National GeoSpatial Technology Development System
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This presentation talks about National GeoSpatial Technology Development System in developing countries. This presentation highly stress the importance of open source GIS as a viable option to achieve ...

This presentation talks about National GeoSpatial Technology Development System in developing countries. This presentation highly stress the importance of open source GIS as a viable option to achieve and overtake technology development in developing countries. Korean cases is also covered here. This presentation was given to foreign delegates who visited Korea to attend NSDI planning training course organized by KRIHS(Korean Research Institute of Human Settlement)

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    National GeoSpatial Technology Development System National GeoSpatial Technology Development System Presentation Transcript

    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System       0925_NDSL_01   15th,  Oct  2012.           Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com) Contents  South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2000   1.  Concepts  §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018  §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  Cged  society  iCircumstances   2.  Understanding  of   aurrent  R&D   n  2018   3.  Technology  Development  Models   NSDI 4.  Korean  Cases   0925_NDSL_01 5.  Market  SituaLons   6.  Open  Source  GIS   7.  Strategies  and  RecommendaLons   8.  Conclusions     N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)1.  Concepts   South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2000  “     §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   Increasing  the  fluidity  of  GeoSpa#al  technolo   0925_NDSL_01 gy   and   informa#on   flows   among   people,   ente rprises  and  ins#tu#ons.                                                          ”  è To enhance innovative performance and overall competi tiveness. N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)2.  Understanding  of  Current  R&D  Circumstances   §   TradiLonal  Approach   South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2000   §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   §   It  is  eInputs become  an  aged  society  in  2018   xpected  to   Outputs -  R&D Fund 0925_NDSL_01 R&D Process -  Patents -  Human -  Publications Resources è ‘Linear Model of Innovation’ that more focus on Inputs & Outputs. N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)2.  Understanding  of  Current  R&D  Circumstances   §   TradiLonal  Linear  Approach     South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2000   §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018  Linear is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   §   It   Basic Explore Idea Design, Develop, Producing MarketingModel Research New Ideas Evaluation Test 0925_NDSL_01 High Cost UncertaintyR&DCharacteristics High Risk N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)2.  Understanding  of  Current  R&D  Circumstances   §   Low  R&D  Success  Rate   South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2000   §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   100% Total R&D Investment §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   0925_NDSL_01 Failed R&D 60% Commercialized R&D 40% §  Only 40% of R&D Projects is commercialized in spite of high R&D investment §  In total only 24% of R&D Projects make a penny Non-Profitable Profitable §  R&D success rate has continuously been lowered down due to 40% 60% shortened life cycle of products & technology
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)2.  Understanding  of  Current  R&D  Circumstances   §   R&D  Cost  Curve   R&D Valley of Death Sea of Darwin 0925_NDSL_01•  Source : Osawa and Miyazaki, 2006
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)2.  Understanding  of  Current  R&D  Circumstances   §   Changes  on  R&D  Model     South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2000   §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   Universities §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   0925_NDSL_01 R&D Process National Enterprises R&D Center è Interactions among actors involved in technology devel opment are as important as investments in R&D N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)2.  Understanding  of  Current  R&D  Circumstances   §   Changes  on  R&D  Model     Research Development Business From traditional R&D model 0925_NDSL_01 To D&B Model Research Development Business Connect N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)3.  Technology  Development  Models   §   Closed  Models   Inside R&D Ecosystem Technology Innovation 0925_NDSL_01 New Increased Technology R&D New Investment Product Revenue & Profit Increase •  Source : Henry Chesbrough, 2003 N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)3.  Technology  Development  Models   §   Closed  Models   Closed § Designed and developed by nation inside § Leverage inside knowledge, intellectual property, experiences In-House 0925_NDSL_01knowledge, Development § Idling limitations of leveraging outside knowledge Leverage own knowledge è What if we don’t have enough resources, knowledge, an d experiences to do own closed innovation? N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)3.  Technology  Development  Models   §   Open  Models   0925_NDSL_01 1 End of Knowledge Monopoly Era 2 Mobility of Skilled Person & Technology 3 Increased R&D Cost and Shortened Life Cycle
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)3.  Technology  Development  Models   §   Open  Models   Internal Resources Quick & 0925_NDSL_01 Efficient Development External Resources è  Leverage smart people inside & outside of the nation!
