Hangzhou, January 2011
Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun, Zhejiang University
Ethnocentrism	
  &	
  
Enculturation	
  
Cultu...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development
2
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development
Ethnocentrism
Th...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development
Ethnocentrism
A	...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development
Ethnocentrism
A	...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development
Ethnocentrism
A	...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development
Ethnocentrism
A	...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
3
14	
  years	
  in	
  Germany
7	
  years	
  in	
  China
B...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Contents
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Slide	
  2-­‐5	
  	
 ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism
5
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism
Emotions
5
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism
Emotions Values
5
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism
Self
Emotions Value...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism
Self
Emotions Value...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Stereotypes: Definition and Types
6
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Stereotypes: Definition and Types
6
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Stereotypes: Definition and Types
Stereotypes
Generalized ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Stereotypes: Definition and Types
Stereotypes
Generalized ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Stereotypes: Definition and Types
Stereotypes
Generalized ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Stereotypes: Definition and Types
Stereotypes
Generalized ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Development of Stereotypes
7
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Development of Stereotypes
Selective Attenti...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Development of Stereotypes
Keep Categories a...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Development of Stereotypes
Keep Categories a...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Psychological Development of Stereotypes
Keep Categories a...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Prejudice and Discrimination
8
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice
The	
  tendency	
  ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice
The	
  tendency	
  ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice
The	
  tendency	
  ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice
The	
  tendency	
  ...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice
9
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice
Responsib...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice
Responsib...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice
Responsib...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice
Responsib...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice
Responsib...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
10
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
10
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
10
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
PrejudiceandDisc...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
PrejudiceandDisc...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
PrejudiceandDisc...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
PrejudiceandDisc...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination
PrejudiceandDisc...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
11
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
Ethnocentr...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
Ethnocentr...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
Ethnocentr...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
Ethnocentr...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
Ethnocentr...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice
Ethnocentr...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
12
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
Socialization
The	
  proce...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
Enculturation
Socializatio...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
Enculturation
Socializatio...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
Enculturation
Socializatio...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
Enculturation
Socializatio...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Enculturation and Socialization
Enculturation
Socializatio...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
13
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents
Parenting
• Goals...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Parenting Styles
Authoritative
Sensi+ve	
  to	
  the	
  ch...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization
15
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization
Postfigurative
c...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization
Cofigurative
Cul...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization
Cofigurative
Cul...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization
Cofigurative
Cul...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement
Cross Nation...
An	
  Introduc+on	
  to	
  Ethnocentrism	
  and	
  Accultura+on
Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement
Cross Nation...
Thank	
  You
Contact us via …
Mail: hora_t@mac.com
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Website: http://horatjitra.com
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  Univ...
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Ethnocentrism, Stereotype and Acculturation

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An introduction to Ethnocentrism & Enculturation from the Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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Ethnocentrism, Stereotype and Acculturation

  1. 1. Hangzhou, January 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun, Zhejiang University Ethnocentrism  &   Enculturation   Culture and PsychologyMatsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.
