializing perspectives and render them powerless The current proposal is to integrate perspectives into models and delineate them functionally, rather than deﬁne them by necessary and suﬃcient conditions Two options: Teller: perspectives are “modelling schemes” (2018) Massimi: perspectives are similar to second-order beliefs about scientiﬁc reasoning (2018) 9
- 54. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism qua middle position
- 55. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism qua middle position Contrary to constructivism, the mainstream antirealism position, perspectivism argues that a model M could ﬁt a target system T, but only given a scientiﬁc perspective (SP). 10
- 56. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism qua middle position Contrary to constructivism, the mainstream antirealism position, perspectivism argues that a model M could ﬁt a target system T, but only given a scientiﬁc perspective (SP). Giere 2013, p. 53: “[. . . ] some claims generated by scientiﬁc practice are claims about the world and not [. . . ] about beliefs about the world” 10
- 57. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism qua middle position Contrary to constructivism, the mainstream antirealism position, perspectivism argues that a model M could ﬁt a target system T, but only given a scientiﬁc perspective (SP). Giere 2013, p. 53: “[. . . ] some claims generated by scientiﬁc practice are claims about the world and not [. . . ] about beliefs about the world” Giere 2006b, p. 63: “elements of the model can be identiﬁed or coordinated with features of the world” 10
- 58. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism qua middle position Contrary to constructivism, the mainstream antirealism position, perspectivism argues that a model M could ﬁt a target system T, but only given a scientiﬁc perspective (SP). Giere 2013, p. 53: “[. . . ] some claims generated by scientiﬁc practice are claims about the world and not [. . . ] about beliefs about the world” Giere 2006b, p. 63: “elements of the model can be identiﬁed or coordinated with features of the world” Massimi 2012, p. 48: There are facts of the matter that make our beliefs about nature either true or false, and these facts of the matter are not perspectival or context-dependent”. 10
- 59. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Looming questions 11
- 60. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Looming questions Are relations among perspectives independent of the relations among theories, stances, paradigms, etc.? 11
- 61. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Looming questions Are relations among perspectives independent of the relations among theories, stances, paradigms, etc.? Can multiple perspectives be integrated in a single model? 11
- 62. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Looming questions Are relations among perspectives independent of the relations among theories, stances, paradigms, etc.? Can multiple perspectives be integrated in a single model? How can diﬀerent perspectives be used to assess the success of models?
- 63. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Looming questions Are relations among perspectives independent of the relations among theories, stances, paradigms, etc.? Can multiple perspectives be integrated in a single model? How can diﬀerent perspectives be used to assess the success of models? We claim that these questions can be addressed once we adopt the functionalist and probabilistic stance towards perspectives
- 64. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Outline 1 Perspectivism as realism 2 DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Perspectives and mapping K in DEKI 3 Functionalism & Bayesianism Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability 4 Sketch of two case studies 5 Finale 12
- 65. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Models and representations 13
- 66. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Models and representations Model representationalism: The main function of a model M is to represent ‘as accurate as possible’ a target T.
- 67. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Models and representations Model representationalism: The main function of a model M is to represent ‘as accurate as possible’ a target T. Model perspectivism: A model’s ( M) function of representing a target T depends always and fundamentally on a scientiﬁc perspective SP1 (and, possibly, on multiple perspectives SP2, SP3,. . . ). 13
- 68. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Models and representations Model representationalism: The main function of a model M is to represent ‘as accurate as possible’ a target T. Model perspectivism: A model’s ( M) function of representing a target T depends always and fundamentally on a scientiﬁc perspective SP1 (and, possibly, on multiple perspectives SP2, SP3,. . . ). This explains the incompatibility among models because incompatible representations are created by incompatible perspectives 13
- 69. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale DEKI (Frigg and Nguyen 2016, 2017, 2018) 14
- 70. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale DEKI (Frigg and Nguyen 2016, 2017, 2018) The relation between M and T is not as simple as the relation between a symbol and the object represented by it. 14
- 71. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale DEKI (Frigg and Nguyen 2016, 2017, 2018) The relation between M and T is not as simple as the relation between a symbol and the object represented by it. They use four relations of representation, and representation-as rather than direct representation 14
