Enhancing Community Resilience in Bugesera, GWP Eastern Africa

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  • 1. Enhancing community resilience in Lake Cyohoha Catchment, Bugesera Region (Burundi/Rwanda) Prepared for presentation during the WACDEP Global Technical Coordination Workshop-Tuesday 24 June 2014 by Patrick SAFARI , Regional Coordinator, GWP Eastern Africa
  • 2. Outline 1. Background 2. The process 3. Learning points 4. Summary
  • 3. WP1: Kagera Basin- LVBC/EAC Burundi and Rwanda WP2: National Plans WP3: Investment strategies WP4: Investment projects WP5: Bugesera region: L. Cyohoha catchment-demo. WP6&7: K and CB (community management, local adaptation, participatory processes) WP8: Partnership Building /water governance (CWPs, Catchment, community) 1. Background: Water, Climate and Development Program (WACDEP) in EnA Region
  • 4. 2.1.The Process: Identifying challenges: Why interventions? Water pollution Encroaching lake shore/ wetlands Poor agricultural practices, over grazing Poor access to water supply Water scarcity Shortage of fuel wood Deforestation / soil erosion Poverty High Population growth Poor community structures Poor access to social services and infrastructure Seasonal Drought, floods
  • 5. Burundi Rwanda 0 25 50 75 10012.5 Kilometers µ Legend Country Boundary Lake Cyohoha CatchmentLegend Cyohoha catchment Countries 0 3 6 9 121.5 Kilometers · Burundi Rwanda 508 km2 369 km2 in Bu 139 km2in Rw lake is like a river of 27 km long and 0.5 to 2 km wide. It branches up to 9 km long The lake Cyohoha is separated from the river Akanyaru by a broadband swamps. 2.2.The Process: Detail Situational Analysis-a Defining hydrological boundary as a unit of analysis, planning and management: L. Cyohoha catchment:
  • 6. Hydrologist/Hydrogeologist, Environmentalist/ watershed management expert/ forester/ wetland ecologist, Agriculture expert, Socio-economist, Gender Expert, GIS Expert Multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach Bu-Rw Team for Situational Analysis in L. Cyohoha catchment 2.2.The Process: Detail Situational Analysis-b Technical Analysis by Joint (Bu-Rw) Team of Experts
  • 7. Hydro-climatic and environmental data – Climate –temperature, rainfall – Hydrology: surface water, groundwater?, water uses (abstraction for drinking, irrigation), – Topography-slope classes – Land use/land cover – Soils Socio-economic data – Population, human settlement, Gender – Social services-health, water supply, education, market, energy use – Infrastructre-road, telephone, electricity, communication, bank – Economic activities, Employment-agri – Institutions-farmers’ organizations 2.2.The Process: Detail Situational Analysis-b Technical Analysis by Joint (Bu-Rw) Team of Experts
  • 8. Participatory process during situational analysis • history of drought/flood hazards, changes in rainfall seasons, • local knowledge systems, local coping mechanisms, community structures • Source of household energy, accessing it and challenges 2.2.The Process: Detail Situational Analysis-c Awareness raising, sensitization, participatory analysis
  • 9. Frequent drought/flood hazards, changes in rainfall seasons,
  • 10. A. Environmental degradation: Differences in enforcing policies/laws affecting shared systems, Weak community structures/capacities 2.2.The Process: Detail Situational Analysis-d Analyzing problems/challenges and hot spots • Drought and flood prone areas • conflicts over use of resources • water scarcity • Lack of fuel wood • degraded catchments • Erosion, deforestation degraded wetlands Pollution
  • 11. 3. Poor access to safe drinking water 2.2.The Process: Detail Situational Analysis-d Analyzing problems/challenges and hot spots 2. Traditional cookers and lack of fuelwood
  • 12. 2.3.The Process: prioritizing interventions/–based on the situational analysis, joint review and consultations with stakeholders
  • 13. Lesson 1: Participatory process: understanding the community needs The approach should be integrated, participatory and owned by communities:  Integrated within a hydrological boundary  Integrated to satisfy communities’ multiple needs-water as entry point  Integrated to the local government development plans  Participation and ownership by communities & other stakeholders ….sustainability 3. Learning Points
  • 14. Lesson 2: establish/ strengthen partnership for implementation frameworks
  • 15. Summary of priority interventions-1 Priority Interventions Mechanism for implementation Water: Extending water supply systems to communities Work with partners-Utility, local government Private suppliers/contactors Energy: Introduce improved cooker stoves, biogas Work with partners-CONCERN Community groups/associations (Women groups) Private suppliers/contractors Food security: new agronomic practices Work with partners-Local Govt. office Community groups/associations Environment: Lake Cyohoha buffer zone protection, Upper catchment protection Work with partners-RENGOF, Community Associations, Youth Group
