SEO ManualIntroduction to seo  This document is intended for webmasters and site owners who want toinvestigate the issues ...
Such link directories have been used extensively in the past, but nowadaysthey have lost much of their popularity. The rea...
Specific implementations of search mechanisms may differ. For example,the Spider+Crawler+Indexer component group might be ...
Indexer – It is a program that analyzes web pages downloaded by the spider and thecrawler. . This component parses each pa...
Google Dance:-Approximately once a month, Google updates their index by recalculatingthe Page Ranks of each of the web pag...
 The Google crawler will not recognize text hidden in the images, so    when describing important names, keywords or link...
Step By Step Page Optimization:-Starting at the top of your index/home page something like this:(After your logo or header...
the other site sections as simply a link to another index that lists them all.You could call it Entertainment, Miscellaneo...
Types of Search Engine OptimizationThere were two types of search engine optimization.1 .Onpage Optimization2 .Offpage Opt...
(1) Content OptimizationThis is a tough one, because you should of course concentrate on your userand easy readability, bu...
(3) META-TagsMETA-Tags are not as important any more as they used to be. Thatbasically because people started using them t...
(5) «ALT» attributes in images:-«ALT» attributes are used to describe text-links and images. It is not onlyfor search engi...
quality links from established sites is an absolute must for any webmasterwho is serious about developing his online busin...
content of your site in the interest of seo. The optimum page size is500-3000 words (or 2000 to 20,000 characters).  Searc...
1.4 Location of keywords on a page  A very short rule for seo experts – the closer a keyword or keywordphrase is to the be...
Any page image has a special optional attribute known as "alternativetext.” It is specified using the HTML «ALT» tag. This...
The general seo rule is: the more, the better. Increasing the number ofpages on your website increases the visibility of t...
3.1 Graphic header   Very often sites are designed with a graphic header. Often, we see animage of the company logo occupy...
the search robot comes to such a site, it will get a new session identifierand will consider the pages as new ones wheneve...
to achieve high search ranking but containing no useful information. Forthis reason, an analysis of inbound links to the p...
The link text of any inbound site link is vitally important in search resultranking. The anchor (or link) text is the text...
The PageRank of a specified web page is thus defined as the probabilitythat a user may visit the web page. It follows that...
with low page ranks, they will mean very little to your page rank, whereaseven a few links from other sites with good page...
logarithmic scale as shown in this table       Real PR                       ToolBar PR       1-10                        ...
On the Internet, many directories contain links to other networkresources grouped by topics. The process of adding your si...
engines. This useful seo option is available to everyone and does notrequire a lot of time and expense, so do not overlook...
7.3 Link exchange   The essence of link exchanges is that you use a special page to publishlinks to other sites and get si...
7.4 Press releases, news feeds, thematic resources   This section is about site marketing rather than pure seo. There arem...
recommended. Get some inbound links to your site and just wait until therobot visits it. This may actually be quicker than...
Choosing keywords should be your first step when constructing a site.You should have the keyword list available to incorpo...
frequent and rare search queries that should be taken into account – raresearch queries may provide you with less visitors...
4. Refining your keyword phrases  As mentioned above, search engine services often give inaccuratekeyword information. Thi...
will increase the chances for the page get to the top of search engine listsfor particular phrases.White hat versus black ...
"Robots.txt" is a regular text file that through its name, has specialmeaning to the majority of "honorable" robots on the...
resources based on free or ISP-based hosting, but any attempt to create acommercial project without your own domain is doo...
not be able to change the hosting service of your project, or you couldeven be forced to buy out your own domain at a prem...
node. Back links are also known as incoming links, inbound links, inlinks,and inward links.An inbound links send visitors ...
you can approach other sites personally, and where they can approach youpersonally.Do not join any link farms!!! Link farm...
from site visitors. This can be a large risk if a site is facing high customeracquisition costs.Proponents argue that prov...
Site changes - Lists changed pages or new pages
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Seo Manual

  1. 1. SEO ManualIntroduction to seo This document is intended for webmasters and site owners who want toinvestigate the issues of seo (search engine optimization) and promotion oftheir resources. It is mainly aimed at beginners, although I hope thatexperienced webmasters will also find something new and interesting here.There are many articles on seo on the Internet and this text is an attemptto gather some of this information into a single consistent document.Search Engine Optimization or SEO is simply the act of manipulating thepages of your website to be easily accessible by search engine spiders sothey can be easily spidered and indexed. Information presented in this text can be divided into several parts: - Clear-cut seo recommendations, practical guidelines. - Theoretical information that we think any seo specialist should know. - Seo tips, observations, recommendations from experience, other seosources, etc.General seo informationHistory of search engines In the early days of Internet development, its users were a privilegedminority and the amount of available information was relatively small.Access was mainly restricted to employees of various universities andlaboratories who used it to access scientific information. In those days, theproblem of finding information on the Internet was not nearly as critical asit is now. Site directories were one of the first methods used to facilitate access toinformation resources on the network. Links to these resources weregrouped by topic. Yahoo was the first project of this kind opened in April1994. As the number of sites in the Yahoo directory inexorably increased,the developers of Yahoo made the directory searchable. Of course, it wasnot a search engine in its true form because searching was limited to thoseresources who’s listings were put into the directory. It did not actively seekout resources and the concept of seo was yet to arrive.
  2. 2. Such link directories have been used extensively in the past, but nowadaysthey have lost much of their popularity. The reason is simple – evenmodern directories with lots of resources only provide information on a tinyfraction of the Internet. For example, the largest directory on the networkis currently DMOZ (or Open Directory Project). It contains information onabout five million resources. Compare this with the Google search enginedatabase containing more than eight billion documents. The WebCrawler project started in 1994 and was the first full-featuredsearch engine. The Lycos and AltaVista search engines appeared in 1995and for many years Alta Vista was the major player in this field. In 1997 Sergey Brin and Larry Page created Google as a research projectat Stanford University. Google is now the most popular search engine inthe world. Currently, there are three leading international search engines – Google,Yahoo and MSN Search. They each have their own databases and searchalgorithms. Many other search engines use results originating from thesethree major search engines and the same seo expertise can be applied toall of them. For example, the AOL search engine (search.aol.com) uses theGoogle database while AltaVista, Lycos and AllTheWeb all use the Yahoodatabase.Common search engine principles To understand seo you need to be aware of the architecture of searchengines. They all contain the following main components: Spider - a browser-like program that downloads web pages. Crawler – a program that automatically follows all of the links on eachweb page. Indexer - a program that analyzes web pages downloaded by the spiderand the crawler. Database– storage for downloaded and processed pages. Results engine – extracts search results from the database. Web server – a server that is responsible for interaction between theuser and other search engine components.
  3. 3. Specific implementations of search mechanisms may differ. For example,the Spider+Crawler+Indexer component group might be implemented as asingle program that downloads web pages, analyzes them and then usestheir links to find new resources. However, the components listed areinherent to all search engines and the seo principles are the same. Spider. This program downloads web pages just like a web browser. Thedifference is that a browser displays the information presented on eachpage (text, graphics, etc.) while a spider does not have any visualcomponents and works directly with the underlying HTML code of the page.You may already know that there is an option in standard web browsers toview source HTML code. Crawler. This program finds all links on each page. Its task is todetermine where the spider should go either by evaluating the links oraccording to a predefined list of addresses. The crawler follows these linksand tries to find documents not already known to the search engine. Indexer. This component parses each page and analyzes the variouselements, such as text, headers, structural or stylistic features, specialHTML tags, etc..Spider:-. This program downloads web pages just like a web browser. Thedifference is that a browser displays the information presented on eachpage (text, graphics, etc.) while a spider does not have any visualcomponents and works directly with the underlying HTML code of the page.You may already know that there is an option in standard web browsers toview source HTML code.A spider is a robot that search engines use to check millions of web pagesvery quickly and sort them by relevance. A page is indexed when it isspidered and deemed appropriate content to be placed in the searchengines results for people to click on.Crawler –. It is a program that automatically follows all of the links on each webpage This program finds all links on each page. Its task is to determinewhere the spider should go either by evaluating the links or according to apredefined list of addresses. The crawler follows these links and tries tofind documents not already known to the search engine.
