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Pop gen part 1
 

Pop gen part 1

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    Pop gen part 1 Pop gen part 1 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Chapter 3 Population Genetic
    • Concept review… Population genetic Gene pool concept Hardy-Weinberg Law
    • At the end of the lesson, you should be able to :
      • a)Gene pool concept:
      • Explain gene pool and allele frequency
      • Explain population genetics and its relation to allele frequency
      • Explain allele frequency and genetic equilibrium
    • Gene pool concept
    • Gene pool concept
      • Studies the change of frequencies of alleles within a population
      • Population :- a group of individuals of the same species that live in a habitat & may interbreed to produce fertile offspring
      • - shares a same gene pool
      • Gene pool - total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time
      • - consists of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of the population at a given time
    • Gene pool concept
      • For a diploid species, each locus is represented twice in the genome (homozygous / heterozygous)
      • Eg: - A study was done on 10,000 rats, focusing on the fur colour (determined by dominant allele A & recessive allele a)
      • - Data: AA individuals = 6,000
      • Aa individuals = 2,000 aa individuals = 2,000
      • :. Total number of alleles for fur colour = 2(6000) + 2(2000) + 2(2000)
      • = 20000
    • Gene pool concept
      • Each of the allele types has a relative frequency in the gene pool
      • Allele frequency : ratio of any given allele in a population, relative to all the other alleles of that gene at the same locus
      • Eg: - Using the previous data, calculate the allele frequencies for A & a in the gene pool
      • - Total of A alleles = 2(6000) + 1(2000) = 14000
      • - Total of a alleles = 2(2000) + 1(2000) = 6000
      • - Frequency for A alleles = 14000 / 20000 = 0.7
      • - Frequency for a alleles = 6000 / 20000 = 0.3
    • Gene pool concept
      • For a gene locus where only 2 alleles occur in a population, allele frequencies can be calculated using this equation :
      • p + q = 1
      • p = frequency of the dominant allele
      • q = frequency of the recessive allele
      • If q = 0.3, p = 1 – 0.3 = 0.7
    • Gene pool concept
      • Allele frequencies in a gene pool determine the genetic change for a population
      • Naturally, the composition of a gene pool may change over time due to certain factors
      • Change in allele frequencies
      • Change in gene pool
      • Change in genetic composition of population
      • Evolution
    • Gene pool concept
      • If no change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next, the gene pool is considered static
      • This shows that the gene pool is in genetic equilibrium
    • Sekilas pandang… “ Hiduplah dengan penuh cita-cita & harapan, jadilah manusia yang sentiasa berpandangan jauh dan berwawasan…”
    • Sekilas pandang… Thank you for your attention