- 72. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale DEKI (Frigg and Nguyen 2016, 2017, 2018) The relation between M and T is not as simple as the relation between a symbol and the object represented by it. They use four relations of representation, and representation-as rather than direct representation Frigg and Nguyen suggest that M is a scientiﬁc representation of T if all these are realized: 14
- 73. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale The DEKI representational function R of M
- 74. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale The DEKI representational function R of M R is a multiplet R = M, T, I, Z, D, E/I, K, IMP that includes: entities with properties (a)-(c) below; an interpretation (d); M=objects+interpretations (e); and reference functions (f)-(i): (a) The system T with a set of properties P; (b) Object o with properties O= O1, O2 . . . ; (c) A z entity with a set of Z properties; (d) Interpretation I mapping O as Z; (e) Model M composed of o and I: M = o, I ; (f) A denotation relation from M to T; (g) ‘Exempliﬁcation-through-interpretation (E/I) relation between M and some Z; (h) Key K as map {P1, . . . Pn} → {Q1, . . . Qm}; (i) Imputation IMP = {Q1, . . . Qm} → T. 15
- 75. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale DEKI (continued) 16
- 76. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale DEKI (continued) 16
- 77. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Outline 1 Perspectivism as realism 2 DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Perspectives and mapping K in DEKI 3 Functionalism & Bayesianism Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability 4 Sketch of two case studies 5 Finale 17
- 78. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models 18
- 79. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives 18
- 80. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. 18
- 81. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in:
- 82. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in: Model-building
- 83. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model
- 84. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model This can put a new spin on:
- 85. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model This can put a new spin on: The problem of inconsistent models
- 86. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model This can put a new spin on: The problem of inconsistent models The idea of realism about models as in Morrison 2011, Massimi, 2018)
- 87. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives in models The ideas of context, framework, norm, or paradigm, albeit useful, can add ambiguity when use to delineate perspectives Perspectives are beliefs about the strategies and choices of agent A in representing the world: how to insert laws of nature, scales, our epistemic limitations, technologies, norms, etc. into models; and about modeling schemas and how to assess models. We identify perspective as a selective function in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model This can put a new spin on: The problem of inconsistent models The idea of realism about models as in Morrison 2011, Massimi, 2018) The presence of multiple perspectives in one model
- 88. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors 19
- 89. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: 19
- 90. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building 19
- 91. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model 19
- 92. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model In DEKI, we have several options of perspectives as selectors:
- 93. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model In DEKI, we have several options of perspectives as selectors: Choice of object o or the set of properties O = O1, O2 . . . .
- 94. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model In DEKI, we have several options of perspectives as selectors: Choice of object o or the set of properties O = O1, O2 . . . . Choice of z or choice of properties Z = Z1, Z2 . . . .
- 95. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model In DEKI, we have several options of perspectives as selectors: Choice of object o or the set of properties O = O1, O2 . . . . Choice of z or choice of properties Z = Z1, Z2 . . . . Choice of interpretation I
- 96. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model In DEKI, we have several options of perspectives as selectors: Choice of object o or the set of properties O = O1, O2 . . . . Choice of z or choice of properties Z = Z1, Z2 . . . . Choice of interpretation I Choice of functions D, E, K or I
- 97. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors We identify perspectives as selectors in: Model-building Improving accuracy, as part of the success of a model In DEKI, we have several options of perspectives as selectors: Choice of object o or the set of properties O = O1, O2 . . . . Choice of z or choice of properties Z = Z1, Z2 . . . . Choice of interpretation I Choice of functions D, E, K or I We opt here for K, the mapping function. Why is it the best candidate?
- 98. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI 20
- 99. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc.
- 100. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K
- 101. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective.
- 102. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective. In the functionalist interpretation, the model is the multiplet R, that includes K as a function.
- 103. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective. In the functionalist interpretation, the model is the multiplet R, that includes K as a function. As K changes, so does R.
