Ancient Sparta Ancient Sparta city GeogrophyCALCULATED MALE POPULATION OF SPARTACA. 480 B.C. Men in ancient Sparta 480AGE BRACKET PERCENTAGE AMOUNT B.C0-19 Males (not 47.3% 7,568military age)20-49 42.3% 6,76850-59 06.4% 1,02460+ 00.4% 640TOTAL 16,000
• Sparta is located in the region of Laconia• Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Evrotas River, the main river of Laconia which provided it with a source of fresh water• Though landlocked, Sparta had a harbor, Gytheio, on the Laconian Gulf.
Translations on months• January - Gamelion• February - Anthesterion• March - Elaphebolion• April - Mounichion• May - Thargelion• June - Skirophorion• July - Hekatombaion (The first month of their year)• August - Metageitnion• September - Boedromion• October - Pyanopsion• November - Maimakterion• December - Poseideon (Ποσῐδηϊών)
Ancient Sparta gods and goddesses• 1. Aphrodite ,the goddess of love 2. Apollo , the god of the sun and of music 3. Ares , the god of war 4. Artemis , the goddess of the hunt 5. Demeter , the goddess of the harvest 6. Athena ,the goddess of wisdom 7. Dionysus , the god of high spirits and of wine 8. Hephaestus , the god of fire and of the forge 9. Hera ,the queen of gods 10. Hermes ,the god of travel and the messenger of the gods 11. Poseidon ,the god of the sea 12. Zeus ,the lord of the gods, most powerful and ruler of Mount Olympus and the sky
OlympicsOlympic sign Olympic coliseum Entrance to a Olympic stadium Ancient Greek Olympic fans
Ancient Sparta religionSparta was the first democracy in recordedhistory Mt olympusSparta was the only Greek city-state in which womenenjoyed elementary rights such as the right toeducation, inheritance, and propertySpartan music and dance were famous throughoutthe ancient world, and the oldest recordedheterosexual love poem was the work of a Spartanpoet praising Spartan maidens.Mount Olympus was the divine kingdom of theOlympian gods and every Olympian had hisown palace, Ancient Sparta building
ART• Art on war• Kouros characteristics were: rigidity, one foot forward stance, formal hair treatment, bilateral symmetry (same on left and right), and its frontality (block like).• The most significant change in sculpture to that date, controposto was the counterbalance, or s-curve of the body. One foot came forward and the weight distribution became more naturalistic. Besides conroposto, the other characteristics of Classical sculpture were: head turned on different plain from body (aloof, representing reason controlled) and less formal hair treatment.
Ancient Greek art• The common assumption that Sparta lacked artistic achievements is incorrect.• Pausanias, travelling through Sparta in the second century AD, recorded hundreds of significant buildings – temples, monuments, tombs, and public buildings – that were part and parcel of Spartan art and culture.• According to contemporary sources, Sparta was particularly renowned for its music and dance.• Spartan bronze works were coveted as gifts and imports.• Spartan poets were admired throughout the ancient world – and it was one of these who wrote the first recorded heterosexual love poems known today.• The reason the pottery was reddish color was because iron oxide (Fe2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO) in the soil.• They did not make pottery for good looks they actually used there pottery Ancient Greek pottery Sparta shield
Government• its rival Sparta had two kings. One king might stay at home, while the other was away fighting battles.• The Doric state of Sparta, copying the Doric Cretans, developed a mixed governmental state. The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontids families, both supposedly descendants of Heracles and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the veto of his colleague. The origins of the powers exercised by the assembly of the citizens are virtually unknown because of the lack of historical documentation and Spartan state secrecy.
• The duties of the kings were primarily religious, judicial, and militaristic.• They were the chief priests of the state and also maintained communication with the Delphian sanctuary, which always exercised great authority in Spartan politics.• Each king had veto power over the others decisions.• There was a council of 28 elders, called Gerousia, who were men over the age of 60 and generally came from the royal families.• The Gerousia decided civil and criminal judicial disputes.
Citizenship• Not all inhabitants of the Spartan state were considered to be citizens. Only those who had undertaken the Spartan education process known as the agoge were eligible.• However, usually the only people eligible to receive the agoge were Spartiates, or people who could trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the city.
Spartan army• There were two exceptions. Trophimoi or "foster sons" were foreign students invited to study. The Athenian general Xenophon, for example, sent his two sons to Sparta as trophimoi.• The Spartans were one of the most feared military forces in world history.• At Spartas heyday in the 6th to 4th centuries BC, it was commonly accepted that "one Spartan was worth several men of any other state."
Military life• Thucydides reports that when Spartan men went to war, their wives (or another women of some significance)• Would customarily present them with their shield and say: "With this, or upon this" (Ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς, Èi tàn èi èpì tàs)• Meaning that true Spartans could only return to Sparta either victorious (with their shield in hand) or dead (carried upon it).
Greek trireme Ancient Sparta warrior Sparta tactics
Army organization Social structure• The Spartan people (the "Lacedaemonians") were divided in three classes:• Full citizens, known as the Spartiates proper or Hómoioi ("equals" or peers), who received a grant of land (kláros or klēros, "lot") for their military service.• The second class were the Perioeci (the "dwellers nearby"), free non-citizens, generally merchants, craftsmen and sailors, who were used as light infantry and on auxiliary roles on campaign.• The third and most numerous class were the Helots, state-owned serfs used to farm the Spartiate klēros. By the 5th century BC, the helots too were used as light troops in skirmishes.• The Spartiates were the core of the Spartan army: they participated in the Assembly (Apella) and provided the hoplites in the army.
Ancient Sparta weapons• Shield - One of the important ancient Greek weapons was the shield. This was used by a hoplite to smash a spear of an opponent.• Spear - The hoplites used spears to attack the opposing army. An ancient Greek spear was known as a "dory". A typical spear has a sharp iron spearhead on a wooden shaft and a bronze butt. If the spearhead breaks off, the butt of the spear was used as an additional weapon to fight the enemy.• Ballista - A ballista was an important ancient Greek weapon. A Ballista was a weapon of siege from which multiple arrows could be shot at long ranges.• Dagger/Sword - Along with a spear, a hoplite was expected to carry a sharp dagger or a short sword. This was probably used when a spear was completely broken.• Catapult - A catapult was used to throw large objects and stones at the opposing army. A catapult is one of the ancient Greek weapons used for besieging an enemy.
Role of the people• The men of Sparta focused their lives on training for the physical and psychological rigors of warfare.• Unlike the women of Athens, the women of Sparta were granted an equal stake in the success or failure of their state. With their fathers and husbands constantly away training or at war, the women of Sparta were responsible for all else in Spartan society.• While the men of Sparta focused their lives on the military aspect of Spartan society, the women were expected to dedicate their lives to perpetuating Spartan society through the production of both young Spartans and the food to feed them and their fathers.• The women of Sparta had a certain degree of equality that other Greek women never had. Although Spartan women were treated as equals rather than attractive trinkets or chattel, much more was expected of them than the trinkets and chattel of other Greek men.
Food• Most meals were enjoyed in a courtyard near the home.• Greek cooking equipment was small and light and could easily be set up there.• On bright, sunny days, the women probably sheltered under a covered area of their courtyard, as the ancient Greeks believed a pale complexion was a sign of beauty.• Food in Ancient Greece consisted of grains, figs, wheat to make bread, barley, fruit, vegetables, breads, and cake.• People in Ancient Greece also ate grapes, seafood of all kinds, and drank wine.• They kept goats, for milk and cheese. They sometimes hunted for meat.