  4. 4. Indexer – It is a program that analyzes web pages downloaded by the spider and thecrawler. . This component parses each page and analyzes the variouselements, such as text, headers, structural or stylistic features, specialHTML tags, etc.Database.This is the storage area for the data that the search engine downloads andanalyzes. Sometimes it is called the index of the search engine.Results Engine. The results engine ranks pages. It determines which pages best match ausers query and in what order the pages should be listed. This is doneaccording to the ranking algorithms of the search engine. It follows thatpage rank is a valuable and interesting property and any seo specialist ismost interested in it when trying to improve his site search results. In thisarticle, we will discuss the seo factors that influence page rank in somedetail.Web server. The search engine web server usually contains a HTMLpage with an input field where the user can specify the search query he orshe is interested in. The web server is also responsible for displayingsearch results to the user in the form of an HTML pageGoogle has a very simple 3-step procedure in handling aquery submitted in its search box:1. When the query is submitted and the enter key is pressed, the webserver sends the query to the index servers. Index server is exactly whatits 8 name suggests. It consists of an index much like the index of a bookwhich displays where is the particular page containing the queried term islocated in the entire book.2. After this, the query proceeds to the doc servers, and these serversactually retrieve the stored documents. Page descriptions or “snippets”are then generated to suitably describe each search result.3. These results are then returned to the user in less than a one second!(Normally.)
  5. 5. Google Dance:-Approximately once a month, Google updates their index by recalculatingthe Page Ranks of each of the web pages that they have crawled. Theperiod during the update is known as the Google dance.  Google has two other searchable servers apart from www.google.com. They are www2.google.com and www3.google.com. Most of the time, the results on all 3 servers are the same, but during the dance, they are different.Cloaking:-Sometimes, a webmaster might program the server in such a way that itreturns different content to Google than it returns to regular users, which isoften done to misrepresent search engine rankings. This process is referredto as cloaking as it conceals the actual website and returns distorted webpages to search engines crawling the site. This can mislead users aboutwhat theyll find when they click on a search result. Google highlydisapproves of any such practice and might place a ban on the websitewhich is found guilty of cloaking.Google GuidelinesHere are some of the important tips and tricks that can be employed whiledealing with Google.Do’s:-  A website should have crystal clear hierarchy and links and should preferably be easy to navigate.  A site map is required to help the users go around your site and in case the site map has more than 100 links, then it is advisable to break it into several pages to avoid clutter.  Come up with essential and precise keywords and make sure that your website features relevant and informative content.
  6. 6.  The Google crawler will not recognize text hidden in the images, so when describing important names, keywords or links; stick with plain text.  The TITLE and ALT tags should be descriptive and accurate and the website should have no broken links or incorrect HTML.  Dynamic pages (the URL consisting of a ‘?’ character) should be kept to a minimum as not every search engine spider is able to crawl them.  The robots.txt file on your web server should be current and should not block the Googlebot crawler. This file tells crawlers which directories can or cannot be crawled.Don’ts:-  When making a site, do not cheat your users, i.e. those people who will surf your website. Do not provide them with irrelevant content or present them with any fraudulent schemes.  Avoid tricks or link schemes designed to increase your sites ranking.  Do not employ hidden texts or hidden links.  Google frowns upon websites using cloaking technique. Hence, it is advisable to avoid that.  Automated queries should not be sent to Google.  Avoid stuffing pages with irrelevant words and content. Also dont create multiple pages, subdomains,or domains with significantly duplicate content.  Avoid "doorway" pages created just for search engines or other "cookie cutter" approaches such as affiliate programs with hardly any original content.
  7. 7. Step By Step Page Optimization:-Starting at the top of your index/home page something like this:(After your logo or header graphic)1) A heading tag that includes a keyword(s) or keyword phrases. Aheading tag is bigger and bolder text than normal body text, so a searchengine places more importance on it because you emphasize it.2) Heading sizes range from h1 - h6 with h1 being the largest text. If youlearn to use just a little Cascading Style Sheet code you can control thesize of your headings. You could set an h1 sized heading to be only slightlylarger than your normal text if you choose, and the search engine will stillsee it as an important heading.3) Next would be an introduction that describes your main theme. Thiswould include several of your top keywords and keyword phrases. Repeatyour top 1 or 2 keywords several times, include other keyword searchterms too, but make it read in sentences that makes sense to your visitors.4) A second paragraph could be added that got more specific using otherwords related to online education.5) Next you could put smaller heading.6) Then youd list the links to your pages, and ideally have a brief decisionof each link using keywords and keyword phrases in the text. You alsowant to have several pages of quality content to link to. Repeat thatprocedure for all your links that relate to your theme.7) Next you might include a closing, keyword laden paragraph. More is notnecessarily better when it comes to keywords, at least after a certain point.Writing "online education" fifty times across your page would probablyresult in you being caught for trying to cheat. Ideally,somewhere from 3% - 20% of your page text would be keywords. Thepercentage changes often and is different at each search engine. The 3-20rule is a general guideline, and you can go higher if it makes sense andisnt redundant.8) Finally, you can list your secondary content of book reviews,humor, andlinks. Skip the descriptions if they arent necessary, or they may waterdown your theme too much. If you must include descriptions for these non-theme related links, keep them short and sweet. You also might include all
  8. 8. the other site sections as simply a link to another index that lists them all.You could call it Entertainment, Miscellaneous, or whatever.These can be sub-indexes that can be optimized toward their own theme,which is the ideal way to go.Creating correct content:-The content of a site plays an important role in site promotion for manyreasons. We will describe some of them in this section. We will also giveyou some advice on how to populate your site with good content. - Content uniqueness. Search engines value new information that hasnot been published before. That is why you should compose own site textand not plagiarize excessively. A site based on materials taken from othersites is much less likely to get to the top in search engines. As a rule,original source material is always higher in search results. - While creating a site, remember that it is primarily created for humanvisitors, not search engines. Getting visitors to visit your site is only thefirst step and it is the easiest one. The truly difficult task is to make themstay on the site and convert them into purchasers. You can only do this byusing good content that is interesting to real people. - Try to update information on the site and add new pages on a regularbasis. Search engines value sites that are constantly developing. Also, themore useful text your site contains, the more visitors it attracts. Writearticles on the topic of your site, publish visitors opinions, create a forumfor discussing your project. A forum is only useful if the number of visitorsis sufficient for it to be active. Interesting and attractive contentguarantees that the site will attract interested visitors. - A site created for people rather than search engines has a betterchance of getting into important directories such as DMOZ and others. - An interesting site on a particular topic has much better chances to getlinks, comments, reviews, etc. from other sites on this topic. Such reviewscan give you a good flow of visitors while inbound links from suchresources will be highly valued by search engines.
  9. 9. Types of Search Engine OptimizationThere were two types of search engine optimization.1 .Onpage Optimization2 .Offpage Optimization1.on-page optimizationIn search engine optimization, on-page optimization refers to factors thathave an effect on your Web site or Web page listing in natural searchresults. These factors are controlled by you or by coding on your page.Examples of on-page optimization include actual HTML code, meta tags,keyword placement and keyword density.2.off-page optimizationIn search engine optimization, off-page optimization refers to factors thathave an effect on your Web site or Web page listing in natural searchresults. These factors are off-site in that they are not controlled by you orthe coding on your page. Examples of off-page optimization include thingssuch as link popularity and page rank.1.On-page Optimization Techniques:The most important On Page optimization techniques include contentoptimization, the title-tag, several META-Tags, headlines & text decoration,alt- and title-attributes and continuous actualization.
