Open Model (The Starfish Approach)


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A synthesis (of sorts) of the The Starfish concept by Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom and a presentation by Dr. Chet Richards on fourth generation warfare. The intersection of these ideas and several others are presented.

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  • Open Model (The Starfish Approach)

    1. 1. WE'RE NOT WINNING By Gabe Mounce
    2. 2. Info Ops inside OODA Loop <ul><li>Web 2.0 Tech enables foes to get </li></ul><ul><li>WAY </li></ul><ul><li>Inside our OODA loop </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fourth Generation Warfare & OODA Loop Implications of The Iraqi Insurgency By G.I. Wilson Greg Wilcox Chet Richards December 2004 - Find the full brief here ORIENT OBSERVE ACT DECIDE
    4. 5. Machines don't fight wars. People do, and they use their minds. - Col John R. Boyd Military action is important to the nation—it is the ground of death and life, the path of survival and destruction, so it is imperative to examine it. - Sun Tzu, The Art of War INTRODUCTION
    5. 6. Boyd’s OODA “Loop” INTRODUCTION Orient Observe Act Decide
    6. 7. Orientation is the Fulcrum of Boyd’s OODA “Loop” Orientation is the fulcrum of Boyd’s OODA Loop. It shapes the way we interact with the environment—hence the way we observe it, the way we decide, the way we act. Orientation shapes the character of present observe-orient-decide-act loops—while these present loops shape the character of the future orientation. Source: Col John Boyd’s Organic Design from “Patterns of Conflict” Orient Observe Act Decide
    7. 8. Using the OODA “Loop” <ul><li>… emphasize implicit over explicit in order to gain a favorable mismatch in friction and time (ours lower than any adversary) for superiority in shaping and adapting to circumstances. (Organic Design, 22) </li></ul><ul><li>… we have to make intuitive within ourselves those many practices we need to meet the exigencies of the world (Abstract, 1) </li></ul><ul><li>… we must develop a fingerspitzengefühl for folding our adversaries back inside themselves … (Strategic Game, 45) </li></ul><ul><li>Definition — agility : the ability to shift from one OODA/orientation state to another more rapidly than an opponent, in response to changing circumstances </li></ul>Orient Observe Act Decide Implicit guidance & control
    8. 9. Old Way = Death <ul><li>Tied to the Hierarchy: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Speed and Agility </li></ul><ul><li>are </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS </li></ul>
    9. 10. Open Systems <ul><li>The Starfish Model </li></ul>
    10. 12. “ The absence of structure, leadership, and formal organization, once considered a weakness, has become a major asset. Seemingly chaotic groups have challenged and defeated established institutions.”
    11. 13. “ The Rules of the Game have Changed.”
    12. 15. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>When attacked, a decentralized org tends to become even more open and decentralized </li></ul>Implication: the harder you fight a decentralized opponent, the stronger it gets. Ori Brafman & Rod Beckstrom , The Starfish and the Spider , pg. 25
    13. 16. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>2. It’s easy to mistake Starfish for Spiders. </li></ul>Implication: If you do make this mistake when fighting one….yeah back to principle number 1. Ori Brafman & Rod Beckstrom , The Starfish and the Spider , pg. 25
    14. 17. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>3. An open system doesn’t have central intelligence; the intelligence is spread throughout the system </li></ul>
    15. 18. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>“ The idea of the wisdom of crowds also takes decentralization as a given and a good, since it implies that if you set a crowd of self-interested, independent people to work in a decentralized way on the same problem, instead of trying to direct their efforts from the top down, their collective solution is likely to be better than any other solution you could come up with.” </li></ul>
    16. 19. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>“ The strength of these groups was their diversity . They included factory workers, engineers, office clerks, sales reps, and executives.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ None had a formal head; whoever showed the greatest capacity to lead got the job, calling meetings and moderating discussions.” </li></ul>
    17. 20. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>Open systems can easily mutate </li></ul><ul><li>The decentralized org sneaks up on you </li></ul><ul><li>As industries become decentralized, overall profits decrease. </li></ul>
    18. 21. ORIENT Identifying and destroying insurgent infrastructure/organization is problematic. Iraqi insurgents do not have western-like command and control . Instead insurgent C2 is often very cellular, autonomous, diffuse, and self-adapting . Perhaps this is what distinguishes it in a large part from other insurgencies. Insurgents have an intuitive sense of the effects their actions will achieve in the cultural and religious environment in which they operate. We often misread their culture and misjudge the effects.
