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Thomas Yatich - PRESA presentation, World Congress of Agroforestry August 2009


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Are PES-like iniatives realistic, voluntary, conditional and pro-poor? Case of Nyando & Yala River Basins

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Thomas Yatich - PRESA presentation, World Congress of Agroforestry August 2009

  1. 1. Are PES-like Iniatives Realistic, Voluntary, Conditional and Pro-poor? Case of Nyando & Yala River Basin Thomas Yatich, B. Swallow, J. Sang, M. Nyabenge, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya Daniel Bundotich, Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Anantha Duraiappah, and Makiko Yashiro, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya 2 ND World Congress in Agroforestry, United Nations Office, Nairobi
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Why the concern on Nyando Yala River Basins? Why PES and PES-like? </li></ul><ul><li>What ICRAF and partners have done to address the challenges? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the community and partners iniatives </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of PES-like iniatives </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Invitation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why the concern in Nyando and Yala? Why PES-like? <ul><li>Why Nyando and Yala? </li></ul><ul><li>Land Use changes with implications on the state of Lake Victoria and its environmental services; </li></ul><ul><li>Land degradation & soil erosion(e.g. 1/3 of Nyando basin is heavily degraded) ; </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in the value of agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>Potential impacts of climatic change and Variability </li></ul><ul><li>Why PES-like? </li></ul><ul><li>PES mechanisms are still incipient in Africa and in the sites that we are working in across East and West African Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Learn lessons and experiences to inform design of prototype mechanisms </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Nyando and Yala basins of Kenya <ul><li>Both about 3500 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>High poverty rates </li></ul><ul><li>Dense populations </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding in lower areas </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation in upper areas </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of HIV / AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Declining agriculture through 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Both contrasting land tenure / settlement types </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Undertaken Tradeoffs analysis among ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake a quick appraisal of PES and PES-like iniatives in the two basins </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated policy dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary work analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Building a coalition to make the case for use of publicly funded PES for ecosystem restoration. </li></ul>What is being done by ICRAF and Partners to address these challenges?
  6. 6. RUPES / PRESA time line 1998 2002 2009 2011 2007 2008 2006 2010 First discussions with IFAD RUPES 1 began RUPES 1 implemented RUPES 1 Reporting; Development of RUPES II RUPES II implemented PRESA developed PRESA implemented Pan-tropical Scoping study Scoping Study papers published 1994 Transvic Project SVEM
  7. 7. Propoor Rewards for Environmental Services in Africa G oal: smallholder farmers and residents living in the highlands of East and West Africa benefit from fair and effective agreements between stewards and beneficiaries of ecosystem services. Objectives: 1. Foster workable environmental service agreements. 2. Catalyze policy support and private-sector participation in environmental service agreements 3. Community of Practice: Provide support to researchers, NGOs and government agencies interested in pro-poor rewards for environmental services in Africa
  8. 8. Sites
  9. 9. What have communities and partners undertaken? <ul><li>Ecosystem-based livelihood systems aimed at meeting welfare goals </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. food-for-work, flood control, spring protection, de-silting dams, </li></ul><ul><li>Iniatives aimed at compliance with the requirements of the National Environment Management Authority; </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem restoration initiatives e.g. soil erosion control measures spearheaded by LVEMP; </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Trade Initiatives e.g. the case of Eastern Produce Company Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity protection iniatives by communities; </li></ul><ul><li>Community empowerment and exchange programs </li></ul><ul><li>Design and implementation of voucher systems </li></ul><ul><li>{Are these iniatives PES or PES-like? Are they conditional, voluntary, realistic, and pro-poor? } </li></ul>
  10. 10. Njaa Marafuku Kenya PES-Like Initiatives - Help in meeting the UNCCD objectives at the local level -Is pro-poor -Is a Ministry of Agriculture initiative Muhoroni East Sub-location Widows and Orphans Group
  11. 11. Compliance with envtal Management PES-Like Initiatives -Developed because of initial conflicts with adjacent community -Seen as meeting good citizen requirements -Could provide opportunities for eco-labelling Chemomi Factory wetland
  12. 12. Public programs for ecosystem restoration PES-Like Initiatives -Other programs: De-silting dykes, clearing irrigation drains Food-for-work program