  10. 10. (1) Content OptimizationThis is a tough one, because you should of course concentrate on your userand easy readability, but you always have to have an eye on the searchengines as well. For your users clear what a certain page is about if writtenin the headline, but for search engines better to repeat the importantkeywords several times. So you have to strike the right balance:- Concentrate on your users firstThat what the website is about you don’t sell your products or services tosearch engines but to people. And if they don’t get what you are saying orfind it hard to read through your website they very likely hit the backbutton of their browser and visit your competition.- Then modify for search enginesIf you got your text together go over it again and try to get some morekeywords and phrases in where they fit and make sense. There is nocertain amount or percentage that is best, just make sure to just use thema couple of times. The best ways to avoid using them too often are to usedifferent words and phrases and to create some lists. Lists are always goodto bring in some keywords.(2) TITLE-TagThis is one of the most important tags for search engines. Make use of thisfact in your seo work. Keywords must be used in the TITLE tag. The link toyour site that is normally displayed in search results will contain textderived from the TITLE tag. It functions as a sort of virtual business cardfor your pages. Often, the TITLE tag text is the first information about yourwebsite that the user sees. This is why it should not only contain keywords,but also be informative and attractive. You want the searcher to betempted to click on your listed link and navigate to your website. As a rule,50-80 characters from the TITLE tag are displayed in search results and soyou should limit the size of the title to this length<title>Website title</title>It is displayed at the top of your browser and it is also used as the title ofyour website. Therefore you should take your time and think about thebest title for your page.Important aspects of the title-tag:- Give every page of your website its own title and don’t use one title forthe whole website.- It should contain no more than around 10-12 words.- Think of it as a short ad copy, because that basically it when users seethem.
  11. 11. (3) META-TagsMETA-Tags are not as important any more as they used to be. Thatbasically because people started using them to spam search engines “especially the keyword-tag was heavily used for that. Nevertheless thereare still some important META-Tags you should use<meta name= description content= />The description-tag is probably the most important META-Tag. It isdisplayed and you should select it as carefully as the title-tag.Important aspects of the description-tag:- Give every page of your website its own description and don’t use onedescription for the whole website.- The description -tag is one of the few meta-tags that still positivelyinfluences your website’s ranking, so its good to use your most importantkeywords in it.- It should contain not more than around 25-30 words.- Think of it as a short ad copy, because that is basically it when users seethem. description-tags they find if you have an entry at the DMOZ. This isespecially helpful of you are not satisfied with the tags there, or you wantto change them. Everyone who ever had something to do with changes atthe DMOZ knows that we are not talking about days or weeks if it comes tohow long that can take.So if you use the NOODP-Tag you are basically telling the search enginesthat they must not use the DMOZ entry, but the tags that are currently onyour website.(4) Headlines & text decorationHeadlines shouldn’t only be used to structure your content and keep it easyto read, but also for SEO reasons. Search engines tend to give headlinesbetween <h1></h1>¦<h3></h3> tags more relevancy - <h1> being themost relevant headline.Just like the headlines also other text decorations can help search enginesidentify the most important party of your website. Use <strong> to marksome text where it is usefulEverything of course with an eye on your defined keywords and phrases.
  12. 12. (5) «ALT» attributes in images:-«ALT» attributes are used to describe text-links and images. It is not onlyfor search engine reasons you should use them, but also for accessibility.They are shown if you move the mouse over links and images. Besides, thealt-attribute is shown if the image is not (yet) loaded. Any page image hasa special optional attribute known as "alternative text.” It is specified usingthe HTML «ALT» tag. This text will be displayed if the browser fails todownload the image or if the browser image display is disabled. Searchengines save the value of image ALT attributes when they parse (index)pages, but do not use it to rank search results.(6) Keep it up-to-dateSearch engines always want new content, so feed them! Not only yourwebsite will grow automatically if you always add something to it, but alsosearch engines tend to spider your website more often if they always findsomething new.2. Offpage Optimization-Off-page optimization (off-page SEO) are strategies for search engineoptimization that are done off the pages of a website to maximize itsperformance in the search engines for target keywords related to the pagecontent. Examples of off-page optimization include linking, and placingkeywords within link anchor text. Methods of obtaining links can also beconsidered off-page optimization. These include:1.Public relations2.Article distribution3.Social networking via sites like Digg and Slashdot4.Link campaigns, such as asking complementary businesses to providelinks5.Directory listings6.Link exchanges7.Three-way linking8.One-way linking9.Blogging10.Forum posting11.Multiway linkingThe number 1 off page optimization technique is link building. Getting top
  13. 13. quality links from established sites is an absolute must for any webmasterwho is serious about developing his online business.Here are the top three ways of getting quality one way links:1. Article MarketingWriting articles related to your niche and sending them to hundreds of hightraffic article directories can rapidly increase your sites traffic and generatepermanent one way links that will improve rankings. Just remember towrite a good resource box and make sure you include a link back to yoursite, preferably with your main keyword as the link title.2. Linking servicesYou can always buy quality one way links if youre on a good budget andknow where to look. Trusted services can be easily found by doing a littleresearch on Google and reading user reviews and comments. Just dontbuy too many links at once or search engines may penalize you.3. Blog CommentsThis strategy can never get too old. You should always look to findinteresting blogs in your niche that are popular and make useful commentswhile leaving a link back to your site.Internal ranking factors Several factors influence the position of a site in the search results. Theycan be divided into external and internal ranking factors. Internal rankingfactors are those that are controlled by seo aware website owners (text,layout, etc.) and will be described next.1. Web page layout factors relevant to seo1.1 Amount of text on a pagethe number and quality of inbound links to a site. Citation index is a numericestimate of th A page consisting of just a few sentences is less likely toget to the top of a search engine list. Search engines favor sites that havea high information content. Generally, you should try to increase the text
  14. 14. content of your site in the interest of seo. The optimum page size is500-3000 words (or 2000 to 20,000 characters). Search engine visibility is increased as the amount of page text increasesdue to the increased likelihood of occasional and accidental search queriescausing it to be listed. This factor sometimes results in a large number ofvisitors.1.2 Number of keywords on a page Keywords must be used at least three to four times in the page text. Theupper limit depends on the overall page size – the larger the page, themore keyword repetitions can be made. Keyword phrases (wordcombinations consisting of several keywords) are worth a separatemention. The best seo results are observed when a keyword phrase is usedseveral times in the text with all keywords in the phrase arranged inexactly the same order. In addition, all of the words from the phraseshould be used separately several times in the remaining text. Thereshould also be some difference (dispersion) in the number of entries foreach of these repeated words. Let us take an example. Suppose we optimize a page for the phrase "seosoftware” (one of our seo keywords for this site) It would be good to usethe phrase “seo software” in the text 10 times, the word “seo” 7 timeselsewhere in the text and the word “software” 5 times. The numbers hereare for illustration only, but they show the general seo idea quite well.1.3 Keyword density and seo Keyword page density is a measure of the relative frequency of the wordin the text expressed as a percentage. For example, if a specific word isused 5 times on a page containing 100 words, the keyword density is 5%.If the density of a keyword is too low, the search engine will not pay muchattention to it. If the density is too high, the search engine may activate itsspam filter. If this happens, the page will be penalized and its position insearch listings will be deliberately lowered. The optimum value for keyword density is 5-7%. In the case of keywordphrases, you should calculate the total density of each of the individualkeywords comprising the phrases to make sure it is within the specifiedlimits. In practice, a keyword density of more than 7-8% does not seem tohave any negative seo consequences. However, it is not necessary and canreduce the legibility of the content from a user’s viewpoint.
