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NURSING 105 NURSING MANAGEMENT Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM Clinical Instructor
WELCOME AGAIN TO NCM 105 NURSING MANAGEMENT!!! Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM Instructor
House Rules <ul><li>Sit alphabetically  </li></ul><ul><li>Start the day with morning prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Come on time...
Key Concepts in Management <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Con...
What comes into mind when you talk about management?
What comes into mind when you talk about management? People Processes Structure Function Policies Authority Organization P...
What is MANAGEMENT? <ul><li>Process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals , working together in...
MANAGEMENT (???) <ul><li>Is just one component of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Is the coordination and integration of reso...
A theory   is a coherent group of assumption put forth to explain the relationship between two or more observable facts an...
<ul><li>Why study management? </li></ul><ul><li>Guide management decision </li></ul><ul><li>Shape our view of organization...
TRADITIONAL THEORIES MODIFICATION CONTEMPORARY 1900s 1940s 1970s EVOLUTION OF ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES
Traditional/ Classical   Theories Modifications Contemporary Approaches   Scientific Management Efficient Task Performance...
Scientific Management <ul><li>Frederick W. Taylor  </li></ul><ul><li>(1856 – 1917) </li></ul>
Man as a Mechanism in the Factory <ul><li>Developed theory called “Scientific Management” </li></ul><ul><li>Measured preci...
Man as a Mechanism in the Factory <ul><li>Instituted “rest periods” to maximize endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to maxi...
Frederick W. Taylor (1856 – 1917) <ul><li>Break down work into discrete parts </li></ul><ul><li>Only one “best way” to do ...
Complaints Against Taylorism <ul><li>His most famous studies (shoveling) were not groundbreaking </li></ul><ul><li>Much of...
Complaints Against Taylorism <ul><li>Taylorism is only useful for managing “children,” “morons,” and the “mentally retarde...
Gantt and Williams Towards a More Sensitive Workplace <ul><li>Gantt was originally a protégé of Taylor at Bethlehem Steel ...
Gantt and Williams Towards a More Sensitive Workplace <ul><li>Demanded management buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the G...
Gantt and Williams Towards a More Sensitive Workplace <ul><li>Williams was a proponent of Social Gospel </li></ul><ul><li>...
F.W. Taylor and  Scientific Management <ul><li>The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purp...
Henri Fayol (1925) <ul><li>Identified 4 management functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Org...
Luther Gulick (1937) <ul><li>Expanded management activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orga...
<ul><li>Find drawing to put in this slide!!!! </li></ul>
Four Principles of  Scientific Management <ul><li>Study the way employees perform their tasks, gather informal job knowled...
Four Principles of  Scientific Management <ul><li>Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standa...
Four Principles of  Scientific Management <ul><li>Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities tha...
Four Principles of  Scientific Management <ul><li>Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develo...
Bureaucratic Model <ul><li>Max Weber (1864 – 1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed the need for a strictly defined hierarchy  g...
Organization  -  take the form of a Bureaucratic structure. BUREAUCRATIC MODEL RATIONAL-LEGAL/AUTHORITY The right to exerc...
Dimensions of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Division of labor based on functional specialization </li></ul><ul><li>A well-defined hi...
Dimensions of Bureaucracy <ul><li>A system of rules covering the  rights and duties of position </li></ul><ul><li>A system...
Dimensions of Bureaucracy <ul><li>An impersonality in interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>A system of promotion and ...
Limitations of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Appropriate for the past where environment was relatively stable and predictable </li><...
Limitations of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Today’s environments are more turbulent and unpredictable. </li></ul>
Limitations of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Too general for today’s highly complex organization and specialization. </li></ul>
Human Relations
Human Relations Movement <ul><li>Mary Parker  Follet  - had considered workers as human </li></ul><ul><li>Chester  Bernard...
Mary Parker Follett (1927) <ul><li>Management must consider the human side </li></ul><ul><li>Employees should be involved ...
Mary Parker Follett <ul><li>Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position </li...
Mary Parker Follett <ul><li>Participative management </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused that managers should have authority with, ...
Hawthorne Experiments <ul><li>Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Western Electric’s Hawthorne Plant-Chicago </li><...
The Hawthorne Effect <ul><li>The possibility that workers who receive special attention will perform better simply because...
The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employ...
The Hawthorne Studies_2 <ul><li>Factors influencing behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention from researchers </li></ul><...
H.R. in essence!!!!!!!! <ul><li>Manager and subordinate relation </li></ul><ul><li>Early attempt to discover the social an...
Contribution of H.R. <ul><li>Improved classical approach by stressing social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on workers – no...
Contribution of H.R. <ul><li>Emphasized management skill rather than technical skill </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on group dyna...
Behavioral Science <ul><li>HR developed into BS </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>So...
Behavioral Science <ul><li>Argyris, Maslow, McGragor  </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualizing – a more accurate concept to expl...
Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Taught in Psychology and Industrial Management in MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Theory X and T...
Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory X (classical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>workers are lazy and want to be told what to do and ha...
Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory X  </li></ul><ul><li>Average employee is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little...
Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory Y (based on developments in social sciences)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employees want autonom...
Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed </l...
Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory Y required a change in  management , not a change in the wo...