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)3.  Technology  Development  Models   §   Open  Models   Open § Designed and developed with other outside partners § Inside knowledge + outside knowledge Collaborative 0925_NDSL_01 reduction, Development § Cost increase innovation capabilities, shortened response time to market change Leverage others knowledge too è Still need human resources or capabilities to coordinate inside & outside knowledge
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   R&D  Investment  by  NGIS  Plan   In Million KRW 45,000   40,000   35,000   30,000   1st NGIS : 18.5M US$ 25,000   0925_NDSL_01 2nd NGIS : 20.0M US$ 20,000   15,000   3rd NGIS : 144.7M US$ 10,000   Total 183.2M US$ 5,000   0   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   è Vision : Development of world class GeoSpatial techno logy and new growth engine N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Goal  of  Technology  Development  at  each  NGIS  Phase   0925_NDSL_01 Phase I Phase II Phase III - Mapping Technology - 3D GIS - Intelligent Land - DBMS Technology - High Resolution Information SW - General GIS SW Remote Sensing SW - Ubiquitous GIS N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Projects  &  Outcomes  of  Technology  Development  at  NGIS  Phase  I   Institution in Title Period Charge 1. DBMS Independent GIS Basic S/W - GIS API Development - GIS Analysis S/W Development - GIS Operation S/W Development - GIS User Interface Technology Development 2. Mapping Technology Development 0925_NDSL_01 - Data acquisition and modification S/W development - Data processing and three-dimensional topographic S/W development - Map printing and map design automation S/W development 1995 Ministry of 3. DB Tool ~ Science and - Spatial object management system development 1999 Technology - Spatial object storage system development - RDBMS Interface development - OODBMS Interface development 4. GIS System Integration - System integration development - GIS advanced technology monitoring and spread - Public facility management GIS application software development - GIS data editing and integrated management technology development - Internet environment three-dimensional spatial analysis S/W development N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Projects  &  Outcomes  of  Technology  Development  at  NGIS  Phase  II   Institution in Title Period Charge 1999~ 1. Open GIS component technology development 2001 0925_NDSL_01 2. 3-dimensional GIS S/W technology development 2000~ 2002 Ministry of Information 2001~ 3. High-precision satellite image processing technology development 2003 and Telecommunic ation 2001~ 4. Spatial information(4S)-connected technology support business 2003 2004~ 5. Multi-sensor spatial image information integration technology development 2006 N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Projects  &  Outcomes  of  Technology  Development  at  NGIS  Phase  III   Institution in Title Period Charge 1. Spatial information infrastructure innovation 2. Real-time territory monitoring 0925_NDSL_01 Ministry of 2006 Land, Transpo ~ 3. Establishment of intelligent urban space information infrastructure 2010 rtation and Ma ritime Affairs 4. Realization of safe and convenient construction space 5. Induction of u-GIS standard and technology N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Applied  Strategies  to  Develop  GeoSpaLal  Technology   1. Utilizing Foreign Technology : ESRI, Intergraph, Etc. GeoSpatial 0925_NDSL_01 Technology 2. Develop Own Technology : Mapping, DBMS, Etc Development 3. Mid Entry Strategy : Purchasing GOTHIC SW è Still around 70% of Korean GIS market is dominated b y foreign technologies such as ESRI, Intergraph N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Ideal  &  Planned  GeoSpaLal  Technology  Development  System  in  Korea   Government RoyalLes Research  Fund 0925_NDSL_01 Company   Research  Inst.   University Revenue  &  Profits Products  &  Tech  Selling Market  &  Customers •  Source  :  Byungnam  Choe,  2011   N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   Reality  of  Current  GeoSpaLal  Technology  Development  System  in  Korea   Government X Lack of flow 0925_NDSL_01 X Lack of flow Research University Company Short-term based Institute No update & further development after R&D Hard to find outcomes of R&D GeoSpatial Market – How to respond to the Market? •  Source  :  Byungnam  Choe,  2011   N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)4.  Korean  Cases   §   ImplicaLons  of  Korean  GeoSpaLal  Technology  Development  System   Implications 1 Closed R&D System - Try to develop almost all the technologies by Need to leverage outside technology and reso itself. urces to respond to fast changing market circ umstances. 