  15. 15. 1.4 Location of keywords on a page A very short rule for seo experts – the closer a keyword or keywordphrase is to the beginning of a document, the more significant it becomesfor the search engine.1.5 Text format and seo Search engines pay special attention to page text that is highlighted orgiven special formatting. We recommend: - use keywords in headings. Headings are text highlighted with the «H»HTML tags. The «h1» and «h2» tags are most effective. Currently, the useof CSS allows you to redefine the appearance of text highlighted with thesetags. This means that «H» tags are used less than nowadays, but are stillvery important in seo work.; - Highlight keywords with bold fonts. Do not highlight the entire text!Just highlight each keyword two or three times on the page. Use the«strong» tag for highlighting instead of the more traditional «B» bold tag.1.6 «TITLE» tag This is one of the most important tags for search engines. Make use ofthis fact in your seo work. Keywords must be used in the TITLE tag. Thelink to your site that is normally displayed in search results will contain textderived from the TITLE tag. It functions as a sort of virtual business cardfor your pages. Often, the TITLE tag text is the first information about yourwebsite that the user sees. This is why it should not only contain keywords,but also be informative and attractive. You want the searcher to betempted to click on your listed link and navigate to your website. As a rule,50-80 characters from the TITLE tag are displayed in search results and soyou should limit the size of the title to this length.1.7 Keywords in links A simple seo rule – use keywords in the text of page links that refer toother pages on your site and to any external Internet resources. Keywordsin such links can slightly enhance page rank.1.8 «ALT» attributes in images
  16. 16. Any page image has a special optional attribute known as "alternativetext.” It is specified using the HTML «ALT» tag. This text will be displayed ifthe browser fails to download the image or if the browser image display isdisabled. Search engines save the value of image ALT attributes when theyparse (index) pages, but do not use it to rank search results. Currently, the Google search engine takes into account text in the ALTattributes of those images that are links to other pages. The ALT attributesof other images are ignored. There is no information regarding othersearch engines, but we can assume that the situation is similar. Weconsider that keywords can and should be used in ALT attributes, but thispractice is not vital for seo purposes.1.9 Description Meta tag This is used to specify page descriptions. It does not influence the seoranking process but it is very important. A lot of search engines (includingthe largest one – Google) display information from this tag in their searchresults if this tag is present on a page and if its content matches thecontent of the page and the search query. Experience has shown that a high position in search results does notalways guarantee large numbers of visitors. For example, if yourcompetitors search result description is more attractive than the one foryour site then search engine users may choose their resource instead ofyours. That is why it is important that your Description Meta tag text bebrief, but informative and attractive. It must also contain keywordsappropriate to the page. It is important that your Description Meta tag text bebrief, but informative and attractive. It must also contain keywords appropriateto the page.1.10 Keywords Meta tag This Meta tag was initially used to specify keywords for pages but it ishardly ever used by search engines now. It is often ignored in seo projects.However, it would be advisable to specify this tag just in case there is arevival in its use. The following rule must be observed for this tag: onlykeywords actually used in the page text must be added to it.2 Site structure2.1 Number of pages
  17. 17. The general seo rule is: the more, the better. Increasing the number ofpages on your website increases the visibility of the site to search engines.Also, if new information is being constantly added to the site, searchengines consider this as development and expansion of the site. This maygive additional advantages in ranking. You should periodically publish moreinformation on your site – news, press releases, articles, useful tips, etc.2.2 Navigation menu As a rule, any site has a navigation menu. Use keywords in menu links, itwill give additional seo significance to the pages to which the links refer.2.3 Keywords in page names Some seo experts consider that using keywords in the name of a HTMLpage file may have a positive effect on its search result position.2.4 Avoid subdirectories If there are not too many pages on your site (up to a couple of dozen), itis best to place them all in the root directory of your site. Search enginesconsider such pages to be more important than ones in subdirectories.2.5 One page – one keyword phrase For maximum seo try to optimize each page for its own keyword phrase.Sometimes you can choose two or three related phrases, but you shouldcertainly not try to optimize a page for 5-10 phrases at once. Such phraseswould probably produce no effect on page rank.2.6 Seo and the Main page Optimize the main page of your site (domain name, index.html) for wordcombinations that are most important. This page is most likely to get tothe top of search engine lists. My seo observations suggest that the mainpage may account for up to 30-40% percent of the total search traffic forsome sites3 Common seo mistakes
  18. 18. 3.1 Graphic header Very often sites are designed with a graphic header. Often, we see animage of the company logo occupying the full-page width. Do not do it! Theupper part of a page is a very valuable place where you should insert yourmost important keywords for best seo. In case of a graphic image, thatprime position is wasted since search engines can not make use of images.Sometimes you may come across completely absurd situations: the headercontains text information, but to make its appearance more attractive, it iscreated in the form of an image. The text in it cannot be indexed by searchengines and so it will not contribute toward the page rank. If you mustpresent a logo, the best way is to use a hybrid approach – place thegraphic logo at the top of each page and size it so that it does not occupyits entire width. Use a text header to make up the rest of the width.3.2 Graphic navigation menu The situation is similar to the previous one – internal links on your siteshould contain keywords, which will give an additional advantage in seoranking. If your navigation menu consists of graphic elements to make itmore attractive, search engines will not be able to index the text of itslinks. If it is not possible to avoid using a graphic menu, at least rememberto specify correct ALT attributes for all images.3.3 Script navigation Sometimes scripts are used for site navigation. As an seo worker, youshould understand that search engines cannot read or execute scripts.Thus, a link specified with the help of a script will not be available to thesearch engine, the search robot will not follow it and so parts of your sitewill not be indexed. If you use site navigation scripts then you mustprovide regular HTML duplicates to make them visible to everyone – yourhuman visitors and the search robots.3.4 Session identifier Some sites use session identifiers. This means that each visitor gets aunique parameter (&session_id=) when he or she arrives at the site. ThisID is added to the address of each page visited on the site. Session IDshelp site owners to collect useful statistics, including information aboutvisitors behavior. However, from the point of view of a search robot, apage with a new address is a brand new page. This means that, each time
  19. 19. the search robot comes to such a site, it will get a new session identifierand will consider the pages as new ones whenever it visits them. Search engines do have algorithms for consolidating mirrors and pageswith the same content. Sites with session IDs should, therefore, berecognized and indexed correctly. However, it is difficult to index such sitesand sometimes they may be indexed incorrectly, which has an adverseeffect on seo page ranking. If you are interested in seo for your site, Irecommend that you avoid session identifiers if possible.. 3.5 Redirects Redirects make site analysis more difficult for search robots, withresulting adverse effects on seo. Do not use redirects unless there is aclear reason for doing so.3.6 Hidden text, a deceptive seo method The last two issues are not really mistakes but deliberate attempts todeceive search engines using illicit seo methods. Hidden text (when thetext color coincides with the background color, for example) allows siteowners to cram a page with their desired keywords without affecting pagelogic or visual layout. Such text is invisible to human visitors but will beseen by search robots. The use of such deceptive optimization methodsmay result in banning of the site. It could be excluded from the index(database) of the search engine.3.7 One-pixel links, seo deception This is another deceptive seo technique. Search engines consider the useof tiny, almost invisible, graphic image links just one pixel wide and high asan attempt at deception, which may lead to a site ban.External ranking factors1.Why inbound links to sites are taken into account As you can see from the previous section, many factors influencing theranking process are under the control of webmasters. If these were theonly factors then it would be impossible for search engines to distinguishbetween a genuine high-quality document and a page created specifically
  20. 20. to achieve high search ranking but containing no useful information. Forthis reason, an analysis of inbound links to the page being evaluated is oneof the key factors in page ranking. This is the only factor that is notcontrolled by the site owner. It makes sense to assume that interesting sites will have more inboundlinks. This is because owners of other sites on the Internet will tend tohave published links to a site if they think it is a worthwhile resource. Thesearch engine will use this inbound link criterion in its evaluation ofdocument significance. Therefore, two main factors influence how pages are stored by thesearch engine and sorted for display in search results: - Relevance, as described in the previous section on internal rankingfactors. - Number and quality of inbound links, also known as link citation, linkpopularity or citation index. This will be described in the next section.2 Link importance (citation index, link popularity) You can easily see that simply counting the number of inboundlinks does not give us enough information to evaluate a site. It isobvious that a link from www.microsoft.com should mean muchmore than a link from some homepage likewww.hostingcompany.com/~myhomepage.html. You have to takeinto account link importance as well as number of links. Search engines use the notion of citation index to evaluate epopularity of a resource expressed as an absolute value representing pageimportance. Each search engine uses its own algorithms to estimate a pagecitation index. As a rule, these values are not published. As well as the absolute citation index value, a scaled citation index issometimes used. This relative value indicates the popularity of a pagerelative to the popularity of other pages on the Internet. You will find adetailed description of citation indexes and the algorithms used for theirestimation in the next sections.3 Link text (anchor text)
  21. 21. The link text of any inbound site link is vitally important in search resultranking. The anchor (or link) text is the text between the HTML tags «A»and «/A» and is displayed as the text that you click in a browser to go to anew page. If the link text contains appropriate keywords, the searchengine regards it as an additional and highly significant recommendationthat the site actually contains valuable information relevant to the searchquery.4 Relevance of referring pages As well as link text, search engines also take into account the overallinformation content of each referring page. Example: Suppose we are using seo to promote a car sales resource. Inthis case a link from a site about car repairs will have much moreimportance that a similar link from a site about gardening. The first link ispublished on a resource having a similar topic so it will be more importantfor search engines.5 Google PageRank – theoretical basics The Google company was the first company to patent the system oftaking into account inbound links. The algorithm was named PageRank. Inthis section, we will describe this algorithm and how it can influence searchresult ranking. PageRank is estimated separately for each web page and is determinedby the PageRank (citation) of other pages referring to it. It is a kind of“virtuous circle.” The main task is to find the criterion that determines pageimportance. In the case of PageRank, it is the possible frequency of visitsto a page. I shall now describe how user’s behavior when following links to surf thenetwork is modeled. It is assumed that the user starts viewing sites fromsome random page. Then he or she follows links to other web resources.There is always a possibility that the user may leave a site withoutfollowing any outbound link and start viewing documents from a randompage. The PageRank algorithm estimates the probability of this event as0.15 at each step. The probability that our user continues surfing byfollowing one of the links available on the current page is therefore 0.85,assuming that all links are equal in this case. If he or she continues surfingindefinitely, popular pages will be visited many more times than the lesspopular pages.