    19. 22. <ul><li>Insurgency includes a diverse collection of bad actors, criminals, “dead enders,” ethno-religious extremists, “Iraqi freedom fighters,” and networks who thrive on chaos. Keep in mind these people are a resourceful and dedicated enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells and networks often have contradictory , diverse or loosely connected political, social, or religious objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>All are adept at using information/ media as an integral part of their operations. </li></ul><ul><li>All are very AGILE and ADAPTIVE in their Tactics, Techniques, Procedures. </li></ul>ORIENT
    20. 23. OBSERVE <ul><ul><li>Insurgency is becoming long term in perspective with political and religious goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurgents are adept at using terrorist techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Insurgents are adept at using IO techniques to manipulate the media and get their message out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. actions and missteps unwittingly contribute to the insurgency, which now has momentum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraqi insurgency is fueled by our quest for a decisive engagement. </li></ul></ul>The Iraqi Insurgency is Maturing:
    21. 24. <ul><li>Insurgents avoid (militarily) decisive engagements and take advantage of any pauses to adapt, regroup, and develop new TTPs and strategies. Often this is misinterpreted as a victory by many western and Clausewitzean thinkers in their quest for the “decisive battle.” </li></ul>ORIENT
    22. 25. Historical pattern Napoleon’s art of war <ul><li>Early tactics </li></ul><ul><li>“ The action was opened by a cloud of sharpshooters, some mounted, some on foot, who were sent forward to carry out a general rather than a minutely-regulated mission ; they proceeded to harass the enemy, escaping from his superior numbers by their mobility, from the effect of his cannon by their dispersal. They were constantly relieved to ensure that the fire did not slacken, and they also received considerable reinforcement to increase their over-all effect … Once the chink in foe’s armour had been revealed … the horse artillery would gallop up and open fire with canister at close range. The attacking force would meantime be moving up in the indicated direction, the infantry advancing in column, the cavalry in regiments or squadrons, ready to make its presence felt anywhere or everywhere as required. Then, when the hail of enemy bullets or cannon balls began to slacken … The soldiers would begin to run forward, those in the front ranks crossing their bayonets, as the drums beat the charge; the sky would ring a thousand battle-cries constantly repeated: “ En avant. En avant. Vive la Republique .” </li></ul><ul><li>Later tactics </li></ul><ul><li>“ At the outset, a heavy bombardment would be loosed against the enemy formations, causing fearful losses if they failed to seek shelter, and generally lowering their power of resistance. Under cover of this fire, swarms of voltigeurs would advance to within musketry range and add a disconcerting ‘ nuisance ’ element by sniping at officers and the like. This preliminary phase would be followed by a series of heavy cavalry and infantry attacks. The secret of these was careful timing and coordination . The first cavalry charges were designed to defeat the hostile cavalry and compel the enemy infantry to form squares”, thereby reduce fire in any one direction and enable the columns to get to close grips before the enemy could resume his linear formation. The infantry (deployed or not) and accompanying horse artillery would then blaze a gap in the enemy formation and finally the cavalry would sweep forward, again, to exploit the breakthrough. </li></ul>Essential point Early tactics, without apparent design, operate in a fluid, adaptable manner to uncover, expand and exploit adversary vulnerabilities and weaknesses while later tactics emphasize massed firepower and stereotyped formations working formally together to smash adversary strength. 37
    23. 26. “Where are the weaknesses of the blitz?” 103
    24. 27. ORIENT Remember, “They” Network, Too! You tell Sam Who works with Joe Who’s a distant cousin of Dangerous Dawoud
    25. 28. ORIENT Networks and Nonlinearity ( Chaos )
    26. 29. Examples <ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Craigslist </li></ul><ul><li>Skype </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Movement </li></ul>
    27. 30. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>7. Put people into an open system and they’ll automatically want to contribute. </li></ul>
    28. 32. Commonality Ideology – Glue that holds decentralized orgs together Ruled by Norms Instigated by Catalyst
    29. 33. Principles of a Starfish <ul><li>8. When attacked, centralized orgs tend to become even more centralized. </li></ul>“ It’s a natural reaction, when attacked, to hunker down and adopt a command-and-control mentality. But it falters when you take on a starfish.”
    30. 36. Defeating a Starfish <ul><li>Change the ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Centralize Them </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralize Yourself </li></ul>