- 104. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective. In the functionalist interpretation, the model is the multiplet R, that includes K as a function. As K changes, so does R. After a perspective is applied to R0, the new function is changed to R1. 20
- 105. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective. In the functionalist interpretation, the model is the multiplet R, that includes K as a function. As K changes, so does R. After a perspective is applied to R0, the new function is changed to R1. A SP can act as an extender if K1 ⊃ K0, call it SPe 20
- 106. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective. In the functionalist interpretation, the model is the multiplet R, that includes K as a function. As K changes, so does R. After a perspective is applied to R0, the new function is changed to R1. A SP can act as an extender if K1 ⊃ K0, call it SPe A SP can act as a restrictor if K0 ⊃ K1, call it SPr 20
- 107. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Two types of SP in DEKI K is a function that relates properties of the interpreted model M = P1, P2 . . . into properties of T = Q1, Q2 . . . etc. A SP creates a preferred system of properties ˆP and ˆQ that are mapped through K Models can be changed by a new perspective. In the functionalist interpretation, the model is the multiplet R, that includes K as a function. As K changes, so does R. After a perspective is applied to R0, the new function is changed to R1. A SP can act as an extender if K1 ⊃ K0, call it SPe A SP can act as a restrictor if K0 ⊃ K1, call it SPr 20
- 108. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors
- 109. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors They are both modeling schemas (Teller) and standards (Massimi)
- 110. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors They are both modeling schemas (Teller) and standards (Massimi) They can be easily imported from one class of models to another class of models.
- 111. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors They are both modeling schemas (Teller) and standards (Massimi) They can be easily imported from one class of models to another class of models. They illustrate well why perspectivism when applied to models is a close relative to scientiﬁc realism.
- 112. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors They are both modeling schemas (Teller) and standards (Massimi) They can be easily imported from one class of models to another class of models. They illustrate well why perspectivism when applied to models is a close relative to scientiﬁc realism. In DEKI a model is just the pair M = o, I
- 113. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors They are both modeling schemas (Teller) and standards (Massimi) They can be easily imported from one class of models to another class of models. They illustrate well why perspectivism when applied to models is a close relative to scientiﬁc realism. In DEKI a model is just the pair M = o, I In the functionalist interpretation, models are rather R
- 114. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability SP as selectors They are both modeling schemas (Teller) and standards (Massimi) They can be easily imported from one class of models to another class of models. They illustrate well why perspectivism when applied to models is a close relative to scientiﬁc realism. In DEKI a model is just the pair M = o, I In the functionalist interpretation, models are rather R Changing K can—in principle—create a new, and potentially a more accurate model.
- 115. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis 22
- 116. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” 22
- 117. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” A mapping hypothesis about a model M has epistemic value (similar to uniﬁcation, simplicity, strength, fruitfulness, etc. ). 22
- 118. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” A mapping hypothesis about a model M has epistemic value (similar to uniﬁcation, simplicity, strength, fruitfulness, etc. ). A good mapping helps agent A learn new properties of T from M by extending the known relations between P and Q. Incomplete or erroneous mapping will distort existing knowledge of T. 22
- 119. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” A mapping hypothesis about a model M has epistemic value (similar to uniﬁcation, simplicity, strength, fruitfulness, etc. ). A good mapping helps agent A learn new properties of T from M by extending the known relations between P and Q. Incomplete or erroneous mapping will distort existing knowledge of T. Then we can integrate probabilities in the semantic view of models with the perspectivism 22
- 120. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” A mapping hypothesis about a model M has epistemic value (similar to uniﬁcation, simplicity, strength, fruitfulness, etc. ). A good mapping helps agent A learn new properties of T from M by extending the known relations between P and Q. Incomplete or erroneous mapping will distort existing knowledge of T. Then we can integrate probabilities in the semantic view of models with the perspectivism As an early suggestion, see (Giere 2006, 89) 22
- 121. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” A mapping hypothesis about a model M has epistemic value (similar to uniﬁcation, simplicity, strength, fruitfulness, etc. ). A good mapping helps agent A learn new properties of T from M by extending the known relations between P and Q. Incomplete or erroneous mapping will distort existing knowledge of T. Then we can integrate probabilities in the semantic view of models with the perspectivism As an early suggestion, see (Giere 2006, 89) Or Weisberg’s idea of similarity between the model and the target (Weisberg 2012, 2013, chap. 8 esp. eq. 8.11). 22
- 122. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Mapping K as a scientiﬁc hypothesis We can think of K as a hypothesis about the relation between the observables of T and the properties of the model M, as in DEKI, a “representation-as” A mapping hypothesis about a model M has epistemic value (similar to uniﬁcation, simplicity, strength, fruitfulness, etc. ). A good mapping helps agent A learn new properties of T from M by extending the known relations between P and Q. Incomplete or erroneous mapping will distort existing knowledge of T. Then we can integrate probabilities in the semantic view of models with the perspectivism As an early suggestion, see (Giere 2006, 89) Or Weisberg’s idea of similarity between the model and the target (Weisberg 2012, 2013, chap. 8 esp. eq. 8.11). We can deﬁne the accuracy of a model, with a perspective 22
- 123. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Accuracy of a model with a perspective 23
- 124. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Accuracy of a model with a perspective Acc (M, T, SP) = p(K(P)⊃R|SP) p(K(P)⊃R|SP)+p(K(P)⊃ ∼R|SP)+p(∼K(P)⊃R|SP)+p(∼K(P)⊃∼R|SP) 23
- 125. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives, updates and Bayes
- 126. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives, updates and Bayes In this interpretation, the multiplet R changes its accuracy (see previous slides) as the result of the matching that map K produces—between the relevant properties R of T and the chosen properties P of the model.