  22. 22. The PageRank of a specified web page is thus defined as the probabilitythat a user may visit the web page. It follows that, the sum of probabilitiesfor all existing web pages is exactly one because the user is assumed to bevisiting at least one Internet page at any given moment. Since it is not always convenient to work with these probabilities thePageRank can be mathematically transformed into a more easilyunderstood number for viewing. For instance, we are used to seeing aPageRank number between zero and ten on the Google Toolbar. According to the ranking model described above: - Each page on the Net (even if there are no inbound links to it) initiallyhas a PageRank greater than zero, although it will be very small. There is atiny chance that a user may accidentally navigate to it. - Each page that has outbound links distributes part of its PageRank tothe referenced page. The PageRank contributed to these linked-to pages isinversely proportional to the total number of links on the linked-from page– the more links it has, the lower the PageRank allocated to each linked-topage. - PageRank A “damping factor” is applied to this process so that the totaldistributed page rank is reduced by 15%. This is equivalent to theprobability, described above, that the user will not visit any of the linked-topages but will navigate to an unrelated website. Let us now see how this PageRank process might influence the process ofranking search results. We say “might” because the pure PageRankalgorithm just described has not been used in the Google algorithm forquite a while now. We will discuss a more current and sophisticated versionshortly. There is nothing difficult about the PageRank influence – after thesearch engine finds a number of relevant documents (using internal textcriteria), they can be sorted according to the PageRank since it would belogical to suppose that a document having a larger number of high-qualityinbound links contains the most valuable information. Thus, the PageRank algorithm "pushes up" those documents that aremost popular outside the search engine as well.6 Google PageRank – practical usePage rank is Googles way of measuring your rank in terms of links to yoursite from other sites, based on both quantity and quality. Google page rankvaries from 0 (terrible) to 10 (ideal). If you have lots of links from sites
  23. 23. with low page ranks, they will mean very little to your page rank, whereaseven a few links from other sites with good page ranks can make adifference. That doesnt mean you should cancel existing links -- they stillhave value.Your page rank is a good indicator of how your link campaign is going. Youwant to be at 5 or above. Here is a link to a free page rank tool that tellsyou any URLs page rank across all the Google data centers.Having a good page rank at Google is great, as it will help you place abovesimilar sites at Google (page rank is likely a strong part of the algorithmthat decides placement when other factors are equal). However, werecommend you track it primarily because the factors that Google tracks aspart of your page rank are universal. Improving your page rank willimprove your entire web presence, in addition to your placement atGoogle.As of October 2005, underhanded sites can now fake their page rank. So, ifa site with a page rank equal to or higher than yours contacts you abouttrading links, we recommend checking their page rank as part of yourstandard actions. Use this page rank fraud detection tool from SEOLogs. The tool works by telling you the correct page rank for the site thatyou input, so whatever it displays is the real page rank, regardless of whatdisplays when you browse to that site. Currently, PageRank is not used directly in the Google algorithm. This isto be expected since pure PageRank characterizes only the number and thequality of inbound links to a site, but it completely ignores the text of linksand the information content of referring pages. These factors are importantin page ranking and they are taken into account in later versions of thealgorithm. It is thought that the current Google ranking algorithm rankspages according to thematic PageRank. In other words, it emphasizes theimportance of links from pages with content related by similar topics orthemes. The exact details of this algorithm are known only to Googledevelopers. You can determine the PageRank value for any web page with the help ofthe Google ToolBar that shows a PageRank value within the range from 0to 10. It should be noted that the Google ToolBar does not show the exactPageRank probability value, but the PageRank range a particular site is in.Each range (from 0 to 10) is defined according to a logarithmic scale. Here is an example: each page has a real PageRank value known only toGoogle. To derive a displayed PageRank range for their ToolBar, they use a
  24. 24. logarithmic scale as shown in this table Real PR ToolBar PR 1-10 1 10-100 2 100-1000 3 1000-10.000 4Etc. This shows that the PageRank ranges displayed on the Google ToolBarare not all equal. It is easy, for example, to increase PageRank from one totwo, while it is much more difficult to increase it from six to seven. In practice, PageRank is mainly used for two purposes: 1. Quick check of the sites popularity. PageRank does not give exactinformation about referring pages, but it allows you to quickly and easilyget a feel for the sites popularity level and to follow trends that may resultfrom your seo work. You can use the following “Rule of thumb” measuresfor English language sites: PR 4-5 is typical for most sites with averagepopularity. PR 6 indicates a very popular site while PR 7 is almostunreachable for a regular webmaster. You should congratulate yourself ifyou manage to achieve it. PR 8, 9, 10 can only be achieved by the sites oflarge companies such as Microsoft, Google, etc. PageRank is also usefulwhen exchanging links and in similar situations. You can compare thequality of the pages offered in the exchange with pages from your own siteto decide if the exchange should be accepted. 2. Evaluation of the competitiveness level for a search query is a vitalpart of seo work. Although PageRank is not used directly in the rankingalgorithms, it allows you to indirectly evaluate relative site competitivenessfor a particular query. For example, if the search engine displays sites withPageRank 6-7 in the top search results, a site with PageRank 4 is not likelyto get to the top of the results list using the same search query. It is important to recognize that the PageRank values displayed on theGoogle ToolBar are recalculated only occasionally (every few months) sothe Google ToolBar displays somewhat outdated information. This meansthat the Google search engine tracks changes in inbound links much fasterthan these changes are reflected on the Google ToolBar.7 Increasing link popularity7.1 Submitting to general purpose directories
  25. 25. On the Internet, many directories contain links to other networkresources grouped by topics. The process of adding your site information tothem is called submission. Such directories can be paid or free of charge, they may require abacklink from your site or they may have no such requirement. Thenumber of visitors to these directories is not large so they will not send asignificant number to your site. However, search engines count links fromthese directories and this may enhance your sites search result placement. Important! Only those directories that publish a direct link to your siteare worthwhile from a seo point of view. Script driven directories arealmost useless. This point deserves a more detailed explanation. There aretwo methods for publishing a link. A direct link is published as a standardHTML construction («A href=...», etc.). Alternatively, links can bepublished with the help of various scripts, redirects and so on. Searchengines understand only those links that are specified directly in HTMLcode. That is why the seo value of a directory that does not publish a directlink to your site is close to zero. You should not submit your site to FFA (free-for-all) directories. Suchdirectories automatically publish links related to any search topic and areignored by search engines. The only thing an FFA directory entry will giveyou is an increase in spam sent to your published e-mail address. Actually,this is the main purpose of FFA directories. Be wary of promises from various programs and seo services that submityour resource to hundreds of thousands of search engines and directories.There are no more than a hundred or so genuinely useful directories on theNet – this is the number to take seriously and professional seo submissionservices work with this number of directories. If a seo service promisessubmissions to enormous numbers of resources, it simply means that thesubmission database mainly consists of FFA archives and other uselessresources. Give preference to manual or semiautomatic seo submission; do not relycompletely on automatic processes. Submitting sites under human controlis generally much more efficient than fully automatic submission. The valueof submitting a site to paid directories or publishing a backlink should beconsidered individually for each directory. In most cases, it does not makemuch sense, but there may be exceptions. Submitting sites to directories does not often result in a dramatic effecton site traffic, but it slightly increases the visibility of your site for search