Contributions of Behavioral Science <ul><li>Understanding of individual motivation, group behavior interpersonal relations...
Limitations of Behavioral Science <ul><li>Its potential not fully realized </li></ul><ul><li>managers resist suggestion </...
Limitations of Behavioral Science <ul><li>Model, theories and jargon are too complicated and abstract  to  practicing mana...
TRADITIONAL THEORIES MODIFICATION CONTEMPORARY 1900s 1940s 1970s EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES
Traditional/ Classical   Theories Modifications Contemporary Approaches   Scientific Management Efficient Task Performance...
History of Management Thought 1890  1900  1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000 Traditional  Viewpoin...
Japanese Theory Z Characteristics of a Theory Z  <ul><li>Long-term employment, often for a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Rela...
Japanese Theory Z Characteristics of a Theory Z  <ul><li>Development of company-specific skills & moderately specialized c...
Japanese Theory Z Characteristics of a Theory Z <ul><li>Participative decision-making but individual ultimate responsibili...
System Analysis Management <ul><li>An approach to problem solving based on an understanding of the basic structure of syst...
Basic Systems View of Organization Environment Adapted from Figure 2.4 INPUTS Human, physical, financial, and information ...
The Contingency Perspective <ul><li>A view that proposes that there is no one best approach to management for all situatio...
Blending Components into a Contingency Perspective
Contingency Viewpoint <ul><li>Behavioral Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>How managers influence others: </li></ul><ul><li>Info...
An Example of the Contingency Perspective <ul><li>Joan Woodward’s Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered that a particu...
The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Characterized by its use of mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative technique...
The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>This approach has four basic characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decision-making...
The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Decision-Making Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary focus of the quantitative app...
The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Measurable Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decision-making process requires that t...
The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Quantitative Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess the likely impact of each alternat...
Management in the 21 st  Century <ul><li>William Ouchi’s Theory Z </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese-style approach to managem...
Total Quality Management <ul><li>Organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of  customer sa...
UNDERSTANDING MANAGEMENT
Understanding Functions of Management <ul><li>Analysis of management is facilitated by breaking it down into five manageri...
<ul><li>Roles of managers  (Mintzberg)   </li></ul>Understanding Functions of Management <ul><li>Interpersonal roles </li>...
<ul><li>Roles of managers  (Mintzberg)   </li></ul>Understanding Functions of Management <ul><li>Decision roles </li></ul>...
Why Management is essential for any Organization? <ul><li>Managers are charged with the responsibility of taking actions t...
Goals of Managers? Surplus Profit org Non-profit org Money Time Materials Personal dissatisfaction e. g.  VS I & O Bedmaking
Goals of Managers? Productivity Productivity =  Outputs Inputs (within time period, quality considered) <ul><li>Increasing...
Hospital Process Inputs Processing Outputs Employees, Staff Examination Healthy patients Hospital Surgery Medical Supplies...
Management: An Art or a Science? Managing as  practice  is an  ART Organized knowledge  underlying the  practice  is the  ...
<ul><li>Understanding Organizational Structure and Function </li></ul>
Relationships within organizations <ul><li>Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><li>Path of authority and accountability from on...
Relationships within organizations <ul><li>Components of Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers or levels –  simple...
<ul><li>Span of Control </li></ul><ul><li>  Refers to number of subordinates and different tasks for which a person in aut...
Span of Control
Organizational Charts <ul><li>A diagram of organization that clearly presents its formal structure with persons and depart...
Organizational Charts <ul><li>Tells size of the organization and its chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>Shows relationship...
Limitations of  Organizational Charts <ul><li>Does not show informal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot depict degree of a...
Organizational Charts Authority Accountability Vertical line  represents responsibility of  Individuals to supervise other...
Organizational Charts
Organizational Charts Horizontal  solid lines connect individuals  at the same level in the organization and  have officia...
Organizational Charts
Organizational Charts Dotted lines  represent communication  relationships in which neither individual has direct authorit...
Organizational Charts
<ul><li>Lines of Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Represent the responsibility of individuals to supervise officially </li></ul...
<ul><li>Lines of Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Upward direction  means accoun...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flat  or Decentralized Structure...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Usually narrow </li></ul><ul><li...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>*ab...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Flat  or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Have few levels and broad spa...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Flat  or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Flat  or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Matrix Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Either tall or flat </li></ul><ul><li>Unique ...
Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Parallel Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Employees collective bargaining organiz...
Organizational Function <ul><li>Organization functions according to what it has set to do which are stated in….. </li></ul...
Organizational Function <ul><li>Philosophy Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects the purpose of organization </li></ul><ul>...
Organizational Functions <ul><li>VMG </li></ul><ul><li>Vision  – how the organization envisions itself, desires of organiz...
Organizational Function <ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Help define organizational structure and function </li>...
Organizational Function <ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Official statements that guide the behavior of i...
Organizational Function <ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as legal safeguard for the organization by...
What is an Informal Organization? <ul><li>Arise to meet social needs of the people within an organization </li></ul><ul><l...
Problems of IO <ul><li>Detrimental to formal organization </li></ul><ul><li>May resist needed change </li></ul><ul><li>May...
Organizational Climate <ul><li>Effects of Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Formal policies describe expected behaviors of indivi...