- 127. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives, updates and Bayes In this interpretation, the multiplet R changes its accuracy (see previous slides) as the result of the matching that map K produces—between the relevant properties R of T and the chosen properties P of the model. We can see that in a Bayesian approach, the model is “updated” based on the perspective SP that makes it more (or less) accurate
- 128. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives, updates and Bayes In this interpretation, the multiplet R changes its accuracy (see previous slides) as the result of the matching that map K produces—between the relevant properties R of T and the chosen properties P of the model. We can see that in a Bayesian approach, the model is “updated” based on the perspective SP that makes it more (or less) accurate We can in principle apply Bayes theorem here: p(SP|M, T) = p(M, T|SP)p(M, T) p(SP)
- 129. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives, updates and Bayes In this interpretation, the multiplet R changes its accuracy (see previous slides) as the result of the matching that map K produces—between the relevant properties R of T and the chosen properties P of the model. We can see that in a Bayesian approach, the model is “updated” based on the perspective SP that makes it more (or less) accurate We can in principle apply Bayes theorem here: p(SP|M, T) = p(M, T|SP)p(M, T) p(SP) We can evaluate the chance of a SP on classes of pairs of models and targets
- 130. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives, updates and Bayes In this interpretation, the multiplet R changes its accuracy (see previous slides) as the result of the matching that map K produces—between the relevant properties R of T and the chosen properties P of the model. We can see that in a Bayesian approach, the model is “updated” based on the perspective SP that makes it more (or less) accurate We can in principle apply Bayes theorem here: p(SP|M, T) = p(M, T|SP)p(M, T) p(SP) We can evaluate the chance of a SP on classes of pairs of models and targets This is work in progress, suggestions are more than welcome!
- 131. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectival convergence 25
- 132. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectival convergence Often a claim made in one perspective/theory can be used in a context governed by a diﬀerent perspective. Perspectives can be combined, but “[m]ultiplying perspectives does not eliminate perspectives” (Giere 2006, 92).
- 133. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectival convergence Often a claim made in one perspective/theory can be used in a context governed by a diﬀerent perspective. Perspectives can be combined, but “[m]ultiplying perspectives does not eliminate perspectives” (Giere 2006, 92). Perspectival Convergence: A set of perspectives SP1, Sp2 . . . is convergent when the series: Acc (M, T, SP1) , Acc (M, T, SP2) , Acc (M, T, SP3) . . . is weakly convergent diachronically.