  26. 26. engines. This useful seo option is available to everyone and does notrequire a lot of time and expense, so do not overlook it when promotingyour project.7.2 DMOZ directory The DMOZ directory (www.dmoz.org) or the Open Directory Project isthe largest directory on the Internet. There are many copies of the mainDMOZ site and so, if you submit your site to the DMOZ directory, you willget a valuable link from the directory itself as well as dozens of additionallinks from related resources. This means that the DMOZ directory is ofgreat value to a seo aware webmaster.The Open Directory Project (ODP),also known as Dmoz (from directory.mozilla.org, its original domainname), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Weblinks owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by acommunity of volunteer editors.ODP uses a hierarchical ontology scheme for organizing site listings.Listings on a similar topic are grouped into categories, which can theninclude smaller categories. It is not easy to get your site into the DMOZ directory; there is anelement of luck involved. Your site may appear in the directory a fewminutes after it has been submitted or it may take months to appear. If you submitted your site details correctly and in the appropriatecategory then it should eventually appear. If it does not appear after areasonable time then you can try contacting the editor of your categorywith a question about your request (the DMOZ site gives you suchopportunity). Of course, there are no guarantees, but it may help. DMOZdirectory submissions are free of charge for all sites, including commercialones. Here are my final recommendations regarding site submissions to DMOZ.Read all site requirements, descriptions, etc. to avoid violating thesubmission rules. Such a violation will most likely result in a refusal toconsider your request. Please remember, presence in the DMOZ directoryis desirable, but not obligatory. Do not despair if you fail to get into thisdirectory. It is possible to reach top positions in search results without thisdirectory – many sites do.
  27. 27. 7.3 Link exchange The essence of link exchanges is that you use a special page to publishlinks to other sites and get similar backlinks from them. Search engines donot like link exchanges because, in many cases, they distort search resultsand do not provide anything useful to Internet users. However, it is still aneffective way to increase link popularity if you observe several simple rules. - Exchange links with sites that are related by topic. Exchanging linkswith unrelated sites is ineffective and unpopular. - Before exchanging, make sure that your link will be published on a“good” page. This means that the page must have a reasonable PageRank(3-4 or higher is recommended), it must be available for indexing bysearch engines, the link must be direct, the total number of links on thepage must not exceed 50, and so on. - Do not create large link directories on your site. The idea of such adirectory seems attractive because it gives you an opportunity to exchangelinks with many sites on various topics. You will have a topic category foreach listed site. However, when trying to optimize your site you are lookingfor link quality rather than quantity and there are some potential pitfalls.No seo aware webmaster will publish a quality link to you if he receives aworthless link from your directory “link farm” in return. Generally, thePageRank of pages from such directories leaves a lot to be desired. Inaddition, search engines do not like these directories at all. There haveeven been cases where sites were banned for using such directories. - Use a separate page on the site for link exchanges. It must have areasonable PageRank and it must be indexed by search engines, etc. Donot publish more than 50 links on one page (otherwise search engines mayfail to take some of the links into account). This will help you to find otherseo aware partners for link exchanges. - Search engines try to track mutual links. That is why you should, ifpossible, publish backlinks on a domain/site other than the one you aretrying to promote. The best variant is when you promote the resourcesite1.com and publish backlinks on the resource site2.com. - Exchange links with caution. Webmasters who are not quite honest willoften remove your links from their resources after a while. Check yourbacklinks from time to time.
  28. 28. 7.4 Press releases, news feeds, thematic resources This section is about site marketing rather than pure seo. There aremany information resources and news feeds that publish press releasesand news on various topics. Such sites can supply you with direct visitorsand also increase your sites popularity. If you do not find it easy to createa press release or a piece of news, hire copywriters – they will help youfind or create something newsworthy. Look for resources that deal with similar topics to your own site. You mayfind many Internet projects that not in direct competition with you, butwhich share the same topic as your site. Try to approach the site owners.It is quite possible that they will be glad to publish information about yourproject. One final tip for obtaining inbound links – try to create slight variations inthe inbound link text. If all inbound links to your site have exactly thesame link text and there are many of them, the search engines may flag itas a spam attempt and penalize your site.Indexing a site Before a site appears in search results, a search engine must index it. Anindexed site will have been visited and analyzed by a search robot withrelevant information saved in the search engine database. If a page ispresent in the search engine index, it can be displayed in search resultsotherwise, the search engine cannot know anything about it and it cannotdisplay information from the page.. Most average sized sites (with dozens to hundreds of pages) are usuallyindexed correctly by search engines. However, you should remember thefollowing points when constructing your site. There are two ways to allow asearch engine to learn about a new site: - Submit the address of the site manually using a form associated withthe search engine, if available. In this case, you are the one who informsthe search engine about the new site and its address goes into the queuefor indexing. Only the main page of the site needs to be added, the searchrobot will find the rest of pages by following links. - Let the search robot find the site on its own. If there is at least oneinbound link to your resource from other indexed resources, the searchrobot will soon visit and index your site. In most cases, this method is
  29. 29. recommended. Get some inbound links to your site and just wait until therobot visits it. This may actually be quicker than manually adding it to thesubmission queue. Indexing a site typically takes from a few days to twoweeks depending on the search engine. The Google search engine is thequickest of the bunch. Try to make your site friendly to search robots by following these rules: - Try to make any page of your site reachable from the main page in notmore than three mouse clicks. If the structure of the site does not allowyou to do this, create a so-called site map that will allow this rule to beobserved. - Do not make common mistakes. Session identifiers make indexingmore difficult. If you use script navigation, make sure you duplicate theselinks with regular ones because search engines cannot read scripts (seemore details about these and other mistakes in section 2.3). - Remember that search engines index no more than the first 100-200KB of text on a page. Hence, the following rule – do not use pages withtext larger than 100 KB if you want them to be indexed completely. You can manage the behavior of search robots using the file robots.txt.This file allows you to explicitly permit or forbid them to index particularpages on your site. The databases of search engines are constantly being updated; recordsin them may change, disappear and reappear. That is why the number ofindexed pages on your site may sometimes vary. One of the most commonreasons for a page to disappear from indexes is server unavailability. Thismeans that the search robot could not access it at the time it wasattempting to index the site. After the server is restarted, the site shouldeventually reappear in the index. You should note that the more inbound links your site has, the morequickly it gets re-indexed. You can track the process of indexing your siteby analyzing server log files where all visits of search robots are logged.We will give details of seo software that allows you to track such visits in alater section.Choosing keywords1. Initially choosing keywords