Organizational Climate <ul><li>Effects of Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y – people find work intrinsically rewarding, ...
Organizational Climate <ul><li>Effect of Supervisory Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Manner how supervisors carry out policies ...
Organizational Climate <ul><li>The informal organization culture and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals relate on a per...
<ul><li>Understanding Management </li></ul>
<ul><li>Process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals , working together in groups, efficiently...
<ul><li>the art of getting things done through people </li></ul><ul><li>getting the right things done at the right time </...
What is Nursing Management? <ul><li>Relates to planning , organizing, staffing, directing and controlling the activities o...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><l...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Manager makes m...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Managers issue orders and expect to be obeye...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Strong control is maintained </li></ul><ul><...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Results to well...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Democratic Management Style </li></ul><ul><li>Involves subordinates in decision making </li><...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Democratic Management Style </li></ul><ul><li>Manager leads by providing information, suggest...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers are cons...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Decision become...
Types of Management  <ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Employees think...
Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire  </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive management </li></ul><ul><li>Least structure and c...
Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire  </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of little or no direction </li></ul><ul><li>Communi...
Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire  </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Providing maximum support and fr...
Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire  </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Not possible to let workers a...
Types of Management <ul><li>Multicratic </li></ul><ul><li>One skill of a manager is identifying which style a particular s...
Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>First-level mana...
Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at the whole organization </li></ul><ul><li>Coordi...
Levels of Management <ul><li>Responsibilities of top-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Determining philosophy </li></ul><ul...
Levels of Management <ul><li>Middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates effort of lower levels of the hierarchy <...
Levels of Management <ul><li>First-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with specific unit workflow </li></ul><ul><l...
Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>First-level mana...
POSTTEST <ul><li>Answer the following as fast as you can: </li></ul><ul><li>What is management? (3 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Differentiating the </li></ul><ul><li>Leader  </li></ul><ul><li>and  </li></ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul>
Similarities and Differences Leaders Managers <ul><li>May or may not have official appointment to the position </li></ul><...
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  • Transcript of "9884105"

    1. 1. NURSING 105 NURSING MANAGEMENT Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM Clinical Instructor
    2. 2. WELCOME AGAIN TO NCM 105 NURSING MANAGEMENT!!! Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM Instructor
    3. 3. House Rules <ul><li>Sit alphabetically </li></ul><ul><li>Start the day with morning prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Come on time </li></ul><ul><li>Come in complete uniform </li></ul><ul><li>All cellphones must be in your bags and in silent mode </li></ul><ul><li>No gum during the class </li></ul><ul><li>Break time is strictly 15 mins </li></ul><ul><li>Come prepared (meaning read…read…read) </li></ul><ul><li>Submit written assignment on time, late papers will be considered 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Ask permission if you have to go to CR </li></ul><ul><li>Participate during discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Talk when you have been recognized already </li></ul>
    4. 4. Key Concepts in Management <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul>
    5. 5. What comes into mind when you talk about management?
    6. 6. What comes into mind when you talk about management? People Processes Structure Function Policies Authority Organization Procedures Responsibility VMG Communication Resources
    7. 7. What is MANAGEMENT? <ul><li>Process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals , working together in groups, efficiently accomplish certain goals or aims </li></ul><ul><li>Manager carries out PODC, POSLC </li></ul><ul><li>Applies at all levels of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with productivity; effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul>Koontz and Weihrich
    8. 8. MANAGEMENT (???) <ul><li>Is just one component of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Is the coordination and integration of resources through planning, organizing, directing, and controlling in order to accomplish specific institutional goals and objectives </li></ul>Sullivan and Decker 1988
    9. 9. A theory is a coherent group of assumption put forth to explain the relationship between two or more observable facts and to provide a sound basis for predicting future events.
    10. 10. <ul><li>Why study management? </li></ul><ul><li>Guide management decision </li></ul><ul><li>Shape our view of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Make us aware of the organiztional/business environment </li></ul><ul><li>A source of new idea </li></ul>
    11. 11. TRADITIONAL THEORIES MODIFICATION CONTEMPORARY 1900s 1940s 1970s EVOLUTION OF ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES
    12. 12. Traditional/ Classical Theories Modifications Contemporary Approaches Scientific Management Efficient Task Performance Bureaucratic Model Administrative Theory Universal Management Principles Management Science Economic Technical Rationality System Approach Contingency View No Best Method -Situational Factors. Authority & Structure Human Relation Subsystem & Environment Behavourial Science Psychology, Sociology, etc.
    13. 13. Scientific Management <ul><li>Frederick W. Taylor </li></ul><ul><li>(1856 – 1917) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Man as a Mechanism in the Factory <ul><li>Developed theory called “Scientific Management” </li></ul><ul><li>Measured precisely the rate at which certain tasks were performed, or the precise shovel blade size to shove most effectively </li></ul>Give me a job, give me security. Give me a chance to survive I'm just a poor soul in the unemployment line My God, I'm hardly alive
    15. 15. Man as a Mechanism in the Factory <ul><li>Instituted “rest periods” to maximize endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to maximize efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Changed piece-work rates so workers got more per piece if they were more productive </li></ul>Give me a job, give me security. Give me a chance to survive I'm just a poor soul in the unemployment line My God, I'm hardly alive
    16. 16. Frederick W. Taylor (1856 – 1917) <ul><li>Break down work into discrete parts </li></ul><ul><li>Only one “best way” to do a job </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by money to accept the “best way” </li></ul>
    17. 17. Complaints Against Taylorism <ul><li>His most famous studies (shoveling) were not groundbreaking </li></ul><ul><li>Much of his data were not coherent, suggesting it had been falsified </li></ul><ul><li>His “rest periods” were when the men walked back empty </li></ul>“ The copper bosses shot you, Joe. They shot you, Joe,” says I. “Takes more than guns to kill a man,” says Joe, “I didn’t die.”