  • 16. Priority Interventions Mechanism for implementation Strengthen/establish Community structures for managing/producing: • water points • improved cook stoves • seedlings, • Parts of the catchment: buffer zone, sub-catchment • L.Cyohoha catchment • Stakeholders’ platforms Work with partners-Local Govt., NGOs, Community Groups/Associations, Private suppliers/contractors Awareness raising, CB, training on: • Challenges: environmental degradation, climate change, water scarcity, energy security • Water and other NR management: importance, ownership and participation • Community structures • New approaches, methods, technologies, management Work with partners-Local Govt., NGOs, Community Groups/Associations, Private suppliers/contractors Summary of priority interventions-2
  • 17. Priority Interventions Mechanism for implementation Strengthen information systems • Baseline and updated state of the environment/NRs • Community M&E systems • Local early warning systems • Community exchange programs- community-to-community learning Work with partners-Local Govt., NGOs, Community Groups/Associations, Private suppliers/contractors Developing L. Cyohoha catchment integrated management plan Summary of priority interventions-3
  • 18. KAMPEKA TUNDA BURENGE BIHARAGU NYAKAYAGA Kiri Rugasa Kigoma Gitwe Kiyonza Nyamabuye Rubuga Kigina Nyakarama Gaturanda Nyabikenke 30°10'0"E30°5'0"E30°0'0"E 2°20'0"S 2°20'0"S 2°25'0"S 2°25'0"S 2°30'0"S 2°30'0"S 2°35'0"S 2°35'0"S · 0 2.5 5 7.5 101.25 Kilometers Legend Lake Cyohoha Cyohoha Catchment Prioritized Intervention Area (Burundi) Prioritized Intervention Area (Rwanda) Country Boundary Rwanda Burundi Lake Cyohoha Lake Cyohoha catchment-priority areas and interventions • Watershed management • Rainwater harvesting • Buffer zone management • Biogas • Improved cook- stoves • Water supply Biogas Water supply Buffer zone management
  • 19. Interventions at community level should: • Consider the local context, challenges and priorities (communities and ecosystems). • Use both modern (hydro-climatic) information and local knowledge • linked and contribute to socio- economic needs of communities • Contribute to strengthening Community structures and building their capacities Lesson 3: Participatory process: addressing the the community needs
  • 20. Lesson 4: engaging local media for raising community Training and informing media to inform the public
  • 21. Lesson 5: Linking policy with practices Differences in enforcement of national environmental laws resulted in differences in the level of degradation of the same system-L.Cyohoha Catchment
  • 22. Lesson 6 : Political support and buy-in
  • 23. Political support for WACDEP during WACDEP Coordination meeting in Kigali
  • 24. Buy-in and appreciation of WACDEP by Nile TAC-COM Meeting in Kharthoum on 19-20 June 2014
  • 25. Summary of major challenges N challenges Actions taken 1 Managing expectations: • Policy/practices • National/local level • High expectations by communities and local government for quick investments on the ground  Using demonstrations to influence both policy & practices 2 Differences in national policies and their enforcements  Facilitate experience sharing to influence law enforcement 3 Unilateral thinking vs. trans boundary nature of the systems  More stakeholders' consultation, awareness raising 4 Engaging stakeholders in WACDEP activities (key sectors), including political buy-in  workshops, bilateral meetings and providing WACDEP awareness packages  designating focal points for WACDEP in respective key sectors
  • 26. • Investing in WRM (at community level) is an important adaptation strategy • WACDEP is supporting demonstration of interventions for water security and climate resilience at community level, and the on-going processes are providing some lessons • There is a need to develop bigger investment projects based on demonstrations for scaling-up beyond the target communities • Future programs may consider the lessons from on-going processes and experiences 3. Summary/Conclusion
  • 27. WRM approach : recommended as a tool for building resilience to climate change in Lake Cyohoha Catchment Stakeholders participation Water Allocation Pollution Control Information Management systems Financial MechanismFlood & Drought Management systems Basin Planning Monitoring mechanism INTEGRATED WATER and NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN LAKE CYOHOHA CATCHMENT
  • 28. THANK YOU!