  30. 30. Choosing keywords should be your first step when constructing a site.You should have the keyword list available to incorporate into your site textbefore you start composing it. To define your site keywords, you shoulduse seo services offered by search engines in the first instance. Sites suchas www.wordtracker.com and inventory.overture.com are good startingplaces for English language sites. Note that the data they provide maysometimes differ significantly from what keywords are actually the best foryour site. You should also note that the Google search engine does not giveinformation about frequency of search queries. After you have defined your approximate list of initial keywords, you cananalyze your competitor’s sites and try to find out what keywords they areusing. You may discover some further relevant keywords that are suitablefor your own site.2. Frequent and rare keywords There are two distinct strategies – optimize for a small number of highlypopular keywords or optimize for a large number of less popular words. Inpractice, both strategies are often combined. The disadvantage of keywords that attract frequent queries is that thecompetition rate is high for them. It is often not possible for a new site toget anywhere near the top of search result listings for these queries. For keywords associated with rare queries, it is often sufficient just tomention the necessary word combination on a web page or to performminimum text optimization. Under certain circumstances, rare queries cansupply quite a large amount of search traffic. The aim of most commercial sites is to sell some product or service or tomake money in some way from their visitors. This should be kept in mindduring your seo (search engine optimization) work and keyword selection.If you are optimizing a commercial site then you should try to attracttargeted visitors (those who are ready to pay for the offered product orservice) to your site rather than concentrating on sheer numbers ofvisitors. Example. The query “monitor” is much more popular and competitivethan the query “monitor Samsung 710N” (the exact name of the model).However, the second query is much more valuable for a seller of monitors.It is also easier to get traffic from it because its competition rate is low;there are not many other sites owned by sellers of Samsung 710Nmonitors. This example highlights another possible difference between
  31. 31. frequent and rare search queries that should be taken into account – raresearch queries may provide you with less visitors overall, but moretargeted visitors.3 .Evaluating the competition rates of search queries When you have finalized your keywords list, you should identify the corekeywords for which you will optimize your pages. A suggested techniquefor this follows. Rare queries are discarded at once (for the time being). In the previoussection, we described the usefulness of such rare queries but they do notrequire special optimization. They are likely to occur naturally in yourwebsite text. As a rule, the competition rate is very high for the most popular phrases.This is why you need to get a realistic idea of the competitiveness of yoursite. To evaluate the competition rate you should estimate a number ofparameters for the first 10 sites displayed in search results: - The average Page Rank of the pages in the search results. - The average number of links to these sites. Check this using a varietyof search engines. Additional parameters: - The number of pages on the Internet that contain the particular searchterm, the total number of search results for that search term. - The number of pages on the Internet that contain exact matches to thekeyword phrase. The search for the phrase is bracketed by quotationmarks to obtain this number. These additional parameters allow you to indirectly evaluate how difficultit will be to get your site near the top of the list for this particular phrase.As well as the parameters described, you can also check the number ofsites present in your search results in the main directories, such as DMOZand Yahoo. The analysis of the parameters mentioned above and their comparisonwith those of your own site will allow you to predict with reasonablecertainty the chances of getting your site to the top of the list for aparticular phrase. Having evaluated the competition rate for all of your keyword phrases, you can now select anumber of moderately popular key phrases with an acceptable competition rate, which you canuse to promote and optimize your site.
  32. 32. 4. Refining your keyword phrases As mentioned above, search engine services often give inaccuratekeyword information. This means that it is unusual to obtain an optimumset of site keywords at your first attempt. After your site is up and runningand you have carried out some initial promotion, you can obtain additionalkeyword statistics, which will facilitate some fine-tuning. For example, youwill be able to obtain the search results rating of your site for particularphrases and you will also have the number of visits to your site for thesephrases. With this information, you can clearly define the good and bad keywordphrases. Often there is no need to wait until your site gets near the top ofall search engines for the phrases you are evaluating – one or two searchengines are enough. Example. Suppose your site occupies first place in the Yahoo searchengine for a particular phrase. At the same time, this site is not yet listedin MSN, or Google search results for this phrase. However, if you know thepercentage of visits to your site from various search engines (for instance,Google – 70%, Yahoo – 20%, MSN search – 10%), you can predict theapproximate amount of traffic for this phrase from these other searchesengines and decide whether it is suitable. As well as detecting bad phrases, you may find some new good ones. Forexample, you may see that a keyword phrase you did not optimize yoursite for brings useful traffic despite the fact that your site is on the secondor third page in search results for this phrase. Using these methods, you will arrive at a new refined set of keywordphrases. You should now start reconstructing your site: Change the text toinclude more of the good phrases, create new pages for new phrases, etc. You can repeat this seo exercise several times and, after a while, you willhave an optimum set of key phrases for your site and considerablyincreased search traffic. Here are some more tips. According to statistics, the main page takes upto 30%-50% of all search traffic. It has the highest visibility in searchengines and it has the largest number of inbound links. That is why youshould optimize the main page of your site to match the most popular andcompetitive queries. Each site page should be optimized for one or twomain word combinations and, possibly for a number of rare queries. This
  33. 33. will increase the chances for the page get to the top of search engine listsfor particular phrases.White hat versus black hat techniques-SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques thatsearch engines recommend as part of good design, and those techniques ofwhich search engines do not approve. The search engines attempt tominimize the effect of the latter, among them spamdexing. Industrycommentators have classified these methods, and the practitioners whoemploy them, as either white hat SEO, or black hat SEO.[29] White hatstend to produce results that last a long time, whereas black hats anticipatethat their sites may eventually be banned either temporarily orpermanently once the search engines discover what they are doing.[30]. An SEO technique is considered white hat if it conforms to the searchengines guidelines and involves no deception.. White hat SEO is not justabout following guidelines, but is about ensuring that the content a searchengine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see.White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users, notfor search engines, and then making that content easily accessible to thespiders, rather than attempting to trick the algorithm from its intendedpurpose. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development thatpromotes accessibility although the two are not identicalBlack hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapprovedof by the search engines, or involve deception. One black hat techniqueuses text that is hidden, either as text colored similar to the background, inan invisible div, or positioned off screen. Another method gives a differentpage depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitoror a search engine, a technique known as cloaking.Introduction to "robots.txt"There is a hidden, relentless force that permeates the web and its billionsof web pages and files, unbeknownst to the majority of us sentient beings.Im talking about search engine crawlers and robots here. Every dayhundreds of them go out and scour the web, whether its Google trying toindex the entire web, or a spam bot collecting any email addressit could find for less than honorable intentions. As site owners, what littlecontrol we have over what robots are allowed to do when they visit oursites exist in a magical little file called "robots.txt."