2 University & Research Inst. Centric 0925_NDSL_01 - Heavily rely on traditional linear downstream Need to engage more enterprises’ request an R&D model. d enterprise itself in development system. 3 Ambiguous R&D Goal Need to address R&D and D&B separately. R -  Not clear whether it is R&D or D&B. Need to &D for basic research and D&B for commerci set clear goal. alization. 4 Need to set up platform to increase the flow of Hard to Reuse R&D Outcomes knowledge and dissemination of technology -  After R&D project period, finding & reusing R during & after R&D. &D outcomes is difficult. •  Source  :  Byungnam  Choe,  2011   N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)5.  Market  Situa#ons   §   Current  Market  SituaLons   South  Korea  became  an  aging  society  in  2Sweden §  2.2B US$ revenue(2010) company in 000   §  Merged ERDAS(ER-Mapper included), Intergraph, Leica Geosystems, GeoMax §   It  is  expected  to  bpowerful an  aged  society  iESRI §  Most ecome   competitor against n  2018   §   It  is  expected  to  become  an  aged  society  in  2018   §  Recorded 0.8B US$ revenue(2010) §  Around 40% of GIS SW market share. Unofficially affected around 70% market directly 0925_NDSL_01 and indirectly(Wikipedia) §  350,000 customers, world wide dealer network around 80 countries, 2,200 partners §  Autodesk and Bentley changed its target market from general GIS SW to domain spec ific niche market §  Autodesk, Bentley focus more on CAD, Utility, Engineering, Infrastructure market §  Boom-up of Open Source GIS §  Advent of commercial open source GIS companies like OpenGeo, Simple Geo §  Active adoptions in North America, EU and UN §  OSGeo foster and promote open source GIS world widely N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)5.  Market  Situa#ons   § Market  Growth  Trends(Past)   0925_NDSL_01 N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)5.  Market  Situa#ons   §   Market  Growth  Trends(Future)   0925_NDSL_01§  CAGR(Cumulative Annual Growth Rate) of next 5 years from 2010 will be 10.5%§  Government, Public, and Utility sector will drive growth. Smart Grid, Insurance, Real Estate, Retail will be new emerging market§  India, China and Brazil will be the power train of market growth N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS   §   Understanding  the  CharacterisLcs  of  GIS   §  GIS = Vertical Set of Many Software •  Interoperability is very crucial among components •  Linux, Apache, PHP are Horizontal based Software •  GIS is Vertical Architecture based one from DB to web client 0925_NDSL_01 §  GIS as Public Infrastructure = Spatial Data Infrastructure •  Vendor neutral, standard based architecture is very important •  Active standardization by ISO, OGC §  GIS as Lego Block •  Active implementation of “Standard Compatibility” •  Various GIS SW can be used at the same time by leveraging “Standard” N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS   §   Understanding  the  CharacterisLcs  of  GIS   Client ArcMAP Google Earth QGIS Web Interface WMS WFS WCS CSW 0925_NDSL_01Middleware ArcTMS TMS GeoWebCache Server ArcServer ArcSDE GeoServer MIP DBMS Oracle PostgreSQL Data Map Image DEM N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Open  Source  GIS  is  GIS  SW  that  source  code  is  opened  to  the  public   Freedom Of Software Freedom 0925_NDSL_01 Freedom of of Use Redistribute Freedom Freedom of of Copy Modify N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Benefits  of  Open  Source  GIS   1. Technological 2. Economical 3. Business 4. Other Aspects Aspects Aspects Aspects Reduce energy Rapid development of h igh-class SW 0925_NDSL_01 portfolio pro Very low adoption cost Extend company’s ducts Reduce SW developme Self-Satisfaction Increased stability by sk nt cost Open up new market b illed community review y providing diversified Help society Easy to customize services & products Reduce technological g ap to leading proprietar Reuse successful story Improve brand image o y SW company f company Internalize outside SW developer resources Develop the society by sharing technology & outcomes!! N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Current  State  and  Necessity  of  Open  Source  GIS     Current State ü  Boom-up of Open Source & Open Source GIS - Around 300 ~ 400 Open Source GIS projects are available (Freegis.org, 2011) ü  Advance of Open Source GIS - OSGeo Foundation : Commercial proprietary GIS SW can be replaced with Open Source GIS 0925_NDSL_01 - Google used Open Source based GDAL in its Google Earth program - AutoDesk opend the source code of MapGuide, FDO & MetaCRS and then donated those to OSGeo - ESRI actively used GDAL and also changed its ArcGIS GeoPortal Server to Open Source based one ü  Active adoption of Open Source GIS in UN, EU, USA , Canada and other