Designing Classroom Tests: 6 Critical Questions

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This slide show was used for classroom based assessment teacher training at Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia (April, 2012).

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Designing Classroom Tests: 6 Critical Questions

  1. 1. Designing
 Classroom
Language
Tests:
 6
Cri&cal
 Ques&ons

 Eddy
White,
Ph.D.

 Assessment
Coordinator
Center
for
English
as
a
Second
 Language
 University
of
Arizona

  2. 2. The
goal
of
assessment
is
to
.
.
.


  3. 3. The goal of assessment has to be, above all, to support the improvement of learning and teaching.
 (Fredrickson
&
Collins,
1989) 


  4. 4. [Source]
 2010
 Best
resource
for
 classroom‐based
 assessment
for
 ESL/EFL


  5. 5. What
is
a
test?

  6. 6. :the
word
‘test’
•  can
refer
to
tradiPonal
‘paper
and
pencil’
or
 computer
based
tests
(e.g.
mulPple
choice,
 fill‐ins,
short
answers,
essays,
etc.)
•  or
‘performance
assessments’
(presentaPons,
 projects,
interviews,
or
other
alternaPve
 assessments)

  7. 7. A
test
.
.
.

•  is
a
method
of
measuring
a
person’s
 ability,
knowledge,
or
performance
in
 a
given
domain.
•  is
an
instrument
–
a
set
of
 techniques,
procedures,
or
items
–
 that
requires
performance
on
the
 part
of
the
test‐taker.

  8. 8. Tests
–
measuring
func&on

  9. 9. A
test
must
measure
•  Some
tests
measure
general
ability,
while
 others
focus
on
very
specific
competencies
or
 objecPves.
•  Examples

•  A
mulP‐skill
proficiency
test
measures
general
 ability;

•  a
quiz
on
recognizing
correct
use
of
definite
 arPcles
measures
very
specific
knowledge.

  10. 10. •  A
test
measures
 performance,
.
.
.

•  but,
the
results
 imply
the
test‐ takers
ability,
or
 competence.

  11. 11. •  Performance‐ based
tests
 sample
the
test‐ takers
actual
use
 of
language,

•  but
from
those
 samples
the
test
 administrator
 infers
general
 competence.


  12. 12. •  A
well‐constructed
 test
is
an
 instrument
that
 provides
an
 accurate
measure
 of
a
test‐taker’s
 ability
within
a
 parPcular
domain.
•  Construc&ng
a
 good
test
is
a
 complex
task.

  13. 13. Tests
are
essenPal
 components
of
a
 successful
 curriculum.

  14. 14. ‘Assessment
needs
to
be
‘fit
for
 purpose’

  15. 15.  Assessment
that
is
fit
for
purpose
uses
the
 best
methods
of
assessment
appropriate
 to:
  ‐the
context
  ‐
the
students
  ‐
the
level
  ‐
the
subject
  ‐
the
insPtuPon
Assessment
is
an
area
where
context
is
 of
paramount
importance.

 (Brown
&
Abeywickrama,
2010)

  16. 16. Designing
Classroom
Language
 Tests:
6
CriPcal
QuesPons


  17. 17. 


These
six
quesPons
 should
form
the
 basis
of
your
 approach
to
 designing,
 administering,
and
 making
maximum
 use
of
tests
in
your
 classroom.


  18. 18. 1.
What
is
the
purpose
of
the
test?

  19. 19. 1.
Test
Purpose?
•  Why
are
you
creaPng
this
test,
or
why
was
it
 created
by
a
textbook
writer.
•  What
is
its
significance
relaPve
to
your
course
 (for
example,
to
evaluate
overall
proficiency
or
 place
a
student
in
a
course)?
•  How
important
is
the
test
compared
to
other
 student
performance?
•  What
will
its
impact
be
on
you
and
your
 students
before
and
a`er
the
assessment?

  20. 20. 


Once
you
have
established
the
major
purpose
of
a
test,
it
then
becomes
easier
 to
specify
its
objecPves.


  21. 21. 2.
What
are
 the
 objecPves
of
the
test?

  22. 22. 2.
Test
objec&ves?
• What
exactly
are
you
trying
 to
find
out?
• What
language
knowledge
 and/or
skills
are
you
 assessing?

  23. 23. 3.
How
will
the
test
specificaPons
reflect
both
the
 purpose
and
the
objecPves?

  24. 24. 3.
Test
specifica&ons?
•  To
design
or
evaluate
a
test,
you
must
 make
sure
that
the
test
has
a
structure
 that
logically
follows
from
the
unit
or
 lesson
it
is
tesPng.
•  The
class
objecPves
should
be
present
in
 the
test
through
appropriate
task
types
 and
weights,
a
logical
sequence,
and
a
 variety
of
tasks.

  25. 25. 4.
How
will
the
test
item
types
 (tasks)
be
 selected
and
 the
separate
 items
 arranged?

  26. 26. 4.
Selec&on
&
Arrangement
of
Tasks?
•  The
test
tasks
need
to
be
pracPcal.
•  For
the
test
to
be
valid,
they
should
also
 mirror
tasks
of
the
course,
lesson
or
 segment.
•  They
should
be
authenPc
(i.e.
reflect
 real‐world
language
use).
•  The
tasks
must
be
ones
that
can
be
 evaluated
reliably
by
the
teacher.


  27. 27. 5.
In
administering
 the
test,
what
 details
should
I
ahend
to
in
order
 to
help
students
achieve
their
best
 performance?

  28. 28. 5.
Helping
Students
Achieve
Best
 Performance?
•  Once
the
test
has
been
created
and
is
ready
to
 administer,
students
need
to
feel
well
prepared
 for
their
performance.
•  An
otherwise
effecPve,
valid
test
might
fail
to
 reach
its
goal
if
the
condiPons
for
test
taking
are
 inadequately
established.
•  How
will
you
reduce
unnecessary
anxiety
in
 students?
•  How
will
you
raise
their
confidence?
•  How
will
you
help
them
view
the
test
as
an
 opportunity
to
learn?

  29. 29. 6.
What
kind
 of
scoring,
grading,
and/ or
feedback
is
expected?

  30. 30. 6.
Scoring,
Grading,
Feedback?
•  The
appropriate
form
of
feedback
on
tests
will
 vary,
depending
on
the
purpose.
•  For
every
test,
the
way
results
are
reported
is
 an
important
consideraPon.

•  Under
some
circumstances,
a
leher
grade
or
 score
may
be
appropriate.
•  Other
circumstances
may
require
that
the
 teacher
provide
detailed
feedback
to
the
 students.


  31. 31. Designing
Classroom
Language
 Tests:
6
CriPcal
QuesPons


  32. 32. 


These
six
quesPons
 should
form
the
 basis
of
your
 approach
to
 designing,
 administering,
and
 making
maximum
 use
of
tests
in
your
 classroom.


  33. 33. [Source]
 2010

  34. 34. Designing
 Classroom
Language
Tests:
 6
Cri&cal
 Ques&ons

 Eddy
White,
Ph.D.

 Assessment
Coordinator
Center
for
English
as
a
Second
 Language
 University
of
Arizona


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