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Before the hellenistic period 9 10 12

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  • 1. Before the Hellenistic Period Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 2. Review Greece in the Classical Period Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 3. The Polis • A supposedly independent political entity. • Defensible urban center, surrounded by agricultural territory. • Citizenship was based on birth, but political rights were generally tied to land ownership. • Most city-states had Oligarchic governments – rule of the few. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 4. The Hoplite Army Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 5. The Hoplite Warrior was Equipped with: • Helmet • Body Armor - corselet • Greaves • Spear, wood with bronze tip and butt-spike • Short Sword • Round, convex Hoplite shield - "Hoplon" Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 6. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 7. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 8. Military and Political Values • Hoplite armies developed during the Archaic Period (700-500 B.C.) • Hoplites armed themselves. • They stood together in the front ranks. • Safety depended on NOT breaking ranks. • Spartans were considered the best Hoplites. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 9. Size Matters • Most poleis were relatively small. • All poleis generally had some kind of “council” or deliberative body. • Membership in that council was often restricted to the “best” citizens, who were landowners, and able to afford their hoplite armor. • Oligarchy was normal. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 10. Tyranny vs. Oligarchy • Usually, under oligarchy, the various aristocratic families are evenly matched. • Sometimes, in times of political struggle, one aristocrat gains sole power over the others. • Usually, he does this by enlisting the assistance of the poorer citizens. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 11. Two Important Exceptions • Athens was a larger polis, with more citizens, and naval power. • Sparta had conquered the neighboring territory of Messenia. This allowed it to use the Messenians as serfs or “Hellots.” • Spartans didn’t have to work their land, and could spend all their time training and fighting. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 12. Fifth Century Political Developments • Following the Persian war in 480 – Athens developed an “Empire” based on naval power. • The Athenian Allies were mainly concentrated in the islands and on the coast of Asia Minor. • The smaller, poorer poleis of the mainland, feared the Athenians and turned to the Spartans for protection. • City states took sides – and joined either the Athenian or the Spartan Hegemony. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 13. Athenian Political Developments Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 14. Athenian Democracy • Demos – literally means “people.” • In places with only hoplite armies, they were not politically important. • As the Athenian Empire developed, rowers were needed for the ships which secured Athenian military supremacy. • The rowers were citizens from the lower economic classes. • Their power in the Assembly led to the development of Athenian Democracy. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 15. Why Would Other City States Resist Democracy? • Most “Ancestral Constitutions” took the form of oligarchies. This was the traditional way of doing things. • The power of the “demos” in Athens was based on the need of the city for rowers. Small city-states without navies had less work for the members of the demos. • In practice a “democratic government” meant a pro-Athenian government. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 16. Tribute • Athens dominated the islands, and the city states on the West Coast of Asia Minor. • These places had been paying taxes or “tribute” to the Persian empire. • Athens demanded that these cities should pay the same amount of tribute - for protection from the Persians. • Tribute was the major complaint of the Athenian allies. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 17. Peloponnesian War • Series of conflicts from 431 to 404 B.C. • Athens, and its allies, struggled with Sparta, and its protectorates. • The conflict might have ended in stalemate, except Persia began to send funds (secretly) to both sides. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 18. Discussion? • Why were the city-states often in conflict? • Why were Athens and Sparta so much stronger than the rest? • What were the relative advantages of hoplite armies? • Why was naval power so important for Greek political developments? Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 19. Vocabulary Review • Hegemony • Oligarchy • Hoplite • Tribute • Aristoi (Aristocrats) • Demos • Helots Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 20. Chronological Markers • 404 B.C.E. After the defeat of Athens by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, Sparta imposed an oligarchic government at Athens (The Thirty Tyrants). • 403 B.C.E. Many Athenians who opposed The Thirty were executed or went into exile. These exiles eventually expelled The Thirty, with the Spartans failing to support their own puppet govt. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 21. Chronological Markers • 401 B.C.E. Greek mercenaries, including Spartans, assist the Persian prince, Cyrus, in his failed attempt to overthrow his brother Artaxerxes II. • Although Artaxerxes II and his satrap Tissaphernes tried to punish the mercenaries and the Greek cities of Asia Minor, they were unsuccessful – • Were the Persians now weak? Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 22. Chronological Markers • 400-396 B.C.E. The Spartans campaign against the Persians, and attempt to involve mainland Greeks in the campaign. The Thebans, especially are unhelpful. • At the same time, the Persians (supposedly) were sending money to antiSpartan Greek cities. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 23. Chronological Markers • 395 B.C.E. Athens joins Thebes in a war against Sparta (The Corinthian War). • The Spartans did fairly well on land in this war, but got into a lot of trouble at sea. The Persians hired an Athenian Admiral (Conon), and the Spartans lost their fleet at the battle of Cnidus in 397 B.C.E. • But, now the allies seemed to be winning, and Athens seemed to regaining its naval power, sooooo. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 24. Chronological Markers • 388/7 – The Persians brokered a deal. • Sparta gave up its campaign to “free the Greeks” of Asia. • The Persians, in return, blockaded the Hellespont, cut of grain to Athens, and forced it to compromise. The other city states had to go along with this, because they were weak. • The Spartan diplomat Antalcidas did the negotiating. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 25. Chronological Markers • 388/7 Peace of Antalcidas – Terms • All foreign garrisons were to be disbanded, and every city-state was supposed to be autonomous. • Therefore, there could be no “alliances.” • Spartans, backed by the Persians, got the best of this deal. • Naturally, everyone else was unhappy. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 26. Chronological Markers 388-372 • 388-372 – The Spartans behave badly. • 382 – Occupy the Citadel at Thebes. • 379/8 – Allow one of their generals, Sphodrias to make an abortive attack on Attica. • Generally make things unpleasant for the Thebans. • Meanwhile, the Athenians form a new Sea League, which somehow gets around the “autonomy” clause. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 27. Chronological Markers • 371 – (Our sources are very confused here….) • Athens is worried about the increasing power of Thebes, but still doesn’t trust Sparta. • There is a peace conference at Sparta – and Sparta and Thebes fall out even more than before. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 28. Leading to…… Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 29. Battle of Leuctra - 371 • For the first time, Sparta is fully defeated. • The Thebans take their campaign into the Peloponnese. • Sparta looses control of Messenia. • The economic basis of the Spartan system is destroyed. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 30. Goals for the Class Following our Break • Credit/No Credit Vocabulary Quiz • Discuss our sources for the Battle of Leuctra – especially Plutarch. • Discuss the Sacred Band. • Discuss the weaknesses of the polis system as shown by these events. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 31. Literary Sources for the Battle of Leuctra • Xenophon – Athenian in Exile – Wrote a work called “Hellenica 6.4.8-15. Xenophon writes from the Spartan point of view. He died in 354 B.C. – so his account is that of a contemporary. • Diodorus 15.55.1-56.4. He wrote a “Universal History” and worked during the reign of the Emperor Augustus • Plutarch – Life of Pelopidas. His life of Epaminondas is lost. Plutarch was a Greek philosopher and statesman, who died in 120 A.D. Sunday, January 12, 14
  • 32. Sunday, January 12, 14