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Earth’s layers

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  • 1. Earth’s Layers
  • 2. Crust Outer most layer Thinnest 5 to 100 kilometer (km) thick Temperatures range from 0° C to 1000°C
  • 3. Crust Composition: mostly silicon, oxygen, sodium, small amounts of magnesium, potassium, and iron.
  • 4. Crust “Two Types”Continental Crust Thickestup to 100 km at mountains Most abundant rock is granite
  • 5.  Oceanic Crust Asthin as 5 km Most abundant rock is basalt Density averages 3g per cm³
  • 6. Crust/MantleMohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho): Transitionboundary between the crust and mantle
  • 7. Crust/MantleMohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho): This boundary marks a significant change in chemical composition.
  • 8. Mantle 67% of Earth’s mass 2,900 km thick Temperature ranges from 1000° C to 3700 ° C
  • 9. MantleDensity averages from 4.3g to 5.4g per cm³Composition: mostly silicon, oxygen, magnesium, and iron
  • 10. Mantle Convection currents occur here
  • 11. MantleDivided into 3 layers: 1. Lithosphere 2. Asthenosphere 3. Mesophere
  • 12. Mantle Lithosphere: 10 to 300 km thick Solid and made up of crust and mantle material VERY rigid Divided into sections called plates
  • 13. MantleAsthenosphere 250 km thick Soft layer that allows plates to shift
  • 14. MantleMesosphere 2550km thick Lower part of the mantle
  • 15. CoreDivided into 2 layers: 1. Outer Core 2. Inner Core
  • 16. CoreOuter Core Liquid 2200 km thick
  • 17. CoreOuter Core: Composition: Iron and Nickel, 10% sulfur and oxygen
  • 18. CoreOuter Core: Density: 10g to 12g per cm³ Temperature: 4000° to 5000° C
  • 19. CoreInner Core: Solid 1230 km thick About 6380 km beneath Earth’s surface
  • 20. Core Inner Core: Composition: Iron and Nickel Density: 15 g per cm³ Temperature: 5000° to 6000° C
  • 21. Earth’s Layers Scientistsuse indirect methods to gain information and knowledge of Earth’s interior (example: earthquakes).
  • 22. Earth’s Layers Seismic waves from earthquakes travel at different speeds depending on the density and composition of the ground they move through.
  • 23. Earth’s LayersScientists are able to take this information and learn about the interior of Earth.