  13. 13. On-farm improvements and potential to provide Ecosystem services PES-Like Initiatives Mr. Ruguts Farm
  14. 14. Criteria-indicator based Evaluation of PES-Like Initiatives Case studies/criteria and Indicators Realistic Mechanism Conditional Mechanism Voluntary Mechanism Pro-poor School linked conservation, health & Nutrition initiatives Initiatives addresses threats to forests, catchments & effects of degradation through re-afforestation Membership and payment (both in kind & financially ) to benefit from the school feeding programme Yes. But membership or participation in the school feeding program is due to lack of alternatives The core of these initiative is meeting welfare and poverty reduction goals. It strongly meets this criterion. Sunset Birders Addresses degradation of wetlands and protection of CITES protected species Harvesters of papyrus get rewarded through increased earnings by adopting good harvesting practices Harvesters who not adhere to the bylaws are sanctioned. It is voluntary but with regulations Yes. Apart from sustaining materials, LVSB try to provide alternatives for the local communities Irrigation linked conservation & rehabilitation programs Addresses sedimentation of canals, dykes & roads Conditional upon provision of service-participate in food-for-work Participation is motivated by household food needs. Designed to benefit the poor and those with food/nutritional needs.
  15. 15. Realistic Conditional Voluntary Pro-poor Njaa Marufuku Tries to address impacts of desertification and nutritional needs Conditional upon membership and participation group activities Yes, but driven mostly by membership benefits like income & reduced stigma Yes. Targeted at meeting the needs of the poor and the HIV/AIDS infected & affected people Private & publicly funded rehabilitation programs Addresses sedimentation of canals, dykes & roads Conditional upon provision of a service-participate in food-for-work Participation is motivated by household food needs Designed to benefit the poor and those with food/nutritional needs. Fair Trade Initiatives Eco-labelling and premiums address market and corruption related issues Conditional upon membership with perceived benefits motivating participation Yes. Members get registered based on the extent they think their interests would be met There is no guarantee that the participants are the poor, but outgrowers are poor relative to Estate owners
  16. 16. Realistic Conditional Voluntary Pro-poor Artificially constructed Treatment systems Compliant- based but try to address pollution of wetlands Conditional upon NEMA EIA requirements Some companies voluntarily do this because of pressure from communities & NEMA-not voluntary Aimed at not harming the poor by not discharging effluents to natural wetlands LVEMP linked spring protection Associated projects like agroforestry enhance land cover thereby reducing sediments and regulatory services including disease regulation Farmers pay a fee for maintenance and participate in spring protection activities but water use is not limited by their participation Yes. Smallholders participating do not have rights over water but most community members can access and use the water. Not necessarily. Obtaining water from a nearby source enables farmers to devote saved time on more productive economic activities like agriculture. Kakamega Sweet potatoes and Tissue Culture project Addresses nutritional related issues which have resulted from decline in soil fertility due to degradation Conditional upon membership and participation Yes to some degree. No one is forced to become a member but this is motivated by the perceived social and health benefits Yes. Contributes to the nutritional and food needs of the poor mainly women
  17. 17. Implications of study <ul><li>1. The four-point criteria and indicators are not satisfied by the iniatives, but there are opportunities to ‘tip the balance’ </li></ul><ul><li>2. Focus on welfare goals and can only be sustained if their welfare goals are realized; </li></ul><ul><li>3. There are opportunities provided for by the existing policy and legislative frameworks (MEAs and national-level policies and legislation </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Opportunities for students and faculty to help us implement, assess and design our activities </li></ul><ul><li>Fields: </li></ul><ul><li>Geography and land use systems </li></ul><ul><li>Links between land use and ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><li>valuation of ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><li>economics of alternative land uses and interventions </li></ul><ul><li>governance of natural resources and property rights </li></ul><ul><li>analysis of policy options and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>ex ante and ex post impact assessments </li></ul><ul><li>social, gender and equity effects of rewards for environmental services </li></ul><ul><li>business case for investment in environmental services </li></ul>
  19. 19. Follow-up Other ICRAF work on Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services <ul><li>Please contact us to receive further information </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Minang-GRP 6 Leader: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Yatich T.B. – Project Ag. Coordinator: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Vanessa Meadu – Communications Officer: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Miika Makela-Spatial Analyst: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Joyce Kasyoki-Administrative Officer: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine Kimengu: [email_address] </li></ul>PRESA project: http://www.