What is feedback? (Wiggins, 2004)
• Feedback is information
about what was and was
not accomplished, given
a specific goal.
Feedback: summative vs formative
• Summative • Formative feedback -
feedback is a response to student work,
summary of students
final output or while it is in progress
performance, • - identifies strong and weak
includes a grade or aspects of performance,
score gives suggestions for
• It may help shape the
next performance or • - plays a part in ‘forming’ or
process, but it is too shaping student response to
late to play a part on the task being worked on
the task being • - aims to draw out students’
best possible performance
Some key feedback questions
1. What do we say to students about
2. How do we say it?
3. Do they take any notice?
4. How much does it help their learning
5. How well does it relate to students’
evidence of achievement of the
intended learning outcomes?
6. How efficient is it for us?
do you use
1. What feedback practices do you
find to be effective in your
courses (i.e. that promote student
2. What feedback-related problems
do you experience in the courses
that you teach?
Feedback: Student dissatisfaction
• The literature shows students are
dissatisfied with feedback in terms of:
1. Lacking specific advice to improve
2. Being difficult to interpret
3. Having a negative impact on self-
perception and confidence
Quality feedbacK:4 Criteria
• 1. It must be timely
• 2. It must be specific
• 3. It must be understandable to
• 4. It must allow the student to act
on the feedback (refine, revise,
practice and retry)
is like fish,
it goes off
To benefit from feedback
1. Possess a concept of the goal/standard or
reference level being aimed for
2. Compare the actual (or current) level of
performance with that goal or standard
3. Engage in appropriate action which leads
to some closure of the gap
The power of feedback (Sadler,1989)
It is closing the gap between
where the students are and
where they are aiming to be
that leads to the power of
• Providing useful information
to both the teacher and the
student that will help them
recognize where gaps in
student learning are and use
that data to move forward with
the intent of closing the gaps.
• -feedback that is “forward-
looking so that it can improve
students’ learning and enhance
their future performance on
How Assessment Supports Learning, Carless et al. (2006,)
Focus on Formative Feedback
(Shute, 2008), Review of Educational Research
• “The premise underlying most of
the research conducted in this
area is that good feedback can
significantly improve learning
processes and outcomes, if
Feedback which supports learning
1. Is sufficient (in frequency; detail)
2. Is provided quickly enough to be useful
3. Focuses on learning rather than on marks
4. Is linked to assessment criteria/expected
5. Makes sense to students
6. Is received by students and attended to
7. Is acted upon to improve performance
Reasons for unsuccessful revisions?
• Studies of second language writing show
that ESL students are willing to follow
closely the feedback provided by teachers,
but such commentary “had the potential of
miscommunicating and of being
misunderstood.” (Lee & Schallert, 2008)
• “Students need to have both the ‘will’
and the ‘skill’ to be successful in
classrooms.” (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990)
• Most revisions linked to the
feedback provided did lead to
text improvement in final drafts
(‘closing the gaps’)
• Supports empirical research
that teacher feedback in
multiple-draft classrooms does
lead to improved student writing
• Carless, D. (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher
Education, 31(2), 219-223.
• Gibbs, G. & Simpson, C. (2004-05). Conditions under which assessment supports learning.
Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, Issue 1, 3-29.
• Hattie, J., & Timperly, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational
Research, 77(1), 81-112.
• Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on perfor-
• mance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback interven-
• tion theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284.
• Lee, G. & Schallert, D. (2008). Meeting in the margins: Effects of the teacher student
relationship on revision processes of EFL college students taking a composition course.
Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 165-182.
• Pintrich, P.R., & DeGroot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning
components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82,
• Raaheim, A. (2006). Do students profit from feedback? Seminar.net, Vol. 2, Issue 2
• Sadler, R. (1989). Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems.
Instructional Science,18, 119-144.
• Shute, V. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1),
• Wiggins, G. (1997). Feedback: How learning occurs. In: E. E. Chaffee (Ed.), Assessing
impact: Evidence and action (pp. 31–39). Washington, DC: American Association for
• Wiggins, G. (2004) . Assessment as Feedback. New Horizons for Learning,