- 134. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectival convergence Often a claim made in one perspective/theory can be used in a context governed by a diﬀerent perspective. Perspectives can be combined, but “[m]ultiplying perspectives does not eliminate perspectives” (Giere 2006, 92). Perspectival Convergence: A set of perspectives SP1, Sp2 . . . is convergent when the series: Acc (M, T, SP1) , Acc (M, T, SP2) , Acc (M, T, SP3) . . . is weakly convergent diachronically. We can also test models with a perspective to see whether their accuracy improves. 25
- 135. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence
- 136. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence History of science illustrates these cases of convergence, as well as divergence of perspectives. 26
- 137. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence History of science illustrates these cases of convergence, as well as divergence of perspectives. Exploring diﬀerent mapping creates the possibility of convergence. That is why models (in fact the multiplet R should be explored and probed with perspectives 26
- 138. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence History of science illustrates these cases of convergence, as well as divergence of perspectives. Exploring diﬀerent mapping creates the possibility of convergence. That is why models (in fact the multiplet R should be explored and probed with perspectives Scientists start with a rich sets P and Z and reduce them. 26
- 139. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence History of science illustrates these cases of convergence, as well as divergence of perspectives. Exploring diﬀerent mapping creates the possibility of convergence. That is why models (in fact the multiplet R should be explored and probed with perspectives Scientists start with a rich sets P and Z and reduce them. Sometimes we start with a restricted P and extend to through a perspective. 26
- 140. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence History of science illustrates these cases of convergence, as well as divergence of perspectives. Exploring diﬀerent mapping creates the possibility of convergence. That is why models (in fact the multiplet R should be explored and probed with perspectives Scientists start with a rich sets P and Z and reduce them. Sometimes we start with a restricted P and extend to through a perspective. Again, a perspective decides what maps from our representation-as of a target system, onto the target system 26
- 141. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Perspectives as selectors and convergence History of science illustrates these cases of convergence, as well as divergence of perspectives. Exploring diﬀerent mapping creates the possibility of convergence. That is why models (in fact the multiplet R should be explored and probed with perspectives Scientists start with a rich sets P and Z and reduce them. Sometimes we start with a restricted P and extend to through a perspective. Again, a perspective decides what maps from our representation-as of a target system, onto the target system 26
- 142. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Stability of perspectives, given a class of models
- 143. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Stability of perspectives, given a class of models Massimi: perspectives are more stable than one may think
- 144. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Stability of perspectives, given a class of models Massimi: perspectives are more stable than one may think They are constitutive of scientiﬁc inquiry, “fairy stable across theory change” and across “historically and intellectually situated scientiﬁc perspectives.” (Massimi 2018b, p. 154).
- 145. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Stability of perspectives, given a class of models Massimi: perspectives are more stable than one may think They are constitutive of scientiﬁc inquiry, “fairy stable across theory change” and across “historically and intellectually situated scientiﬁc perspectives.” (Massimi 2018b, p. 154). Perspectival stability: A perspective SP 1 is more stable than SP 2 iﬀ when applied to a class of models M = M1 . . . Mn . . ., it improves their accuracy statistically (on a given statistical criterion) compared to SP 2 applied to M. 27
- 146. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability Stability of perspectives, given a class of models Massimi: perspectives are more stable than one may think They are constitutive of scientiﬁc inquiry, “fairy stable across theory change” and across “historically and intellectually situated scientiﬁc perspectives.” (Massimi 2018b, p. 154). Perspectival stability: A perspective SP 1 is more stable than SP 2 iﬀ when applied to a class of models M = M1 . . . Mn . . ., it improves their accuracy statistically (on a given statistical criterion) compared to SP 2 applied to M. This is work in progress! 27
- 147. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Outline 1 Perspectivism as realism 2 DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Perspectives and mapping K in DEKI 3 Functionalism & Bayesianism Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability 4 Sketch of two case studies 5 Finale 28
- 148. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism in Yang-Mills gauge theories
- 149. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism in Yang-Mills gauge theories Yang-Mills theories as gauge theories with redundancies illustrate the point about the functional approach to perspectives
- 150. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism in Yang-Mills gauge theories Yang-Mills theories as gauge theories with redundancies illustrate the point about the functional approach to perspectives At a local level, a theory whose models contains some gauge ﬁelds (O1, O2) is ‘empirically equivalent’ to a theory that does not use these ﬁelds but employs only gauge equivalence classes of these ﬁelds (Earman 2002; Healey 2007; Belot et al. 2009).
- 151. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism in Yang-Mills gauge theories Yang-Mills theories as gauge theories with redundancies illustrate the point about the functional approach to perspectives At a local level, a theory whose models contains some gauge ﬁelds (O1, O2) is ‘empirically equivalent’ to a theory that does not use these ﬁelds but employs only gauge equivalence classes of these ﬁelds (Earman 2002; Healey 2007; Belot et al. 2009). A perspective reduces the number of gauge ﬁelds as surplus, and blocks them from being interpreted and represented-as Z properties, or mapped to any of the Q.
