• Since 1960s
• Changing agenda
– problems solved
– technology advancing
– social context evolving
• What can we not yet do?
– what remains to be discovered?
– what new developments need attention?
• Spatio-temporal GIS
• Fundamental spatial concepts
Time is of the essence
• Policy and public interest are driven by
Everything th t h
thi that happens h happens
somewhere in space and time (Wegener)
• Every major issue has a time scale
– climate change (decades)
– climate tipping points (years)
– economic meltdown (months)
– infectious diseases (weeks)
– disasters (days)
How to design useful tools?
• The Waterfall process?
– define the application domain
– sample it with use cases
– define the necessary functionality
– design optimal data models
• Is the domain all of spatiotemporal analysis
– from social to environmental
• Or are there multiple domains?
– and what is driving them?
• Movement of features in space and time
– other technologies
Light-level geolocation (Stutchbury et al., Science 2/13/09)
• Hägerstrand’s conceptual framework
– new advances in theory
• T k interpolation
Track i t l ti
– between infrequent samples
• I f
Inferences about activity
b t ti it
• Track convergence
• Shih L
Shih-Lung Sh ’ A S
Shaw’s ArcScene extension
• Barry Smith’s SNAP ontology
• Time-series of remotely sensed images
• Change detection
Rondonia, Brazil, 1975, 1986,
Rondonia Brazil 1975 1986 1992
3. Polygon coverages
• Reporting zones, cadaster
• Gail Langran, Time in Geographic
Information Systems, 1992
I f ti S t
• National Historic GIS
– reconciling change i reporting zones
ili h in ti
• z(i,t) = f[z(i,t-1),z(j,t),…]
Serge Rey’s STARS – S
R ’ Space-Time A l i
of Regional Systems
Comparative spatial analysis of the development of the Chinese and US
economies through time, 1978-1998
Xinyue Ye, Bowling Green State University
4. Cellular automata
• A fixed raster of cells
• A set of states for each cell
• A set of rules that determine state transitions
Keith Clarke, UC Santa Barbara
CA model of development based on transition probabilities as functions
of slope, access to transportation zoning and states of neighboring
slope transportation, zoning,
5. Agent-based models
• Discrete agents as geographic features
• Moving, changing state
• Rules governing states, behavior
6. Events and transactions
• The domain of the historian
– events in space and time
– li k d spatially
linked ti ll
• campaigns of armies
– hierarchically related
e a c ca y e a ed
• the battle and the war
• the meeting and the election
– can GIS support historical scholarship?
t hi t i l h l hi ?
• and update the historical atlas
7. Multidimensional data
• Environmental data intensively sampled in
– with fi ed spatial s pport
ith fixed support
One domain or seven?
• All seven need the multidisciplinary tools of
– to interpret assess, and visualize res lts
interpret, assess is ali e results
– to package results for public consumption
• Are there more (or fewer)?
Tasks for the research community
• What are the research questions?
– what are the use cases?
– some ddomains are d i
i driven b d t availability
by data il bilit
rather than science questions
• What are the functions?
– at what level of granularity?
– standardized for discovery y
– elusive even for traditional GIS
• What are the data models?
– the focus of much of the research to date
• GIS as a distributed enterprise
– server-based GIS
• S i
i t d hit t
• Fully interoperable
Progress to date
• Interoperable location referencing
– coordinate transformations
– geocoding addresses
– point-of-interest databases
34 deg 24 min 42.7 seconds north, 119 deg 52 min 14.4
236150m east, 3811560m north, UTM Zone 11 Northern
US National Grid reference 11SKU36151156
909 West Campus Lane, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
Mike Goodchild’s house
But in reality…
• Spatial databases are organized as layers
– horizontal integration not “vertical”
– property z about all places
t b t ll l
– rather than all properties about location x
• “tell me everything about location x”
– overlay must be invoked explicitly
• graphical overlay or topological overlay
– many mashups are merely graphical overlay
• a visual spatial join
The spatial join
• Using location as a common key to link
• All location references are subject t
l ti f bj t to
– measurement error
– vagueness in feature identification
– indeterminate limits
• The probabilistic join
—— ESRI Lake Tahoe
~~~ USGS Sierra Lake
The true spatial join is still elusive
• Much better techniques needed
– especially to deal with vague, vernacular
– in text, speech, human discourse generally
– beyond formally de ed coo d a es
beyo d o a y defined coordinates
– well-defined metrics of confidence
• We are a long way from realizing the fully
g y g y
The functionality of cyberGIS
• CyberGIS requires a formally defined
• Wh t is the appropriate l
What i th i t level of granularity of
l f l it f
• How many functions are there?
– 542 in the ArcGIS 9.3.1 toolbox
• How to navigate among them?
– 18 top-level categories
• vaguely defined, overlapping
– “Analysis”, “Spatial Analyst”, “Spatial Statistics”,
• A standard set of functions
– interoperable across all servers
– d fi d granularity
defined l it
• an atomic level
– in reality functionality is de e
ea y u c o a y s determined in pa by
• and non-interoperable
– hidd f
hidden from th user where appropriate
the h i t
What is this really about?
• It used to be difficult to do
– senior undergraduate courses
– th GIS professional
the f i l
• In a world of Google Earth what does
everyone need to know?
– is spatial really special?
– do we SAPs think differently?
Children with this kind of intelligence enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing
Children with lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns, categories and
relationships. They are drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.
These kids process knowledge through bodily sensations. They are often athletic,
dancers or good at crafts such as sewing or woodworking.
These children think in images and p
g pictures. They may be fascinated with mazes or
jigsaw puzzles, or spend free time drawing, building with Lego or daydreaming.
Musical children are always singing or drumming to themselves. They are usually quite
aware of sounds others may miss. These kids are often discriminating listeners.
Children who are leaders among their peers, who are good at communicating and who
seem to understand others' feelings and motives possess interpersonal intelligence.
These children may be shy. They are very aware of their own feelings and are self-
What is spatial thinking?
“Three aspects of spatial ability:
• Spatial knowledge
– symmetry, orientation, scale, distance decay,
• Spatial ways of thinking and acting
– using diagramming or graphing, recognizing
patterns in data, change over space f
tt i d t h from
change over time, etc.
• Spatial capabilities
– ability to use tools and technologies such as
spreadsheet, graphical, statistical, and GIS
software to analyze spatial data”
Fundamental spatial concepts
• Some acquired in early childhood
– distance, direction
Some acquired only i hi h education
i d l in higher d ti
– spatial dependence, spatial heterogeneity
– not intuitive
– can be taught
– serve to distinguish the SAP
• Overarching structures
– alphabetical sort
– part-whole relationships
t h l l ti hi
– domain-specific meanings
– mapping to GIS functions
– level of conceptual complexity
p p y
– mapping to curriculum standards
• Much still to be done
• Advancing technology creates a constant
supply of i t
l f interesting questions
• Need for future vision
– what will a geospatially enabled world l k lik i
h t ill ti ll bl d ld look like in
2020? or 2015?
– how will society cope?