countries Necessity ü  Want to meet lots of needs of GIS from public sectors ü  Want More with Less!! ü  Want to replicate other people & institution’s experience ü  Want to manage & modify the system by ourselves!! N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Open  Source  GIS  as  SubsLtute  for  Proprietary  GIS   ArcReader Viewing uDig, GRASS, gvSIG, QGIS, OSSIM ArcMap/ArcGIS Cartography uDig, GRASS, gvSIG, QGIS, OSSIM ArcINFO/ArcGRID Analysis GRASS, OSSIM, SEXTANTE 0925_NDSL_01 ArcPad Devices gvSIG mobile ArcSDE Database PostGIS ArcIMS Web Mapserver, GeoServer, DeeGree ArcGIS Server Spatial Server GRASS, SEXTANTE VB, Python Scripting PHP, Python, Perl, C#.net, etc… •  Source : Prof. Kwangwoo Nam N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Open  Source  GIS  based  Enterprise  GIS  Architecture   0925_NDSL_01 N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Geo  Bolivia  Pursuing  Open  Source  GIS  based  NSDI   0925_NDSL_01 N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   Hybrid  Model  by  Mixing  Proprietary  &  Open  Source  GIS   EU : INSPIRE 0925_NDSL_01 N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   IGN,  France   0925_NDSL_01 http://www.ign.fr è  Managing more than 100M spatial entities using PostGIS N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)6.  Open  Source  GIS     §   OpenStreetMap   0925_NDSL_01 è  OSM is made & published by people’s participation!! N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)7.  Strategies  and  Recommenda#ons   §   To  Check  Current  SituaLons   1 Demand Survey from Various Stakeholders 2 Value Chain Analysis 0925_NDSL_01 3 Feasible GeoSpatial Technology Development Test “Know  the  enemy  and  know  yourself;  in  a  hun dred  bacles  you  will  never  be  in  peril.”     - ‘The Art of War’ by Sun Tzu N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)7.  Strategies  and  Recommenda#ons   §   Demand  Survey     Geode sy Cartog Military raphy Touris m Survey 0925_NDSL_01 •  Many Stakeholders Climat e GIS Land •  Reflect Nation’s Major Interest •  Various Demands •  Limited Resources Enviro nment Mining Agricul ture Health è  To synthesize, review and prioritize the technology development N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)7.  Strategies  and  Recommenda#ons   §   Value  Chain  Analysis   A. Data Capture B. Management C. Analysis D. Service Data Processing Distribution Prediction Consuming 0925_NDSL_01 è To assist in pinpoint the mismatches between demands and technol ogy development N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)7.  Strategies  and  Recommenda#ons   §   Feasible  GeoSpaLal  Technology  Development  Test   1. Utilizing Foreign Technology : ESRI, Intergraph, Etc. GeoSpatial 0925_NDSL_01 Technology 2. Develop Own Technology : Domain Specific Development 3. Mid Entry Strategy : Using Open Source GIS è Need to consider the each nation’s major interest, goa l, human resources, capabilities N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)7.  Strategies  and  Recommenda#ons   §   Mapping  the  PrioriLes  and  Strategies   Natural Surveying Mapping Resources Agriculture IT Centric Proprietary 0925_NDSL_01Open Source OwnDevelopment Hybrid N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)8.  Conclusions   Demand Centric 1 2 Engage Various Stakeholders Systematic Approach -Hear more from stakeholders using survey, int -Need to avoid linear downstream approach erviews and meetings -Need to engage more enterprises 0925_NDSL_01 3 Divide R&D and D&B -Pinpoint the mismatches between demand an d policy Try to diffuse and disseminate knowledge & technology among actors!! N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)8.  Conclusions   Open Source GIS Strategy Developing Countries Overcome Strategies • Limited skilled human resources • Leverage outside free resources • Limited R&D funds • Active adoption of Open Source GIS • Small GIS companies • Foster Open Source GIS professionals 0925_NDSL_01 • Unable to target all the fields • Reduce the dependency on proprietary GIS • High dependency on proprietary GIS • Reduce GIS SW cost using Open Source GIS N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com)8.  Conclusions   Focus Strategy 1 Targeting Niche Market § Every country has its own unique invisible assets § Find niche target market that could leverage nation’s resources 0925_NDSL_01 § Focus resources on the niche market 2 Value Adding around Technology § Not only technology create values § Shared knowledge among actors around specific domain could create another values § Ecosystem around specific domain will diffuse the embodied technology N  S  D  I
    • Na#onal  GeoSpa#al  Technology  Development  System   -­‐ Sanghee  SHIN(shshin@gaia3d.com) Thank you 0925_NDSL_01 Q&A N  S  D  I