Birmingham Differentiating Learning Optimus For Gt Students


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a short presentation on high end differentiation and independent learning

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Birmingham Differentiating Learning Optimus For Gt Students

  1. 1. Providing differentiation through collaborative learning for able students Ian Warwick, LGT Senior Director [email_address]
  2. 2. What do we really mean by differentiation?
  3. 3. The input of teaching and learning <ul><li>Content is difficult to separate from process or product but it’s easier to examine one element at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation of what we teach and adaptation of how we give students access to what we want them to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Times (for Mr. Gove) clip… </li></ul><ul><li>Facts are like fish. They go off. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Effective Differentiation? Conceptual based teaching <ul><li>Emphasis on key concepts and principles, not on information and facts </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on patterns of meaning, not on memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on transferable understanding and on scenarios, not on drill and practice </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effective differentiation? <ul><li>“ We set lots of open-ended tasks”…. </li></ul><ul><li>“ there is plenty of extension work for our pupils if they finish the task” </li></ul><ul><li>… is this effective differentiation? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effective differentiation? <ul><li>“ We set lots of open-ended tasks”…. </li></ul><ul><li>differentiation by outcome (which would happen even if we did nothing) </li></ul><ul><li>“ there is plenty of extension work for our pupils if they finish the task” </li></ul><ul><li>differentiation by more work </li></ul><ul><li>(which isn’t the greatest student motivator ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. So what’s the problem? <ul><li>How do we differentiate effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>Write down a couple of ways that currently work for you in your subject, in your school, then discuss why the strategies are useful with the person next to you </li></ul>
  8. 8. Differentiation issues <ul><li>How do we use differentiation in class to provide opportunities for all students? </li></ul><ul><li>How can questioning be used most effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we differentiate for the exceptionally able? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we use student grouping to the best effect? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we balance our own workloads? </li></ul>
  9. 9. 10 ways to think about differentiation <ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><li>Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Pace (sequence) </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Self-direction/ negotiation </li></ul>How can we use a range of methods to allow differentiation to occur for gifted and talented learners? What is a useful language base to use to describe what we do?
  10. 10. Blue Velvet Clip <ul><li>Questioning to challenge, support and elicit understanding-what questions work well and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Other strategies to differentiate the text difficulty-what other methods would help to ensure that all students could get the most from this? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ten ways to think about differentiation Different… Benefits Questions Research <ul><li>level of independence required to complete tasks </li></ul><ul><li>sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>method of selection/choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Develops active research skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves co-construction of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we best support research? </li></ul>Dialogue <ul><li>level of interaction with or between students (interdependent learning) </li></ul><ul><li>use of modelling/scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>student generated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socratic questioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>complexity of language used </li></ul><ul><li>feedback – depth/source. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated questioning to challenge, support and elicit understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages discovery (less transmission). </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages higher order thinking from all levels of ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Student questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we use classroom talk to encourage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exploratory talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>active listening? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we find a good balance between pupil/teacher talk? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is the most suitable voice for feedback? </li></ul>Grouping <ul><li>combinations of students </li></ul><ul><li>roles – cooperative learning tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expert/instructor (peer teaching) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develops different patterns of learning and learning how to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves co-construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles can be differentiated – more able as expert, project manager, assessor. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents isolation - reduces social cost of being more able. </li></ul><ul><li>Are students used to the freedom of group work? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they have the social skills to be able to cope with it? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there difficulties in assessing group vs. individual outcomes? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ten ways to think about differentiation Different… Benefits Questions Task <ul><li>processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open vs. closed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge vs. skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher order vs. lower order. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More able pupils usually require less repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress can be at an individual rate. </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a task rich? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we ensure balance with open and closed questions/answers? </li></ul><ul><li>Do students understand the subject and general learning skills? Can they recognise them? </li></ul>Resource <ul><li>resources to support the same learning objective or task </li></ul><ul><li>resources according to learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>equipment to accommodate learner needs/accessibility issues </li></ul><ul><li>areas of class/ school (location). </li></ul><ul><li>Allows same learning activity to be set. </li></ul><ul><li>Fits easily with group work. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages movement. </li></ul><ul><li>What additional content will support higher order thinking? </li></ul><ul><li>How can higher order skills help us to manage the resources better? </li></ul>Assessment <ul><li>forms of assessment – oral, written, non-verbal, presentations </li></ul><ul><li>different/levelled mark schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes assessment formative. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces marking time. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be focused on strengths or weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages dialogue about skills and quality of feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens modelling skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to short-term target setting. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we provide a range of assessment methods to challenge? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is the most suitable voice for feedback? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we get good evidence? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ten ways to think about differentiation Different… Benefits Questions Pace (sequence) <ul><li>starting points </li></ul><ul><li>routes through the same task. </li></ul><ul><li>More able pupils can start further on, or miss out stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selection encourages independence. </li></ul><ul><li>How much practice is required to achieve mastery of content/skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Do students have the capacity to self-select? </li></ul>Support <ul><li>scaffolding to support progression </li></ul><ul><li>amount of time spent with individuals </li></ul><ul><li>use of other classroom staff (e.g. EAL support) </li></ul><ul><li>combinations of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Can still teach to the top. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages use of Socratic questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>More able pupils can be instructors. </li></ul><ul><li>How can support be self-selected? </li></ul><ul><li>How can grouping be used to provide support? </li></ul>Extension <ul><li>different objectives/ task ceilings. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes for meaningful homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Is extension always differentiation by more work? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a danger of saving the best until last? (Most interesting, challenging?) </li></ul>Self-direction/ negotiation <ul><li>self-assessment students find own current level </li></ul><ul><li>students set own learning objective/target </li></ul><ul><li>student generated questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied to all other types. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports independent learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation requires talk – inter-dependent learning. </li></ul><ul><li>What conditions are required for students to set their own direction? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you use and vary pupil groupings to provide support as well as challenge? </li></ul>
  14. 14. According to QCA able children like: <ul><li>variety </li></ul><ul><li>real discussion </li></ul><ul><li>time-limited tasks </li></ul><ul><li>to be treated as intellectual equal </li></ul><ul><li>the chance to have fun </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who get the whole class involved </li></ul><ul><li>working with different people </li></ul><ul><li>clear targets and how to get there </li></ul><ul><li>practical and group work </li></ul><ul><li>thinking activities </li></ul><ul><li>investigations, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>drama and role play </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who break up activities </li></ul><ul><li>consistent teachers </li></ul><ul><li>freedom and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>alternative forms of recording </li></ul><ul><li>working beyond the syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>study skills taught through the subjects </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who enjoy learning themselves </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who have sense of humour </li></ul><ul><li>choosing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>quizzes and competitions </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to work at their own pace </li></ul><ul><li>being allowed to have an off day </li></ul><ul><li>learning from mistakes in a supportive environment </li></ul><ul><li>being given something interesting to do if they finish early </li></ul>
  15. 15. Unhelpful approaches <ul><li>‘ Knights in shining armour’ coming to the rescue way before there is any distress expressed </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Here’s one I prepared earlier’ pre-cooking and pre-digesting resources and simply delivering knowledge without the difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Negators of challenge’ not trying to defamiliarise materials, over scaffolding and over simplifying </li></ul><ul><li>‘ God’ on tap as the expert, who has been there, done that and doesn’t explain how they got there or back </li></ul>
  16. 16. Unhelpful approaches <ul><li>‘ Apologists’ accepting first sound bite responses too readily, not planning spaces to think and not grilling students </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Life support machines’ creating need and not encouraging independence, or planning for student choice </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Blue Peter presenters’ over-praising and dispensing badges of approval too readily and with sketchy evidence of merit </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Echo chambers’ happily paraphrasing each student’s comments for the others who weren’t listening and helpfully adding a little too. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effective Differentiation? <ul><li>Pulling it all together and putting it all into practice </li></ul><ul><li>Donnie Darko clip </li></ul>
  18. 18. High challenge by design - Rich tasks… <ul><li>Develop learning from a common core of knowledge or skills </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage exploration of a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Allow a range of start and end points </li></ul><ul><li>Have an element of open-endedness </li></ul><ul><li>Can be accessed by pupils of widely varying abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and provide for higher level thinking in a supportive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Have an element of choice (either in the task or in the response), allowing students to exercise self-direction </li></ul><ul><li>Are interesting and motivating for the student </li></ul><ul><li>Provide varying levels of challenge to all </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for able pupils to show what they are capable of achieving </li></ul>
  19. 19. Homepage
  20. 20. Student resource launcher page
  21. 21. Promoting literacy: How Do You Mean?... <ul><li>is a dictionary project developed in partnership with the British Library </li></ul><ul><li>encourages students to make explicit their learning of language and boosts their understanding of how language is rooted in cultural contexts </li></ul><ul><li>introduces conceptual ideas about how words mean, are formed and develop through interactive online games </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Activator or facilitator?
  23. 23. What does the research tell us?