  2. 2. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development 2
  3. 3. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to  view  the  world  through   one’s  own  cultural filters. 2
  4. 4. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development Ethnocentrism A  normal consequence  of  socializa+on   and  encultura+on. The  tendency  to  view  the  world  through   one’s  own  cultural filters. 2
  5. 5. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development Ethnocentrism A  normal consequence  of  socializa+on   and  encultura+on. As  we  become  enculturated,  we  learn  how   to  act,  how  to  perceive  and  interpret  how   other  people  act. The  tendency  to  view  the  world  through   one’s  own  cultural filters. 2
  6. 6. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development Ethnocentrism A  normal consequence  of  socializa+on   and  encultura+on. As  we  become  enculturated,  we  learn  how   to  act,  how  to  perceive  and  interpret  how   other  people  act. By  the  +me  we  are  adults,  we  hardly notice  the  culture  filters  in  our  mind. The  tendency  to  view  the  world  through   one’s  own  cultural filters. 2
  7. 7. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development Ethnocentrism A  normal consequence  of  socializa+on   and  encultura+on. As  we  become  enculturated,  we  learn  how   to  act,  how  to  perceive  and  interpret  how   other  people  act. By  the  +me  we  are  adults,  we  hardly notice  the  culture  filters  in  our  mind. However,  it’s  possible  that  we  are  aware  of   this  ethnocentrism:  develop  flexible ethnocentrism.   The  tendency  to  view  the  world  through   one’s  own  cultural filters. 2
  8. 8. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education,INSEAD HR Management in Asia
  9. 9. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Contents              Slide  2-­‐5              Ethnocentrism:  defini=on,  development,  and  psychological  factors              Slide  6-­‐7              Stereotypes:  defini=on,  types,  and  psychological  development              Slide  8-­‐10              Prejudice  and  discrimina=on:  defini=on,  origins,  and  going  beyond              Slide  11                Review:  ethnocentrism,  stereotypes  and  prejudice              Slide  12-­‐13      Encultura=on,  socializa=on  and  socializa=on  agents                Slide  14                  Paren=ng  styles              Slide  15                  Peer  influence  on  socializa=on              Slide  16                  Educa=on  and  encultura=on:  math  achievement 4
  10. 10. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism 5
  11. 11. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Emotions 5
  12. 12. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Emotions Values 5
  13. 13. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Self Emotions Values 5
  14. 14. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Self Emotions Values Maintenance and Development of Ethnocentrism 5
  15. 15. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types 6
  16. 16. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types 6
  17. 17. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images  that  we  have   about  groups  of  people,  par=cularly   about  their  underlying  psychological   characteris=cs  or  personality  traits. 6
  18. 18. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images  that  we  have   about  groups  of  people,  par=cularly   about  their  underlying  psychological   characteris=cs  or  personality  traits. Nega=vePosi=ve 6
  19. 19. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images  that  we  have   about  groups  of  people,  par=cularly   about  their  underlying  psychological   characteris=cs  or  personality  traits. Nega=ve Completely  False Posi=ve Generally  True 6
  20. 20. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images  that  we  have   about  groups  of  people,  par=cularly   about  their  underlying  psychological   characteris=cs  or  personality  traits. Nega=ve Completely  False Heterostereotypes Posi=ve Generally  True Autostereotypes 6
  21. 21. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Development of Stereotypes 7
  22. 22. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Development of Stereotypes Selective Attention Appraisal Concept formation and categorization Attribution Emotion Memory 7
  23. 23. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Development of Stereotypes Keep Categories about the World Selective Attention Appraisal Concept formation and categorization Attribution Emotion Memory 7
  24. 24. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Development of Stereotypes Keep Categories about the World Confirm the Stereotypes Selective Attention Appraisal Concept formation and categorization Attribution Emotion Memory 7
  25. 25. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Psychological Development of Stereotypes Keep Categories about the World Confirm the Stereotypes Reinforce Our Self-concept Selective Attention Appraisal Concept formation and categorization Attribution Emotion Memory 7
  26. 26. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Prejudice and Discrimination 8
  27. 27. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice The  tendency  to  prejudge others  on  the  basis  of   their  group  membership,  solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. 8
  28. 28. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice The  tendency  to  prejudge others  on  the  basis  of   their  group  membership,  solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. 8
