Presentation

2,101
-1

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,101
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
108
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation

  1. 2. Definition <ul><li>Mechanical ventilator is a machine that generates a controlled flow of gas into a patient’s airways using one of many available modes of ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used when a patient needs help with breathing or can no longer breathe on their own due to injury, illness, or general anaesthesia during surgery. </li></ul>
  2. 3. How does it work? <ul><li>A tube (endotracheal tube) is inserted in the patient's nose, mouth or through a trachy tube into the lungs, (this process is called intubation) and is hooked up to the ventilator. </li></ul><ul><li>The ventilator pumps air and oxygen into the patient's windpipe through the tube. </li></ul>
  3. 4. How does it work cont...? <ul><li>A ventilator can be used to either assist a patient with breathing or it can completely take over the breathing. The ventilator can provide a pressure (PEEP) which helps hold the patient’s lungs open to prevent the sacs from collapsing </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of mechanical ventilation is to reproduce the body's normal breathing mechanism.  </li></ul>
  4. 5. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION <ul><li>Mechanical ventilation can be potentially painful and discomforting if it is not applied properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive ventilator volumes and pressures may exacerbate existing lung injury and increase hospital mortality. </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive ventilation may cause lung injury and trigger an inflammatory response that is characteristic of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). </li></ul>
  5. 6. Complications of mechanical ventilation <ul><li>Ventilator-induced injury. Ex. puemothorax, pulmonary edema, lung injury by inflammation. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular blockage due to sedation </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness (atrophy, myopathy, polineuropathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal and laryngeal injury, (this process is called intubation) </li></ul><ul><li>Mal-positioning of endotracheal tube </li></ul><ul><li>Nasocomial pneumonia. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Risks involved <ul><li>Infections - The endotracheal tube in the windpipe makes it easier for bacteria to get into the lungs. As a result, the lungs develop an infection, which is called pneumonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsed Lung – (pneumothorax). As mechanical ventilator pushes air into the lungs. It is possible for a part of the lung to get over-expanded which can injure it. Air sacs may leak air into the chest cavity and cause the lung to collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung damage - When the lungs are diseased and not functioning well, they are at greater risk of injury. The pressure to put air into the lungs with a ventilator can be hard on the lungs </li></ul>
  7. 8. Types of Ventilation <ul><li>There are two types of ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative pressure ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Positive pressure is the main type of ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>It works by increasing the pressure in the patient's airway and so forcing additional air into the lungs. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Complications of mechanical ventilation <ul><li>Ventilator-induced injury. Ex. puemothorax, pulmonary edema, lung injury by inflammation. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular blockage due to sedation </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness (atrophy, myopathy, polineuropathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal and laryngeal injury, (this process is called intubation) </li></ul><ul><li>Mal-positioning of endotracheal tube </li></ul><ul><li>Nasocomial pneumonia. </li></ul>
  9. 10. INDICATION FOR USE OF VENTILATOR <ul><li>Cardiac and Respiratory arrest, acute lung injury (including trauma) </li></ul><ul><li>Apnea with respiratory arrest, including cases from intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Acute respiratory acidosis which may be due to paralysis of the diaphragm due to Guillain-Barré syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis, spinal cord injury, or the effect of anesthetic and muscle relaxant drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased work of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxemia , coma, tachypnea or bradypnea </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotension including sepsis, shock, congestive heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Blood gases showing persistent hypoxemia </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular disease </li></ul>
  10. 11. Modes of mechanical ventilation <ul><li>Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (delivers a steady pressure of air, which assists the patient's inspiration) </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) (delivers a higher pressure on inspiration, helping the patient obtain a full breath, and a low pressure on expiration, allowing the patient to exhale easily) </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure control (allow pt to control all part of the breath except pressure limit) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical ventilation should be considered when there are clinical or laboratory signs that the patient cannot maintain an airway </li></ul>
  11. 12. Nursing Care <ul><li>Effective securing of the ventilator circuit and ET tube will ensure that disconnection and the risk of self-extubation are reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual observation of patient skin colour and level of comfort can indicate response to ventilation. Observing the rise and fall of the chest can determine whether the ET tube is correctly placed </li></ul><ul><li>demands an aseptic technique </li></ul><ul><li>Regular mouth care </li></ul><ul><li>Suctioning of the airways is necessary because the patient cannot expectorate normally. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular monitoring of the ventilator is required to determine any changes. These include </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal volumes, rate, pressure readings and whether the correct oxygen levels are being administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Whiles pt are on a ventilator it is vital to check their blood gasses regularly to make sure the are getting the right amount of gasses </li></ul>
  12. 13. Remember..... <ul><li>Mechanical ventilators do not actually fix diseases, but rather keep the patient alive while the hospital staffs finds out why the patient has difficulty breathing and treats the disease that is causing the difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite their life-saving benefits, mechanical ventilators carry many risks. The goal is to help patients recover as quickly as possible to get them off the ventilator at the earliest possible time. </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×