  24. 24. A broader view includes all of these too…
  25. 25. High challenge, low threshold learning High challenge High threshold Low threshold A C B D Low challenge What makes for a high access threshold? e.g. prior learning, individual barriers, teacher capacity or confidence How can we lower access thresholds or barriers? e.g. differentiation, thinking, questioning, cognitive skills What does high challenge learning look like? e.g. self-direction and choice, risk-taking, cognitive conflict, ambiguity, unintended outcomes When does low demand learning make sense? e.g. consolidating knowledge, relaxing
  26. 26. High challenge/low threshold learning Teaching thinking - zones of relevance Irrelevant items Points made but not relevant at all for this case/question 4 For research Read, reference or clarify to decide on relevance/ importance 3 Potentially relevant [Relevant, but not to be used] May relate to the issue, but are not relevant or important to this answer 2 Zone of Relevance This material will be used in the answer. Prioritise it and establish a chain of thought. 1
  27. 27. Thinking Maps context/frame of reference
  28. 28. DVD segment – advanced learners <ul><li>Using the 10 ways framework, record your comments on differentiation strategies used in the sequence from the DVD </li></ul><ul><li>How does this relate to the methods that work for you in your school/classroom? </li></ul>English Literal vs. metaphorical language Idiom Quality of expression
  29. 29. Academic language – accessing challenge <ul><li>New arrivals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 most frequently used words give access to 74% of texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word level tests available in REAL toolkit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 80% score requires a focused intervention to support acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced learners of English: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 words offer another access to 78% of texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 plus AWL 570 ‘headwords’ deliver access to 90% of texts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word-level proficiency provides access to challenge in learning and also improves question-level responses </li></ul><ul><li>This is clearly not just an EAL issue! </li></ul>
  30. 31. Academic Word List <ul><li>570 word families </li></ul><ul><li>Not in the most frequent 2,000 words of English </li></ul><ul><li>Formal (not technical) vocabulary cutting across a range of subject disciplines ( e.g. authority, define, assume, legislate, layer ) </li></ul>
  31. 32. DVD segment – developing academic language <ul><li>Developing understanding of formal language to improve attainment in science </li></ul><ul><li>How does this intervention highlight the issues relating to advanced learners? </li></ul>
  32. 33. High Challenge for English <ul><li>Criticality </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Subject thinking’ </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness for exam </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking on their feet </li></ul><ul><li>Developing </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting </li></ul><ul><li>Justifying </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring </li></ul><ul><li>Debating </li></ul><ul><li>Individuality </li></ul>
  33. 34. More able students… <ul><li>have a certain level of natural ability and potential to achieve at high levels </li></ul><ul><li>can assimilate knowledge as their own </li></ul><ul><li>can link arguments together to create a train of thought </li></ul><ul><li>have the capacity to learn specific analysis and evaluation skills </li></ul><ul><li>are articulate and have the communication skills to express their thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>can produce work to fit a mark scheme </li></ul><ul><li>can be creative in seeking solutions to problems </li></ul><ul><li>are willing and able to take risks with their work </li></ul><ul><li>have an effective working relationship with their teacher </li></ul><ul><li>are willing and able to make gradual improvements to their work </li></ul><ul><li>have consistent knowledge and skills across the subject </li></ul><ul><li>can replicate processes and transfer skills from one area of a subject to another </li></ul>
  34. 35. Higher order skills <ul><li>What are the higher order skills in your subject? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a higher order skill? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transferability? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge selection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accuracy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much content or practice is needed to master these skills? </li></ul>
  35. 36. Student involvement <ul><li>Skills analysis and target setting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does a L7/8 or A* look like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where am I at? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I need to do to get there? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formative assessment (AfL) </li></ul><ul><li>Self- and peer assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Student generated questions </li></ul><ul><li>Creative and critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation by self-direction/negotiation </li></ul>
  36. 37. Student questioning <ul><li>ask questions of content/resources [including teacher] </li></ul><ul><li>understand the difference between different sorts of questions [higher/lower order; open/closed; exploratory, critical etc] </li></ul><ul><li>can generate a range of speculative responses [creative thinking] </li></ul><ul><li>can select an appropriate response from the range [critical thinking] </li></ul><ul><li>ask questions of each other [creative thinking] </li></ul><ul><li>Students can justify their responses [critical thinking] </li></ul>
  37. 38. Plenary activities to develop self-assessment <ul><li>Peer marking against student-created and agreed criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Peer evaluation against given criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Expert journalist/subject expert interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop keywords to encompass learning points </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop key questions for class revision of key learning points </li></ul><ul><li>Students rank learning points in order of importance and justify </li></ul><ul><li>Students generate list of other applications </li></ul><ul><li>Learning journals/blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson/topic mind maps, flowcharts, display posters </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic light marking for self-review </li></ul>
  38. 39. Raising the aspirations and achievements of London’s students Ian Warwick, LGT Senior Director ian.warwick@londongt,org