    18. 18. Complaints Against Taylorism <ul><li>Taylorism is only useful for managing “children,” “morons,” and the “mentally retarded.” (Argyris) </li></ul><ul><li>Called “the main cause of the main causes of our ills and troubles in industry and management today” (Pollard) </li></ul>“ The copper bosses shot you, Joe. They shot you, Joe,” says I. “Takes more than guns to kill a man,” says Joe, “I didn’t die.”
    19. 19. Gantt and Williams Towards a More Sensitive Workplace <ul><li>Gantt was originally a protégé of Taylor at Bethlehem Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Scientific Management to make it less rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Insisted on a minimum day wage </li></ul>Come all you workers and hear what I say, They're trying to plunder the eight-hour day, Won by our forbears in a bloody campaign, So rise up and be in the struggle again.
    20. 20. Gantt and Williams Towards a More Sensitive Workplace <ul><li>Demanded management buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the Gantt chart to help schedule subtasks and processes required for project completion </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted “backcasting,” a forerunner to MBO </li></ul>
    21. 21. Gantt and Williams Towards a More Sensitive Workplace <ul><li>Williams was a proponent of Social Gospel </li></ul><ul><li>Left management position to work in mines, mills, refineries, ship yards, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered that all people measured their value to society by their job </li></ul><ul><li>As a consultant, would work on his clients’ shop floors to learn what the workers wanted </li></ul>
    22. 22. F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management <ul><li>The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of and effort each employee expends to produce a unit of output can be reduced by increasing specialization and the division of labor </li></ul>
    23. 23. Henri Fayol (1925) <ul><li>Identified 4 management functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Luther Gulick (1937) <ul><li>Expanded management activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgeting </li></ul></ul>POSDCoRB
    25. 25. <ul><li>Find drawing to put in this slide!!!! </li></ul>
    26. 26. Four Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Study the way employees perform their tasks, gather informal job knowledge that employees possess, and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed </li></ul>
    27. 27. Four Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures </li></ul>
    28. 28. Four Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task, and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures </li></ul>
    29. 29. Four Principles of Scientific Management <ul><li>Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level </li></ul>
    30. 30. Bureaucratic Model <ul><li>Max Weber (1864 – 1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed the need for a strictly defined hierarchy governed by clearly defined regulations and lines of authority. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Organization - take the form of a Bureaucratic structure. BUREAUCRATIC MODEL RATIONAL-LEGAL/AUTHORITY The right to exercise authority based on position. <ul><li>position with power </li></ul><ul><li>compensation : fixed salary </li></ul><ul><li>hierarchy of authority </li></ul><ul><li>technical competence </li></ul><ul><li>governed by rules and regulations </li></ul>
    32. 32. Dimensions of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Division of labor based on functional specialization </li></ul><ul><li>A well-defined hierarchy of authority </li></ul>
    33. 33. Dimensions of Bureaucracy <ul><li>A system of rules covering the rights and duties of position </li></ul><ul><li>A system of procedures for dealing with work situations </li></ul>
    34. 34. Dimensions of Bureaucracy <ul><li>An impersonality in interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>A system of promotion and selection for employment based on technical competence. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Limitations of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Appropriate for the past where environment was relatively stable and predictable </li></ul>
    36. 36. Limitations of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Today’s environments are more turbulent and unpredictable. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Limitations of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Too general for today’s highly complex organization and specialization. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Human Relations
    39. 39. Human Relations Movement <ul><li>Mary Parker Follet - had considered workers as human </li></ul><ul><li>Chester Bernard - social need, psychological need of individual & group </li></ul>
    40. 40. Mary Parker Follett (1927) <ul><li>Management must consider the human side </li></ul><ul><li>Employees should be involved in job analysis </li></ul>
    41. 41. Mary Parker Follett <ul><li>Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects </li></ul>
    42. 42. Mary Parker Follett <ul><li>Participative management </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused that managers should have authority with, rather than over, employees </li></ul>
    43. 43. Hawthorne Experiments <ul><li>Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Western Electric’s Hawthorne Plant-Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Studied relationship between level of lighting in the work-place and workers productivity </li></ul><ul><li>‘Hawthorne effect’ </li></ul>
    44. 44. The Hawthorne Effect <ul><li>The possibility that workers who receive special attention will perform better simply because they received that attention </li></ul>
    45. 45. The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance (i.e., lighting) </li></ul><ul><li>Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered </li></ul>
    46. 46. The Hawthorne Studies_2 <ul><li>Factors influencing behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention from researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager’s leadership approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work group norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Hawthorne Effect” </li></ul>
    47. 47. H.R. in essence!!!!!!!! <ul><li>Manager and subordinate relation </li></ul><ul><li>Early attempt to discover the social and psychological factor that would create effective human relation. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Contribution of H.R. <ul><li>Improved classical approach by stressing social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on workers – not on techniques </li></ul>
    49. 49. Contribution of H.R. <ul><li>Emphasized management skill rather than technical skill </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on group dynamics rather than individual </li></ul>
    50. 50. Behavioral Science <ul><li>HR developed into BS </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Social man – motivated by desire for form relationships with others </li></ul>
    51. 51. Behavioral Science <ul><li>Argyris, Maslow, McGragor </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualizing – a more accurate concept to explain Human Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Complex man” </li></ul><ul><li>No two people are exactly alike. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Taught in Psychology and Industrial Management in MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Theory X and Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging the gap between the management and labor </li></ul>
    53. 53. Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory X (classical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>workers are lazy and want to be told what to do and have decisions made for them </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>Average employee is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment </li></ul>
    55. 55. Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory Y (based on developments in social sciences) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employees want autonomy, job satisfaction, responsibility, and will work hard when they are appreciated </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed </li></ul><ul><li>Manager’s task is to create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative </li></ul>
    57. 57. Douglas McGregor <ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory Y required a change in management , not a change in the worker or the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalized ideas many good managers already practiced but could not define </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also credited with inadvertently fathering the Human Potential Movement </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Contributions of Behavioral Science <ul><li>Understanding of individual motivation, group behavior interpersonal relationship at work and the importance of work to human beings </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to contribute new insights in important areas as leadership, conflict, power, organizational change and communication </li></ul>