  29. 29. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice The  tendency  to  prejudge others  on  the  basis  of   their  group  membership,  solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. Cogni+ve   (thinking) Component Affec+ve   (feeling) Component 8
  30. 30. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice The  tendency  to  prejudge others  on  the  basis  of   their  group  membership,  solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. Cogni+ve   (thinking) Component Affec+ve   (feeling) Component Discrimination Unfair treatment  of  others  based  on  their  group   membership. 8
  31. 31. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice 9
  32. 32. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others 9
  33. 33. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through 9
  34. 34. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through Attached Factors: Race, Ethnicity, or Social Class 9
  35. 35. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through Attached Factors: Race, Ethnicity, or Social Class to to 9
  36. 36. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through Attached Factors: Race, Ethnicity, or Social Class to Prejudice Discrimination to 9
  37. 37. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination 10
  38. 38. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination 10
  39. 39. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination 10
  40. 40. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination PrejudiceandDiscrimination 10
  41. 41. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination PrejudiceandDiscrimination Recognize  the  existence  of  Stereotypes 10
  42. 42. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination PrejudiceandDiscrimination Recognize  the  existence  of  Stereotypes Recognize  their  inherent  limitations 10
  43. 43. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination PrejudiceandDiscrimination Recognize  the  existence  of  Stereotypes Recognize  their  inherent  limitations Recognize  individual differences 10
  44. 44. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination PrejudiceandDiscrimination Recognize  the  existence  of  Stereotypes Recognize  their  inherent  limitations Recognize  individual differences Learn  to  control emotions 10
  45. 45. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice 11
  46. 46. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to   view  the  world   through  one’s  own   cultural filters. 11
  47. 47. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to   view  the  world   through  one’s  own   cultural filters. Stereotypes Generalized images that  we  have  about  groups  of  people  on  their  underlying   psychological   characteris+cs   or  personality  traits) 11
  48. 48. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to   view  the  world   through  one’s  own   cultural filters. PrejudiceStereotypes The  tendency  to   prejudge  others  on the  basis  of  their group membership, solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. Generalized images that  we  have  about  groups  of  people  on  their  underlying   psychological   characteris+cs   or  personality  traits) 11
  49. 49. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to   view  the  world   through  one’s  own   cultural filters. PrejudiceStereotypes The  tendency  to   prejudge  others  on the  basis  of  their group membership, solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. Generalized images that  we  have  about  groups  of  people  on  their  underlying   psychological   characteris+cs   or  personality  traits) 11
  50. 50. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to   view  the  world   through  one’s  own   cultural filters. PrejudiceStereotypes The  tendency  to   prejudge  others  on the  basis  of  their group membership, solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. Generalized images that  we  have  about  groups  of  people  on  their  underlying   psychological   characteris+cs   or  personality  traits) 11
  51. 51. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Review: Ethnocentrism,Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The  tendency  to   view  the  world   through  one’s  own   cultural filters. PrejudiceStereotypes The  tendency  to   prejudge  others  on the  basis  of  their group membership, solely  in  terms of  their  stereotype. Generalized images that  we  have  about  groups  of  people  on  their  underlying   psychological   characteris+cs   or  personality  traits) 11
  52. 52. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization 12
  53. 53. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization Socialization The  process  by  which  we  learn  and  internalize  the rules and patterns of behavior  that  are  affected   by  culture. 12
  54. 54. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization Enculturation Socialization The  process  by  which  we  learn  and  internalize  the rules and patterns of behavior  that  are  affected   by  culture. The  process  by  which  youngsters  learn  and  adopt  the ways and manners  of  their  culture. 12
  55. 55. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization Enculturation Socialization The  process  by  which  we  learn  and  internalize  the rules and patterns of behavior  that  are  affected   by  culture. The  process  by  which  youngsters  learn  and  adopt  the ways and manners  of  their  culture. Process and Mechanism 12
  56. 56. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization Enculturation Socialization The  process  by  which  we  learn  and  internalize  the rules and patterns of behavior  that  are  affected   by  culture. The  process  by  which  youngsters  learn  and  adopt  the ways and manners  of  their  culture. Process and Mechanism 12