  34. 34. "Robots.txt" is a regular text file that through its name, has specialmeaning to the majority of "honorable" robots on the web. By defining afew rules in this text file, you can instruct robots to not crawl and indexcertain files, directories within your site, or at all. For example, you maynot want Google to crawl the /images directory of your site, as its bothmeaningless to you and a waste of your sites bandwidth. "Robots.txt" letsyou tell Google just that.Creating your "robots.txt" fileSo lets get moving. Create a regular text file called "robots.txt", and makesure its named exactly that. This file must be uploaded to the rootaccessible directory of your site, not a subdirectory but NOT It is only byfollowing the above two rules will search engines interpret the instructionscontained in the file. Deviate from this, and "robots.txt" becomes nothingmore than a regular text file, like Cinderella after midnight.Now that you know what to name your text file and where to upload it, youneed to learn what to actually put in it to send commands off to searchengines that follow this protocol (formally the "Robots Exclusion Protocol").The format is simple enough for most intents and purposes: a USERAGENTline to identify the crawler in question followed by one or more DISALLOW:lines to disallow it from crawling certain parts of your site.Selecting a domain and hosting Currently, anyone can create a page on the Internet without incurringany expense. Also, there are companies providing free hosting servicesthat will publish your page in return for their entitlement to displayadvertising on it. Many Internet service providers will also allow you topublish your page on their servers if you are their client. However, all thesevariations have serious drawbacks that you should seriously consider if youare creating a commercial project. First, and most importantly, you should obtain your own domain for thefollowing reasons: - A project that does not have its own domain is regarded as a transientproject. Indeed, why should we trust a resource if its owners are not evenprepared to invest in the tiny sum required to create some sort ofminimum corporate image? It is possible to publish free materials using
  35. 35. resources based on free or ISP-based hosting, but any attempt to create acommercial project without your own domain is doomed to failure. - Your own domain allows you to choose your hosting provider. Ifnecessary, you can move your site to another hosting provider at any time. Here are some useful tips for choosing a domain name. - Try to make it easy to remember and make sure there is only one wayto pronounce and spell it. - Domains with the extension .com are the best choice to promoteinternational projects in English. Domains from the zones .net, .org, .biz,etc., are available but less preferable. - If you want to promote a site with a national flavor, use a domain fromthe corresponding national zone. Use .de – for German sites, .it – forItalian sites, etc. - In the case of sites containing two or more languages, you shouldassign a separate domain to each language. National search engines aremore likely to appreciate such an approach than subsections for variouslanguages located on one site. A domain costs $10-20 a year, depending on the particular registrationservice and zone. You should take the following factors into consideration when choosing ahosting provider: - Access bandwidth. - Server uptime. - The cost of traffic per gigabyte and the amount of prepaid traffic. - The site is best located in the same geographical region as most of yourexpected visitors. The cost of hosting services for small projects is around $5-10 permonth. Avoid “free” offers while choosing a domain and a hosting provider.Hosting providers sometimes offer free domains to their clients. Suchdomains are often registered not to you, but to the hosting company. Thehosting provider will be the owner of the domain. This means that you will
  36. 36. not be able to change the hosting service of your project, or you couldeven be forced to buy out your own domain at a premium price. Also, youshould not register your domains via your hosting company. This maymake moving your site to another hosting company more difficult eventhough you are the owner of your domain.Changing the site address You may need to change the address of your project. Maybe the resourcewas started on a free hosting service and has developed into a morecommercial project that should have its own domain. Or maybe the ownerhas simply found a better name for the project. In any case, moving to anew address can be problematic and it is a difficult and unpleasant task tomove a project to a new address. For starters, you will have to startpromoting the new address almost from scratch. However, if the move isinevitable, you may as well make the change as useful as possible. Our advice is to create your new site at the new location with new andunique content. Place highly visible links to the new resource on the oldsite to allow visitors to easily navigate to your new site. Do not completelydelete the old site and its contents. This approach will allow you to get visitors from search engines to boththe old site and the new one. At the same time, you get an opportunity tocover additional topics and keywords, which may be more difficult withinone resource.Important termsBack links or Inbound Link- Back links are incoming links to a website or web page. In the searchengine optimization (SEO) world, the number of back links is oneindication of the popularity or importance of that website or page (thoughother measures, such as PageRank, are likely to be more important).Outside of SEO, the back links of a webpage may be of significant personal,cultural or semantic interest: they indicate who is paying attention to thatpage.In basic link terminology, a back link is any link received by a web node(web page, directory, website, or top level domain) from another web
  37. 37. node. Back links are also known as incoming links, inbound links, inlinks,and inward links.An inbound links send visitors to your web site. Generally, this is seen as agood thing. An inbound link is a hyperlink transiting domains Many sitesgo to great lengths to achieve as much of this "free" advertising aspossible, although a few sites are very particular about where the links arepointing. . Inbound links are counted to determine link popularity, animportant factor in SEO. Inbound links were originally important (prior tothe emergence of search engines) as a primary means of web navigation;today their significance lies in search engine optimization (SEO).Inaddition to rankings by content, many search engines rank pages based oninbound links.How do we get inbound links?There are a number of ways. Some of them are:-DirectoriesDirectories usually provide one-way links to websites, although somerequire a reciprocal link. Personally, I have no time for those that requirereciprocal links, because they arent really trying to be useful directories.Submitting to directories is time-consuming and boring, but there are anumber of cheap directory submitting services that do a very good job.There are several of them in this forum thread.ForumsJoin forums and place links to your site(s) in your signature line. Use yourmain searchterms as the link text - Ill come to why that is necessary laterin this article. But before spending time writing lots of posts with yoursignature line in each post, make sure that the forum is spiderable bychecking the robots.txt file, and make sure that non-members dont havesession IDs in the URLs. Also make sure that links in signature lines are nothidden from spiders (view the source code to make sure that signaturelinks are in plain HTML format and not in Javascript).Link exchange centersFind a join free link exchange center like LinkPartners.com. There youcan find a categorized directory of websites that also want to exchangelinks. Be careful not to sign up with FFA (Free For All) sites because theyare mostly email address gatherers and you can expect a sudden increasein email spam soon after you sign up. Also, only sign up with centers where
  38. 38. you can approach other sites personally, and where they can approach youpersonally.Do not join any link farms!!! Link farms, such as LinksToYou.com, soundexcellent for building up linkpop and PageRank, but search engines (Googlein particular) disapprove of them as blatant attempts to manipulate therankings and they will penalize sites that use them. Once a site has beenpenalized, it is very difficult to get the penalty lifted, so avoid all link farms.Email requests(a) Search on Google for your main searchterms and find the websites thatare competing with you. Then find which sites link to them by searching"link:www.cometitor-domain.com". Email them and ask for a linkexchange.(b) Search on Google for websites that are related to your sites topic, butnot direct competitors, and ask them for a link exchange.Buy themThere are websites that want to sell links. They are usually medium to highPageRank sites, and often the link will be placed on multiple pages, or allpages within the site. Its possible to approach individual sites where youwould like your links to appear, but it is much quicker, easier and morereliable to use a middle-man service (or broker).Link brokers offer links for sale on behalf of other websites (you could usethe service to sell links on your site!). With these services, it is usual to beable to choose the type (topic) of the website(s) where you want to placeyour links. I am not aware of any disreputable practises with linkbrokering.Outbound LinkA link that points away from your website. Outbound links can add valueto your site by providing useful information to users without you having tocreate the content. It is difficult for a single website to be comprehensiveabout a subject area. At the same time outbound links are a potentialjumping off point for users and also provide PageRank for the target page.Outbound links send visitors away from your web site. Attitudes towardsoutbound links vary considerably among site owners. Some site owners stilllink freely. Some refuse to link at all, and some provide links that open in anew browser window.Opponents of outbound linking argue that it risks losing time and money
  39. 39. from site visitors. This can be a large risk if a site is facing high customeracquisition costs.Proponents argue that providing high quality references actually enhancesthe value of a site and increases the chance of return visitors.“When site A links to site B, site A has an outbound link and site Bhas an inbound link. Links are inbound from the perspective of thelink target, and conversely, outbound from the perspective of theoriginator “RSS Feed-RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication. RSS is a family of Web feedformats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries,news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSSdocument (which is called a "feed", "web feed", or "channel") includes fullor summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates andauthorship. Web feeds benefit publishers by letting them syndicate contentautomatically. They benefit readers who want to subscribe to timelyupdates from favored websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites intoone place. RSS feeds can be read using software called an "RSS reader","feed reader", or "aggregator", which can be web-based or desktop-based.A standardized XML file format allows the information to be published onceand viewed by many different programs. The user subscribes to a feed byentering the feeds "URL", into the reader or by clicking an RSS icon in abrowser that initiates the subscription process. The RSS reader checks theusers subscribed feeds regularly for new work, downloads any updatesthat it finds, and provides a user interface to monitor and read the feeds.SS solves a problem for people who regularly use the web. It allows you toeasily stay informed by retrieving the latest content from the sites you areinterested in. You save time by not needing to visit each site individually.You ensure your privacy, by not needing to join each sites emailnewsletter.RSS allows you to syndicate your site content. RSS defines an easy way to share and viewheadlines and content. RSS files can be automatically updated .RSS allows personalizedviews for different sites. RSS is written in XML. RSS is useful for web sites thatare updated frequently, like:News sites - Lists news with title, date and descriptionsCompanies - Lists news and new productsCalendars - Lists upcoming events and important days
  40. 40. Site changes - Lists changed pages or new pages

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