    59. 59. Limitations of Behavioral Science <ul><li>Its potential not fully realized </li></ul><ul><li>managers resist suggestion </li></ul>
    60. 60. Limitations of Behavioral Science <ul><li>Model, theories and jargon are too complicated and abstract to practicing manager </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to interpret by practicing managers </li></ul>
    61. 61. TRADITIONAL THEORIES MODIFICATION CONTEMPORARY 1900s 1940s 1970s EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES
    62. 62. Traditional/ Classical Theories Modifications Contemporary Approaches Scientific Management Efficient Task Performance Bureaucratic Model Administrative Theory Universal Management Principles Management Science Economic Technical Rationality System Approach Contingency View No Best Method -Situational Factors. Authority & Structure Human Relation Subsystem & Environment Behavourial Science Psychology, Sociology, etc.
    63. 63. History of Management Thought 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Traditional Viewpoint Quality Viewpoint Contingency Viewpoint Systems Viewpoint Behavioral Viewpoint Adapted from Figure 2.1 2.2
    64. 64. Japanese Theory Z Characteristics of a Theory Z <ul><li>Long-term employment, often for a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively slow process of evaluation and promotion </li></ul>
    65. 65. Japanese Theory Z Characteristics of a Theory Z <ul><li>Development of company-specific skills & moderately specialized career path </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit, informal control mechanisms supported by explicit, formal measures </li></ul>
    66. 66. Japanese Theory Z Characteristics of a Theory Z <ul><li>Participative decision-making but individual ultimate responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Broad concern for the welfare of subordinates & co-workers as a natural part of a working relationship & informal relationships among people </li></ul>
    67. 67. System Analysis Management <ul><li>An approach to problem solving based on an understanding of the basic structure of systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open systems must interact with the external environment to survive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed systems do not interact with the environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergy: when all subsystems work together making the whole greater than the sum of its parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entropy: the tendency for systems to decay over time </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Basic Systems View of Organization Environment Adapted from Figure 2.4 INPUTS Human, physical, financial, and information resources OUTPUTS Products and Services TRANS-FORMATION PROCESS Feedback loops 2.7
    69. 69. The Contingency Perspective <ul><li>A view that proposes that there is no one best approach to management for all situations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asserts that managers are responsible for determining which managerial approach is likely to be most effective in a given situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This requires managers to identify the key contingencies in a given situation. </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Blending Components into a Contingency Perspective
    71. 71. Contingency Viewpoint <ul><li>Behavioral Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>How managers influence others: </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Group </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation among employees </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>How the parts fit together: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>What managers do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contingency Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Managers’ use of other viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>to solve problems involving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Figure 2.5 2.8
    72. 72. An Example of the Contingency Perspective <ul><li>Joan Woodward’s Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered that a particular management style is affected by the organization’s technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified and described three different types of technology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small-batch technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass-production technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous-process technology </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 73. The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Characterized by its use of mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques for management decision making and problem solving. </li></ul>
    74. 74. The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>This approach has four basic characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decision-making focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of measurable criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulation of a quantitative model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of computers </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Decision-Making Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary focus of the quantitative approach is on problems or situations that require direct action, or a decision, on the part of management. </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Measurable Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decision-making process requires that the decision maker select some alternative course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The alternatives must be compared on the basis of measurable criteria. </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. The Quantitative Perspective <ul><li>Quantitative Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess the likely impact of each alternative on the stated criteria, a quantitative model of the decision situation must be formulated. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers are quite useful in the problem-solving process. </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Management in the 21 st Century <ul><li>William Ouchi’s Theory Z </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese-style approach to management developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advocates trusting employees and making them feel like an integral part of the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the assumption that once a trusting relationship with workers is established, production will increase. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    79. 79. Total Quality Management <ul><li>Organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training </li></ul><ul><li>This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services. </li></ul>Total Quality Management
    80. 80. UNDERSTANDING MANAGEMENT
    81. 81. Understanding Functions of Management <ul><li>Analysis of management is facilitated by breaking it down into five managerial functions/processes </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Leading </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul>
    82. 82. <ul><li>Roles of managers (Mintzberg) </li></ul>Understanding Functions of Management <ul><li>Interpersonal roles </li></ul><ul><li>Figurehead role </li></ul><ul><li>Leader role </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison role </li></ul><ul><li>Informational roles </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient role </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminator role </li></ul><ul><li>Spokesperson role </li></ul>
    83. 83. <ul><li>Roles of managers (Mintzberg) </li></ul>Understanding Functions of Management <ul><li>Decision roles </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial role </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance-handler role </li></ul><ul><li>Resource allocator role </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiator role </li></ul>
    84. 84. Why Management is essential for any Organization? <ul><li>Managers are charged with the responsibility of taking actions that will make it possible for individuals to make their best contributions to group objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to small or large organization </li></ul><ul><li>Profit or non-profit organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing or service industries </li></ul>Who are the managers that you know?