  57. 57. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization Enculturation Socialization The  process  by  which  we  learn  and  internalize  the rules and patterns of behavior  that  are  affected   by  culture. The  process  by  which  youngsters  learn  and  adopt  the ways and manners  of  their  culture. Process and Mechanism Products 12
  58. 58. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Enculturation and Socialization Enculturation Socialization The  process  by  which  we  learn  and  internalize  the rules and patterns of behavior  that  are  affected   by  culture. The  process  by  which  youngsters  learn  and  adopt  the ways and manners  of  their  culture. Process and Mechanism Products Socialization (and  encultura=on)  agents:   the  people,  ins=tu=ons,  and  organiza=ons   that  exist  to  help  ensure  that   socializa=on  (or  encultura=on)  occurs. 12
  59. 59. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents 13
  60. 60. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies 13
  61. 61. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies Siblings 13
  62. 62. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies Siblings Extended Families 13
  63. 63. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies Siblings Extended Families Peers 13
  64. 64. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies Siblings Extended Families Peers Day Care 13
  65. 65. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies Siblings Extended Families Peers Day Care Religion Institutions 13
  66. 66. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents Parenting • Goals  and  Beliefs  of  Parents •  Paren+ng  Styles •  Paren+ng  Behaviors  and  Strategies Siblings Extended Families Peers Day Care Religion Institutions Educational System 13
  67. 67. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Parenting Styles Authoritative Sensi+ve  to  the  child’s  maturity  and  are  firm,  fair,   and  reasonable.  Express a  high  degree  of  warmth   and  affec+on  to  them. Uninvolved Do  not  seem   commiNed  to  care   giving,  beyond  the   Minimum  effort  required   to  meet  the  physical   wants  of  their  child. Authoritarian Expect  unques+oned   obedience  and  view  the   child  as  needing  to  be   controlled.  Be  low  on   warmth  and  responsive-­‐ ness  toward  the  children. Permissive Warm  and  nurturing  to   their  children;  allow  them to  regulate  their  own  lives  and  provide  few  firm  guidelines. Parenting Styles Guide & Control Indulgent Warm Cool 14
  68. 68. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization 15
  69. 69. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Postfigurative cultures Cultural  change  is  slow,   Socializa+on  occurs   primarily  by  elders transferring know- ledge  to  their  children. Elders  hold  the  know-­‐ ledge  necessary  for   becoming  a  successful   and  competent  adult. 15
  70. 70. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Cofigurative Cultures Cultural  change  occurs   more  rapidly,  adults   con+nue  to  socialize  their  children,  but  peers play a greater role in  socializing  each  other.   Young  people  may  have   to  turn  to  one  another  for advice  and  informa+on. Postfigurative cultures Cultural  change  is  slow,   Socializa+on  occurs   primarily  by  elders transferring know- ledge  to  their  children. Elders  hold  the  know-­‐ ledge  necessary  for   becoming  a  successful   and  competent  adult. 15
  71. 71. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Cofigurative Cultures Cultural  change  occurs   more  rapidly,  adults   con+nue  to  socialize  their  children,  but  peers play a greater role in  socializing  each  other.   Young  people  may  have   to  turn  to  one  another  for advice  and  informa+on. Prefigurative Cultures Culture  is  changing  so rapidly  that  young   people  may  be  the  ones  to  teach adults.  The   knowledge  that  adults   hold  may  not  be   sufficient  for  the  next  genera+on. Postfigurative cultures Cultural  change  is  slow,   Socializa+on  occurs   primarily  by  elders transferring know- ledge  to  their  children. Elders  hold  the  know-­‐ ledge  necessary  for   becoming  a  successful   and  competent  adult. 15
  72. 72. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Cofigurative Cultures Cultural  change  occurs   more  rapidly,  adults   con+nue  to  socialize  their  children,  but  peers play a greater role in  socializing  each  other.   Young  people  may  have   to  turn  to  one  another  for advice  and  informa+on. Prefigurative Cultures Culture  is  changing  so rapidly  that  young   people  may  be  the  ones  to  teach adults.  The   knowledge  that  adults   hold  may  not  be   sufficient  for  the  next  genera+on. Postfigurative cultures Cultural  change  is  slow,   Socializa+on  occurs   primarily  by  elders transferring know- ledge  to  their  children. Elders  hold  the  know-­‐ ledge  necessary  for   becoming  a  successful   and  competent  adult. Low High 15
  73. 73. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement Cross National Differences in Math Achievement 16
  74. 74. An  Introduc+on  to  Ethnocentrism  and  Accultura+on Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement Cross National Differences in Math Achievement • Language • School Systems • Parental and Family Values • Attitudes and Appraisals of Students • Teaching Styles and Teacher–Student Relationships 16
  75. 75. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)
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