- 152. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Perspectivism in Yang-Mills gauge theories Yang-Mills theories as gauge theories with redundancies illustrate the point about the functional approach to perspectives At a local level, a theory whose models contains some gauge ﬁelds (O1, O2) is ‘empirically equivalent’ to a theory that does not use these ﬁelds but employs only gauge equivalence classes of these ﬁelds (Earman 2002; Healey 2007; Belot et al. 2009). A perspective reduces the number of gauge ﬁelds as surplus, and blocks them from being interpreted and represented-as Z properties, or mapped to any of the Q. For each model: electromagnetism, weak interaction, strong interaction, a diﬀerent SP selects, on the same model, diﬀerent Ks: KEM, or KWZ or Kgluons 29
- 153. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Supersymmetry and perspectives
- 154. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Supersymmetry and perspectives One can see how supersymmetry (SUSY) qualiﬁes as a perspective and it is applied constantly to diﬀerent models in particle physics 30
- 155. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Supersymmetry and perspectives One can see how supersymmetry (SUSY) qualiﬁes as a perspective and it is applied constantly to diﬀerent models in particle physics The desire is to see if it changes the explanatory or predictive success of diﬀerent models in diﬀerent contexts.
- 156. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Supersymmetry and perspectives One can see how supersymmetry (SUSY) qualiﬁes as a perspective and it is applied constantly to diﬀerent models in particle physics The desire is to see if it changes the explanatory or predictive success of diﬀerent models in diﬀerent contexts. Massimi thinks of these models as exploratory. (Massimi 2018, 2019)
- 157. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Supersymmetry and perspectives One can see how supersymmetry (SUSY) qualiﬁes as a perspective and it is applied constantly to diﬀerent models in particle physics The desire is to see if it changes the explanatory or predictive success of diﬀerent models in diﬀerent contexts. Massimi thinks of these models as exploratory. (Massimi 2018, 2019) In the current approach, we are more interested in the probability that a model is more accurate, given a set of data, when the SUSY applies to it.
- 158. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Outline 1 Perspectivism as realism 2 DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Perspectives and mapping K in DEKI 3 Functionalism & Bayesianism Functionalism and perspectivism Probabilities and accuracy Convergence and stability 4 Sketch of two case studies 5 Finale 31
- 159. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections 32
- 160. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections:
- 161. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections: As any Bayesian approach, this one is prone to the “priors” problem
- 162. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections: As any Bayesian approach, this one is prone to the “priors” problem We can imagine a refutation based on the idea that we lack individuality of perspectives here: many perspectives can fulﬁll the same function in one model
- 163. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections: As any Bayesian approach, this one is prone to the “priors” problem We can imagine a refutation based on the idea that we lack individuality of perspectives here: many perspectives can fulﬁll the same function in one model Insensitivity to the change in data: ˆQ can change! 32
- 164. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections: As any Bayesian approach, this one is prone to the “priors” problem We can imagine a refutation based on the idea that we lack individuality of perspectives here: many perspectives can fulﬁll the same function in one model Insensitivity to the change in data: ˆQ can change! Model representationalism is not the only criterion of success 32
- 165. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections: As any Bayesian approach, this one is prone to the “priors” problem We can imagine a refutation based on the idea that we lack individuality of perspectives here: many perspectives can fulﬁll the same function in one model Insensitivity to the change in data: ˆQ can change! Model representationalism is not the only criterion of success Accuracy is not the only epistemic virtue of models 32
- 166. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Objections We can anticipate, but we do not address here, a number of objections: As any Bayesian approach, this one is prone to the “priors” problem We can imagine a refutation based on the idea that we lack individuality of perspectives here: many perspectives can fulﬁll the same function in one model Insensitivity to the change in data: ˆQ can change! Model representationalism is not the only criterion of success Accuracy is not the only epistemic virtue of models 32
- 167. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Conclusion 33
- 168. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Conclusion We open a path of thinking about perspectives and models which is desirable because:
- 169. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Conclusion We open a path of thinking about perspectives and models which is desirable because: It can explain better the functional role of perspectives
- 170. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Conclusion We open a path of thinking about perspectives and models which is desirable because: It can explain better the functional role of perspectives It makes more sense of perspectives as probabilistic matching between a model and a target system
- 171. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale Conclusion We open a path of thinking about perspectives and models which is desirable because: It can explain better the functional role of perspectives It makes more sense of perspectives as probabilistic matching between a model and a target system
- 172. Perspectivism as realism DEKI: models, mappings, and perspectives Functionalism & Bayesianism Sketch of two case studies Finale End Thank You! Paper and reference list available by request: imuntean@unca.edu 34