    85. 85. Goals of Managers? Surplus Profit org Non-profit org Money Time Materials Personal dissatisfaction e. g. VS I & O Bedmaking
    86. 86. Goals of Managers? Productivity Productivity = Outputs Inputs (within time period, quality considered) <ul><li>Increasing O with same I </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing I but maintaining same O </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing O and decreasing I to change ratio favorably </li></ul>Effectiveness Efficiency
    87. 87. Hospital Process Inputs Processing Outputs Employees, Staff Examination Healthy patients Hospital Surgery Medical Supplies Monitoring Equipment Medication Laboratories Therapy
    88. 88. Management: An Art or a Science? Managing as practice is an ART Organized knowledge underlying the practice is the SCIENCE
    89. 89. <ul><li>Understanding Organizational Structure and Function </li></ul>
    90. 90. Relationships within organizations <ul><li>Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><li>Path of authority and accountability from one individual at the bottom of the organization to the very top administrative authority </li></ul><ul><li>This is also referred to Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. nurse-HN-NS-CN </li></ul>
    91. 91. Relationships within organizations <ul><li>Components of Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers or levels – simple to complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow communication – errors, gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationship – formal, informal </li></ul></ul>
    92. 92. <ul><li>Span of Control </li></ul><ul><li> Refers to number of subordinates and different tasks for which a person in authority is responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow Span of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for only a few people and one or two tasks areas </li></ul><ul><li>Broad Span of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for many people and a variety of tasks areas </li></ul>Relationships within organizations
    93. 93. Span of Control
    94. 94. Organizational Charts <ul><li>A diagram of organization that clearly presents its formal structure with persons and departments and their relationships to one another </li></ul><ul><li>Large organization commonly have OC </li></ul><ul><li>Small may operate informally, OC may not be available </li></ul>
    95. 95. Organizational Charts <ul><li>Tells size of the organization and its chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>Shows relationships between units or departments </li></ul><ul><li>Boxes represent individuals or a department </li></ul><ul><li>Solid lines represent communication </li></ul>
    96. 96. Limitations of Organizational Charts <ul><li>Does not show informal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot depict degree of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes obsolete quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Does not define responsibility and accountability </li></ul>
    97. 97. Organizational Charts Authority Accountability Vertical line represents responsibility of Individuals to supervise others officially
    98. 98. Organizational Charts
    99. 99. Organizational Charts Horizontal solid lines connect individuals at the same level in the organization and have official relationship
    100. 100. Organizational Charts
    101. 101. Organizational Charts Dotted lines represent communication relationships in which neither individual has direct authority or accountability to the other and they do not have the same supervisor
    102. 102. Organizational Charts
    103. 103. <ul><li>Lines of Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Represent the responsibility of individuals to supervise officially </li></ul><ul><li>Downward direction </li></ul><ul><li>Shows authority over those who are lower on the chart and connected by solid lines </li></ul>Organizational Charts
    104. 104. <ul><li>Lines of Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Upward direction means accountable to individual in the higher level </li></ul><ul><li>Taken together means chain of command </li></ul>Organizational Charts
    105. 105. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flat or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Organizations </li></ul>
    106. 106. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Usually narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making authority and power held by few persons in central positions </li></ul><ul><li>Persons in authority are responsible for only few subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>May have many levels </li></ul><ul><li>Communication must travel through the levels </li></ul>
    107. 107. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>*ability to be an expert </li></ul><ul><li>*use less skilled individuals </li></ul><ul><li>*close supervision </li></ul><ul><li>*top management are spared from </li></ul><ul><li> unnecessary communication </li></ul><ul><li>*top people have great deal of </li></ul><ul><li> control and are the decision makers </li></ul>
    108. 108. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Tall or Centralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>*skilled individuals may end up doing nothing </li></ul><ul><li>*the supervised might become stifled </li></ul><ul><li>*communication is difficult, it passes many layers </li></ul><ul><li>*implementation of decision may become delayed </li></ul>
    109. 109. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Flat or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Have few levels and broad span of control </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making is spread out among many people </li></ul><ul><li>No close supervision because supervisor is responsible for many people </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is easy and direct </li></ul>
    110. 110. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Flat or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Simple communication patterns-less distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Speed in responding t problems </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have opportunities to develop their own abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is easy and direct </li></ul>
    111. 111. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Flat or Decentralized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Broad span of control may result to </li></ul><ul><li>No close supervision because supervisor is responsible for many people </li></ul><ul><li>Person in charge may have hard time to process communication since its numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor may lack expertise because of wide operation </li></ul><ul><li>Greater need for ongoing education </li></ul>
    112. 112. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Matrix Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Either tall or flat </li></ul><ul><li>Unique – second structure overlies the first </li></ul><ul><li>Overlying structure represents a special relationship of individuals that is not part of chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>Recent innovation in health care organization </li></ul>
    113. 113. Types of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Parallel Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Employees collective bargaining organization </li></ul><ul><li>But does not integrate with official organization </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own officers and representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on the board </li></ul>
