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  1. 1. Language and Literature from Aryans
  2. 2. Index <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Literature (Epics) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramayana </li></ul><ul><li>Mahabharata </li></ul><ul><li>Upanishads </li></ul><ul><li>Puranas </li></ul><ul><li>Aryankas </li></ul><ul><li>Brahamans </li></ul><ul><li>Vedas </li></ul><ul><li>Rig Veda </li></ul><ul><li>Sama Veda </li></ul><ul><li>Yajur Veda </li></ul><ul><li>Atharva Veda </li></ul>
  3. 3. Language <ul><li>There are many scripts of Indo-Aryan language. </li></ul><ul><li>They are divided into 3 groups:- </li></ul><ul><li>1.Old Indo-Aryan Vedic and classical sanskrit.(1500-200 B.C) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Middle Indo-Aryan-Pali and prakrit was a everyday language till 1200 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Modern Indo-Aryan-Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, etc started in 1200 A.D. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Indo-Aryan or Indic language is a branch of Indo-Iranian language which is a part/ branch of Indo-European. </li></ul><ul><li>Scriptures of Buddhism is written in Pali. </li></ul><ul><li>Scriptures of Jainism is written in Prakrit. </li></ul><ul><li>Most scripts of Indo-Aryan language can be traced to Brahmi. </li></ul><ul><li>Devnagari is derived from Brahmi. All the other scripts and languages like Sanskrit, Prakrit, Hindi, Gujarati, etc are derived from Devnagari . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Literature
  6. 6. Ramayana <ul><li>The Ramayana is considered the first poem and is written by saint Valmiki. Its present form has seven books and has about 24,000 slokas or verses, though the last book is written later in the middle Aryan age was probably first book. Treatment of Rama as an immortal god, an incarnation of Vishnu, is mostly found in these later books. Nevertheless the entire poem is heroic. The story tells how Rama is forced to go out of Ayodhya for 14years and there in forest there is a fight between Rama and Ravana because he kidnapped Sita because his father had insulted him in the Durbar. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mahabharat a <ul><li>The legendary author of the Mahabharata is Ved Vyasa, who is also given authority for writing the Vedas and writing the Puranas . The 2,000 words of the Bharata were gradually expanded to become over 100,000, making the Mahabharata the longest poem. Ved Vyasa managed to show himself in the poem as the Mantri of the two kings whose sons fight for the kingdom of Bharata. Dhritarashtra is born blind because his mother closed her eyes, and Pandu is pale because his mother Ambika was pale with fear. </li></ul>
  8. 8. UPNISHADS <ul><li>This contains the main idea that constitute the logical aspect of the Hindu philosophy. They do not lay importance to money, ceremonies . The Upanishads are dated between 800 BC and 500 BC. The Upanishads  are about 100 in number. The Brahadaranyaka Upanishads, Chandogva  Upanishad, Aitreya Upanishad  are a few. The Upanishads reflects the richness and universality of the Indian culture. They are said to be the thinking power of the Brahmana and the Kshatriyas.  </li></ul>
  9. 9. PURANAS <ul><li>The great sages, have revealed many Vedic literatures, such as the Puranas. The Puranas are not imaginative; they are actual histories, not only of this planet but of other planets within the creation. Srila Vyasadeva, due to his kindness and sympathy toward the fallen souls, compared the Vedas with Puranas which easily explain the Vedic truths, intended for different types of people. “The Vedas and Puranas are one and the same in purpose. They ascertain the Absolute Truth, which is greater than everything else. </li></ul><ul><li>These are legends connected with epics and law books. They are 18 in number and are mostly recognized in North India . The Vishnu Purana, for example, should treat of five subjects namely  primary creation, secondary creations, Genealogies of gods in history of ancient dynasties. The Vayupurana  is one of the oldest the Puranas. It was edited during the age of Guptas  when there was a great revival of the Sanskrit language. The other Puranas include Matsya and Brahmanda  which gives us account of the kings up to the imperial Gupta dynasty with other literature. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ARYANKAS <ul><li>The Aranyankas are called the forest texts, because life into the forest to study the spiritual study with their students, leading to less importance on the sacrificial rites that were still performed in the towns. They were transitional between the Brahmanas and the Upanishads in that they still discuss rites and have magical content, dull lists of formulas and some hymns from the Vedas as well as the early logical discussions that flowered in the Upanishads . The sages who took in students in their forest fees were not as wealthy as the Brahmins in the towns who served royalty and other wealthy clients. </li></ul>
  11. 11. BRAHMANAS <ul><li>Between about 900 and 700 BC the Brahmanas were written in prose as sacrificed commentaries on the four Vedas to guide the practices of the sacrifices and give explanations often mythical and fanciful for these customs. However, their limited focus of justifying the priestly actions in the sacrifices restricted the themes of these first attempts at imaginative literature. Nevertheless they do give us information about the social customs of this period and serve as a transition from the Vedas to the Aranyakas and the mystical Upanishads . </li></ul>
  12. 12. VEDAS <ul><li>The vedas were the sources of reconstructing the vedic period. The oldest being the Rigveda, The Samaveda, Yajurveda  and Adharvaveda had their own significance. The sama veda contains the verses from the Rigveda. The hymns in it were  relevant  to it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Yajurveda also consist of hymns from the Rig Veda, more than half of this is in prose to facilitate the performance of sacrifices. It depicts the social and religious condition of this period. The Atharva Veda contains philosophic speculations, popular cults and superstitions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. RIG VEDA <ul><li>The Rig-Veda Samhita is the oldest significant extant Indian Liteature. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 versions in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas ). </li></ul><ul><li>The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period of at least 500 years, which Avari dates as 1400 BC to 900 BC, if not earlier according to Max Müller, based on internal evidence (philological and linguistic), the Rigveda was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE (the early Vedic period) in the Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) region of the Indian subcontinent. </li></ul><ul><li>There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the Rigveda and the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the Andronovo culture; the earliest horse-drawn chariots were found at Andronovo sites in the Sintashta-Petrovka cultural area near the Ural mountains and date to ca. 2000 BC. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SAMA VEDA <ul><li>The Sama-Veda (Sanskrit sāmaveda ) is the &quot;Veda of chants&quot; or &quot;Knowledge of melodies&quot;. The name of this Veda is from the Sanskrit word sāman which means a hymn or song of praise.It consists of 1549 stanzas, taken entirely (except 78) from the Rig-Veda Some of the Rig-Veda versions are repeated more than once. Including repetitions, there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Sama-Veda. </li></ul><ul><li>Its purpose was practical, to serve as a songbook for the &quot;singer&quot; priests who took part. A priest who sings hymns from the Sama-Veda during a ritual is called an ud-gai , a word derived from the Sanskrit root ud-gai (&quot;to sing&quot; or &quot;to chant&quot;). The styles of chanting are important to the use of the verses. The hymns were to be sung according to certain fixed melodies; hence the name of the collection. </li></ul>
  15. 15. ATHARVA VEDA <ul><li>The Artharva-Veda is the &quot;Knowledge of the [atharvans] (and Angirasa)&quot;. The Artharva-Veda or Atharvangirasa is the text 'belonging to the Atharvan and Angirasa' poets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Atharva-Veda Saṃhitā has 760 hymns, and about one-sixth of the hymns are in common with the Rig-Veda. Most of the verses, but some sections are in prose. </li></ul><ul><li>It was made around 900 BC, although some of its material may go back to the time of the Rig Veda, and some parts of the Atharva-Veda are older than the Rig-Veda. </li></ul>
  16. 16. THANK YOU Done by Nirman Dave