Assessing Fish Behavior Using Acoustic Telemetry Methods

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This presentation was given by Kevin Kumagai, Senior Fisheries Biologist at HTI Hydroacoustic Technology at the American Fisheries Society's Annual Meeting in Little Rock, Arkansas in September 2013.

Overview:

Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. For example, presence/absence of fish. If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. Example behaviors include: moving toward and away, holding, downstream migration, searching, fish passage, predator avoidance, predation, simultaneous tags, tag defection. The HTI Predation Tag verifies predation via a unique modification in the tag signal while maintaining individual fish ID. It provides a tool to directly measure predation and allows evaluation of behavior-based predation techniques. Currently in testing by CDWR and BOR in 2013 (Afentoulis et al., 2013), it is being field tested in 2014. Being able to monitor predation dynamics, especially as it relates to threatened or endangered species (e.g., salmonids) will provide tremendous insights to better fisheries management.

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Assessing Fish Behavior Using Acoustic Telemetry Methods

  1. 1. Assessing Fish Behavior Using Acoustic Telemetry Methods Kevin Kumagai, Colleen Sullivan, and Sam Johnston HTI - Hydroacoustic Technology, Inc. 143rd Annual Meeting of AFS September 12, 2013, 9 AM, Hoffman Little Rock, AR
  2. 2. Overview • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. For example, presence/absence. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. • Example behaviors include: • Moving towards and away • Holding • Downstream migration • Searching • Fish passage • Predator avoidance • Predation • Simultaneous tags • Tag defecation
  3. 3. Acoustic tags = information • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. For example, presence/absence.
  4. 4. Single hydrophone deployments • Can provide presence/absence Hydrophone 1 Upstream Barrier Downstream Hydrophone 12
  5. 5. Detection histories • Are chronology of time-stamped tag detections
  6. 6. Fish survival and fish passage • Can be measured from the these detection histories
  7. 7. Uniform spacing, high precision: fish behavior • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. Tag ID encoded in unique period (adapted from Ehrenberg and Steig, 2009)
  8. 8. Acoustically tagged fish movement animation created by G.Tritt (HTI) circa 2004
  9. 9. Display 1
  10. 10. Display 2
  11. 11. Display 3
  12. 12. Display 4
  13. 13. Display 5
  14. 14. Display 6
  15. 15. Display 7
  16. 16. Single hydrophone example behaviors • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. • Behaviors in this example include: • Moving toward and away • Holding
  17. 17. Single upstream hydrophone example moving toward and away Time increasing
  18. 18. Single downstream hydrophone example moving toward and away Time increasing
  19. 19. Moving toward and away Time increasing
  20. 20. Single hydrophone example behaviors • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. • Behaviors in this example include: • Moving toward and away • Holding
  21. 21. Single hydrophone example holding behavior Time duration 1 hour
  22. 22. Hydrophone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Basic Tracking Flow
  23. 23. Nearest Green Hydrophone
  24. 24. Nearest Maroon Hydrophone
  25. 25. Nearest Orange Hydrophone
  26. 26. Nearest Turquoise Hydrophone
  27. 27. Nearest Yellow Hydrophone
  28. 28. Nearest Blue Hydrophone
  29. 29. Hydrophone Detections: Summary Time duration 20 plus minutes
  30. 30. 2D tracks example behaviors • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. • Behaviors in this example include: • Holding • Downstream migration • Searching • Fish passage • Predator avoidance
  31. 31. Multiple hydrophone deployments Downstream Upstream Barrier Time Slider Steelhead 2D positions(green) Striped bass 2D positions(red) Sun and moon gadget
  32. 32. Holding, 23:03-23:04 Tagged striped bass (red spheres) holding between blue and yellow hydrophones. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  33. 33. Holding, 23:04-23:05 Tagged striped bass continues holding. Steelhead tag (light green spheres) approaching array below pink and green hydrophones. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  34. 34. Downstream migration, 23:05-23:06 Steelhead tag continues moving downstream through upstream array. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  35. 35. Downstream migration, 23:06-23:07 Steelhead tag approaching barrier while striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  36. 36. Searching, 23:07-23:08 Steelhead tag begins searching along barrier. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  37. 37. Searching, 23:08-23:09 Steelhead tag continues searching along barrier. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  38. 38. Searching, 23:09-23:10 Steelhead tag continues searching along barrier. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  39. 39. Searching, 23:10-23:11 Steelhead tag continues searching along barrier. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  40. 40. Fish passage, 23:11-23:12 Steelhead tag passes barrier via culvert. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  41. 41. Fish passage, 23:12-23:13 Steelhead tag continues past barrier. Striped bass continues to hold. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  42. 42. Fish passage, 23:13-23:14 Steelhead tag continues past barrier. Striped bass begins to move. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  43. 