    114. 114. Organizational Function <ul><li>Organization functions according to what it has set to do which are stated in….. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy Statement and VMG </li></ul><ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul>
    115. 115. Organizational Function <ul><li>Philosophy Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects the purpose of organization </li></ul><ul><li>States beliefs and values that are basic to its operation </li></ul><ul><li>May include list of goals or objectives </li></ul>
    116. 116. Organizational Functions <ul><li>VMG </li></ul><ul><li>Vision – how the organization envisions itself, desires of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Mission – broad general goals that describes its purpose in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Goals – are broad statements of overall intent of the organization </li></ul>
    117. 117. Organizational Function <ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Help define organizational structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Describes responsibilities of each individual or position in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>May not give complete description of everything an individual does as part of his/her job (ex. ER nurse and SA nurse) </li></ul>
    118. 118. Organizational Function <ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Official statements that guide the behavior of individuals in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Are written (manual) as required by law and accrediting institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals have general policies and procedures that guide the behavior or the entire organization </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals have many policies and procedures carefully written out in detail </li></ul>
    119. 119. Organizational Function <ul><li>Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as legal safeguard for the organization by establishing standards for practice </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing policies and procedures are formulated by committees or nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support for good practice and quality control </li></ul>
    120. 120. What is an Informal Organization? <ul><li>Arise to meet social needs of the people within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ease of relationships (?) and ways to accomplish desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>In a form of “barkada” system (helping one another) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing communication </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving values </li></ul><ul><li>Informal leaders </li></ul>
    121. 121. Problems of IO <ul><li>Detrimental to formal organization </li></ul><ul><li>May resist needed change </li></ul><ul><li>May tolerate mediocrity </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is closed, newcomers become outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>May disseminate rumors and inaccurate information “grapevine” </li></ul>
    122. 122. Organizational Climate <ul><li>Effects of Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Formal policies describe expected behaviors of individuals in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X – people don’t like to work, they are motivated by material gain, and w/out supervision they will not work </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. vandi clock to punch in and out </li></ul>
    123. 123. Organizational Climate <ul><li>Effects of Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y – people find work intrinsically rewarding, motivated by many factors other than material gain </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. submits statements of the specific shifts worked, no monitoring of lunches, breaks, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Z – operates on the basis of long-term employment, loyalty between employer and employee and strong collective value system </li></ul>
    124. 124. Organizational Climate <ul><li>Effect of Supervisory Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Manner how supervisors carry out policies contribute to organizational climate </li></ul><ul><li>Personality of supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>General method of interacting with subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Some supervisors create an atmosphere of suspicion and fear (criticisms and unwillingness to tolerate) </li></ul>
    125. 125. Organizational Climate <ul><li>The informal organization culture and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals relate on a personal basis </li></ul><ul><li>High level of competition (+) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships (first name basis, surname) </li></ul>
    126. 126. <ul><li>Understanding Management </li></ul>
    127. 127. <ul><li>Process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals , working together in groups, efficiently accomplish certain goals or aims (koontz & Weihrich) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the coordination and integration of resources through planning, organizing, directing, and controlling in order to accomplish specific institutional goals and objectives (Sullivan and Decker) </li></ul>Management is……
    128. 128. <ul><li>the art of getting things done through people </li></ul><ul><li>getting the right things done at the right time </li></ul><ul><li>the process or form of work that involves the guidance or direction of a group of people toward organizational goals or objectives </li></ul>Management is……
    129. 129. What is Nursing Management? <ul><li>Relates to planning , organizing, staffing, directing and controlling the activities of a nursing enterprise or division of nursing departments and of the subunits of the departments </li></ul>
    130. 130. Types of Management <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire management style </li></ul><ul><li>Multicratic leadership </li></ul>
    131. 131. Types of Management <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Manager makes most of the decisions in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Found in bureaucratic organizations that reinforce centrality of authority and reliance upon formal rules </li></ul>
    132. 132. Types of Management <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Managers issue orders and expect to be obeyed </li></ul><ul><li>Authority derives from position power tied to official hierarchical title </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian managers will have subordinate support if they are involved in overall goals and process </li></ul>
    133. 133. Types of Management <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Strong control is maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Others are motivated by coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Others are directed with command </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is downwards </li></ul><ul><li>“ I” and “You” </li></ul><ul><li>Punitive criticism </li></ul>
    134. 134. Types of Management <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Results to well-defined group actions </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making can be done expeditiously </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate when immediate action is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian managers will have subordinate support if they are involved in overall goals and process </li></ul>
    135. 135. Types of Management <ul><li>Authoritarian management style </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates don’t have stake in achievement/failure of management goals </li></ul><ul><li>Employee may subvert goals </li></ul><ul><li>Managers issue orders and expect to be obeyed </li></ul><ul><li>Authority derives from position power tied to official hierarchical title </li></ul>
    136. 136. Types of Management <ul><li>Democratic Management Style </li></ul><ul><li>Involves subordinates in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic managers see themselves as coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses importance of communication and consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes autonomy and growth </li></ul>
    137. 137. Types of Management <ul><li>Democratic Management Style </li></ul><ul><li>Manager leads by providing information, suggesting direction and being supportive of coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>Function best in less centralized and where there is less reliance on formal rules and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis “We” </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive criticism </li></ul>
    138. 138. Types of Management <ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers are consulted </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers have input on decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are involved in all the processes prior to decision making </li></ul><ul><li>It is appropriate if decision at hand does not require urgent action </li></ul>
    139. 139. Types of Management <ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Decision becomes lengthy process </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers not confident in participating in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Employees may think manager is not capable to DM </li></ul>
    140. 140. Types of Management <ul><li>Democratic management style </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Employees think they are made to do something they are not paid for </li></ul><ul><li>If decision not implemented employees think their time is wasted </li></ul>
    141. 141. Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive management </li></ul><ul><li>Least structure and control </li></ul><ul><li>Requires coworkers to make own goals, decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Managers provide maximum support and freedom for workers </li></ul>
    142. 142. Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of little or no direction </li></ul><ul><li>Communication upward and downward </li></ul><ul><li>DM is dispersed throughout group </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism withheld </li></ul>
    143. 143. Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Providing maximum support and freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Allows practice of high levels of independence </li></ul>
    144. 144. Types of Management <ul><li>Laissez-Faire </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Not possible to let workers arrive at an individual decisions about patient care </li></ul><ul><li>Because of multidisciplinary care, decision must be centralized </li></ul>
    145. 145. Types of Management <ul><li>Multicratic </li></ul><ul><li>One skill of a manager is identifying which style a particular situation requires </li></ul><ul><li>Combines the best of all approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Provides maximum structure when the situation requires </li></ul>
    146. 146. Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>First-level managers </li></ul>
    147. 147. Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at the whole organization </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate internal and external influences </li></ul><ul><li>Makes decisions with few guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>COO, CEO, CN, DNS, CNO </li></ul>
    148. 148. Levels of Management <ul><li>Responsibilities of top-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Determining philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Setting policies </li></ul><ul><li>Creating goals and priorities for resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Need great leadership, not part of day-to-day operation </li></ul>
    149. 149. Levels of Management <ul><li>Middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates effort of lower levels of the hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Conduit between lower and top-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out day-to-day operation </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in long term planning </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing unit policies </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse supervisors, head nurse, unit managers </li></ul>
    150. 150. Levels of Management <ul><li>First-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with specific unit workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with immediate problems in daily operations </li></ul>
    151. 151. Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-level managers </li></ul><ul><li>First-level managers </li></ul>
    152. 152. POSTTEST <ul><li>Answer the following as fast as you can: </li></ul><ul><li>What is management? (3 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the processes of management? (4 items) </li></ul><ul><li>Define Organizational chart (2 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>Give at least 2 functions of the organizational chart (2 items) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the types of organizations? (4 pts) </li></ul><ul><li>Give 2 advantages of Tall organization (2 items) </li></ul><ul><li>Give at least 2 disadvantages of Tall organization (2 items) </li></ul><ul><li>Give 2 advantages of Flat organization (2 items) </li></ul><ul><li>Give at least 2 disadvantages of Flat organization (2 items) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational functions are usually stated in these 3 documents </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational climate is shaped according to 3 factors </li></ul>
    153. 153. <ul><li>Differentiating the </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul>
    154. 154. Similarities and Differences Leaders Managers <ul><li>May or may not have official appointment to the position </li></ul><ul><li>Have power and authority enforce decisions only so long as followers are willing to be led </li></ul><ul><li>Influence others toward goal setting, either formally or informally </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in risk-taking and exploring new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to people personally in an intuitive and empathetic manner </li></ul><ul><li>Feel rewarded from personal achievements </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not be successful as managers </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed officially to the position </li></ul><ul><li>Have power and authority to enforce decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out predetermined policies, rules and regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain an orderly, controlled, rational and equitable structure </li></ul><ul><li>Relate people according to their roles </li></ul><ul><li>Feel rewarded when fulfilling organizational mission or goals </li></ul><ul><li>Are managers as long as appointment holds </li></ul>
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