43. Predator avoidance, 23:14-23:15 As steelhead tag passes over striped bass, steelhead tag appears to avoid bass moving counter-clockiwse. Striped bass also moves downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  44. 44. Predator avoidance, 23:15-23:16 Steelhead tag continues circling counter-clockwise as striped bass moves slightly downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  45. 45. Predator avoidance, 23:16-23:17 Steelhead tag continues circling counter-clockwise as striped bass moves slightly downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  46. 46. Predator avoidance, 23:17-23:18 Steelhead tag continues circling counter-clockwise as striped bass moves slightly downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  47. 47. Predator avoidance, 23:18-23:19 Steelhead tag continues circling counter-clockwise as striped bass moves slightly downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  48. 48. Predator avoidance, 23:19-23:20 Steelhead tag appears to avoid striped bass again as passes by. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  49. 49. Predator avoidance, 23:20-23:21 Both tags moving downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  50. 50. Predator avoidance, 23:21-23:22 Steelhead tag leaves downstream. Striped bass holding further downstream. Data courtesy of CDWR.
  51. 51. Summary 2D tracks
  52. 52. 2D tracks example behaviors • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. • Behaviors in this example include: • Predation • Simultaneous tags • Tag defecation
  53. 53. Overview: predation and simultaneous tags Downstream Upstream Barrier Time Slider Steelhead 2D positions(green) Striped bass 2D positions(red) Sun and moon gadget Tagged striped bass (red spheres) consumed tagged dead chinook (blue spheres) and the two tags swim simultaneouly for almost two days. Data courtesy of BOR.
  54. 54. Striped bass, 6/21/13 10:05-10:10 Tagged striped bass (red spheres) in primary channel. Data courtesy of BOR.
  55. 55. Striped bass, 6/21/13 10:10-10:15 Tagged striped bass (red spheres) in primary channel. Data courtesy of BOR.
  56. 56. Predation, 6/21/13 10:15-10:20 Tagged striped bass (red spheres) consumes dead chinook (blue spheres) approximately 6/21/13 10:20. Data courtesy of BOR.
  57. 57. Simultaneous tags, 6/21/13 10:20-10:25 Two tags are simultaneous for almost two days. Data courtesy of BOR.
  58. 58. Simultaneous tags continues for almost two days, 6/23/13 9:10-9:15 Simultaneous tags together for almost two days. Data courtesy of BOR.
  59. 59. Tag defecation, 9:15-9:20 Chinook tag (blue spheres) defecated approximately 6/23/13 9:15:39. Data courtesy of BOR.
  60. 60. Separate tags, 9:20-9:25 Striped bass continues moving around primary channel while chinook tag stationary. Data courtesy of BOR.
  61. 61. Separate tags, 9:25-9:30 Striped bass moving around primary channel while chinook tag stationary. Data courtesy of BOR.
  62. 62. Separate tags, 9:30-9:35 Striped bass continues moving around primary channel while chinook tag stationary. Data courtesy of BOR.
  63. 63. Separate tags, 9:35-9:40 Striped bass continues moving around primary channel while chinook tag stationary. Data courtesy of BOR.
  64. 64. Separate tags, 9:40-9:45 Striped bass continues moving around primary channel while chinook tag stationary. Data courtesy of BOR.
  65. 65. Defecation Summary Data courtesy of BOR.
  66. 66. Single hydrophone: tag defecation Time duration 1 hour
  67. 67. Multiple hydrophones: tag defecation Time duration 1 hour
  68. 68. Summary • Acoustic tags can provide information about fish populations. For example, presence/absence. • If detections are uniformly spaced to a high level of precision, these detections can assess fish behavior. • Example behaviors include: • Moving towards and away • Holding • Downstream migration • Searching • Fish passage • Predator avoidance • Predation • Simultaneous tags • Tag defecation
  69. 69. Current R&D: HTI Predation Tag • Verifies predation via a unique modification in the tag signal while maintaining individual fish ID • Provides a tool to directly measure predation • Allows evaluation of behavior-based predation techniques • Laboratory testing by CDWR and BOR in 2013 (Afentoulis et al., 2013) • Field testing planned for 2014 Image Courtesy of FISHBIO * Patent pending
  70. 70. References • Afentoulis, V.B., M.N. Johnson, A.A. Schultz, and C.J. Yip. 2013. Predation Tag Efficacy. Research proposal document. Property of the California Department of Water Resources, Bay Delta Office. • Ehrenberg, J. E., and Steig, T. W. 2009. A study of the relationship between tag-signal characteristics and achievable performances in acoustic fish-tag studies. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 1278–1283. • Kumagai, K.K. In prep. Acoustic tag detections and tracking of fish predation and tag defecation at the Tracy Fish Collection Facility in 2013. Report to Bureau of Reclamation, Byron, Calif., by Hydroacoustic Technology, Inc., Seattle, Wash. • Tunnicliffe, C., K.K. Kumagai, and S.V. Johnston. 2011. Two-dimensional fish tracking study in the Old River at Tracy barrier in 2011. Report to California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, Calif., by Hydroacoustic Technology, Inc., Seattle, Wash.
  71. 71. Acknowledgments • California Department of Water Resources (V. Afentoulis, K. Clark, M. Johnson, J. McQuirk, J. Miranda, C. Yip) • Bureau of Reclamation (B. Bridges, K. Carp, R. Reyes, A. Schultz, B. Wu)
  72. 72. Animations/Questions Kevin Kumagai, Colleen Sullivan, and Sam Johnston HTI - Hydroacoustic Technology, Inc. For more information: www.htisonar.com

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