Calculating a late start and late finish date by starting at the end of a network diagram and working back through each path until reaching the start of the network diagram. This is a part of CPM, which is a mathematical technique to develop the project schedule.
Every activity or work item is individually estimated and then rolled up, or added together, to come up with a total project estimate. This is a very accurate means of estimating, provided the estimates at the work package level are accurate.
Person in charge of understanding the business unit’s needs when assessing a project request. The business analyst might be assigned directly from the business unit itself, or may be apart of the IT organization.
Applying changes to an IT system and putting those elements into place based on a project request and a business analyst’s examination of the work flow – hoe people handle their work relative to the request.
Describes the characteristics of the product of the project and ensures the description is accurate and complete. Controls changes to the characteristics of an item, and tracks the changes made or requested and their status. It is usually a subset of the change control process in most organizations, or it may serve as the change control system.
An amount of money or time set aside and dedicated to the project to be used to cover unforeseen costs within the original scope of the project that were not identified as part of the planning process.
The primary room in an organization’s building where the servers are housed. Often the routers, switches, and telephony gear are kept in the datacenter as well, in which case it may be called an MDF (Main Data Facility).
Looks at schedule, cost, and scope project measurements and compares their progress as of the measurement date against what was expected. Three measurements needed to perform earned value analysis are planned value (PV), actual cost (AC), and earned value (EV).
A project selection method that relies on information provided by those with expertise on the requested product. Expert judgment can come from stakeholders, other departments, consultants, or industry groups.
Defining team member roles and responsibilities, establishing an appropriate structure for team reporting, securing the right team members, and bringing them on the project as needed for the appropriate length of time.
Providing stakeholders with information regarding the project in a timely manner via status reports, project meetings, review meetings, email, an so on. The communications management plan is put into action during this process.
A room that houses necessary infrastructure components and is connected by network cabling to the datacenter, but is not considered to be the datacenter. Typically, in large buildings there are several IDFs spread around so that it’s easier and cheaper to run network cabling to user endpoints. Servers generally are not placed in the IDFs, but are kept at the datacenter, also called the Main Data Facility.
The discount rate when the present value of the cash inflows equals the original investment. Projects with higher IRR values are generally considered better than projects with lower IRR values. Assumes that cash inflows are reinvested at the IRR value.
Using people from different business entities in a project for at least a part of their time; team members report to both their functional manager and the project manager. Matrix management is common in IT projects.
An organization structure where employees report to one functional manager and at least one project manager. Functional managers assign employees to projects and carry out administrative duties, while project managers assign tasks associated with the project to team members and execute the project.
Evaluation of the cash inflows using the discounted cash flow technique, which is applied to each period the inflows are expected. The total present value of the cash flows is deducted from the initial investment; assumes that cash inflows are reinvested at the cost of capital. Similar to discounted cash flows.
The process of reducing data elements in a database to their base elements so as to reduce redundancy. Typically many different tables will be needed in a database system to accommodate the various sections of data.
The process of addressing interfaces that may impact how to manage a project team, define roles and responsibilities for project team members, identify how the project team will be organized, and document a staffing management plan.
A quality control technique used to rank importance of a problem based on its frequency of occurrence over time. This diagram is based on the Pareto principle, more commonly referred to as the 80/20 rule, which says that the majority of defects are caused by a small set of problems.
Collecting information regarding project progress and project accomplishments and reporting it to the stakeholders, project team members, management team, and other interested parties. It also makes predictions regarding future project performance.
Building and testing a proposed system in a small environment that includes a handful of users (also called pilot mode). The purpose of pilot testing is to develop a fully functioning system and then put it out for a small component of people to test to see if it meets the expectations of the project. From successful pilot testing it’s easy to put the system into full production.
An investigation at project request time to determine the costs and benefits of the project, as well as examine alternatives to the proposed solution in order to determine the feasibility of carrying out the project.
Identifying what goods or services will be purchased from outside of the organization. Also uses make or buy analysis to determine whether goods or services should be purchased or performed by the organization.
A project is temporary in nature, has definitive start and end dates, creates a unique product or service, and is completed when the goals and objectives of the project have been met and signed off on by the stakeholders.
An official, written acknowledgment and recognition that a project exists. It’s issued by senior management and gives the project manager authority to assign organizational resources to the work of the project.
Carrying out the project plan. Activities are clarified, the work is authorized to begin, resources are committed and assigned to activities, and the product or service of the project is created. The largest portion of the project budget will be spent during this process.
The process that’s used to initiate, plan, execute, monitor, control, and close out projects by applying skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniques to fulfill the project requirements.
A document, or assortment of documents, that constitutes what the project is, what the project will deliver, and how all the processes will be managed. Used as the guideline throughout the project executing and controlling phrases to track and measure project performance and to make future project decisions. Also used as a communication and information tool for stakeholders, team members, and management.
An organizational structure focused on projects. Project managers generally have ultimate authority over the project, and, sometimes, supporting departments like human resources and accounting might report to the project manager. Project managers are responsible for making project decisions and acquiring and assigning resources.
Monitoring work results to see whether they fulfill the quality standards set out in the quality management plan; determines whether the end product conforms to the requirements and product description defined during the planning processes.
Describes how the project management team will enact the quality policy and documents the resources needed to carry out the quality plan, the responsibilities of the project team in implementing quality, and all the processes and procedures the project team and organization will use to satisfy quality requirements.
Process of responding to risks as they occur based on the risk management plan, which details how risks are managed, and the risk response plan, which details how risk response strategies are implemented in the event of an actual risk event.
The plan for steps to reduce threats and take advantage of opportunities; assigns departments or individual staff members the responsibility of carrying out the risk response plans developed in this process.
Calculating and preparing the schedule of project activities, which becomes the schedule baseline. It determines activity start and finish dates, and finalizes activity sequences and durations; assigning resources to activities is done in resource planning, a cost management planning process.
Documents the project goals, deliverables, and requirements, which are used as a baseline for future project decisions. It also includes the project objectives and the business justification for the project.
Systems that arise out of end-user frustration with the limitations of the primary system. End users may use a spreadsheet or database to help them work through some of the processing requirements of an ERP system. Sidebar systems often don’t show up at requirements gathering time because people are afraid to reveal sidebar systems.
A methodology that describes five distinct phases involved in building any system. The five phases are Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation and Operations, and Support. Also known as the systems development life cycle.
Documents when and how human resources will be added to and released from the project team and what they will be working on while they are part of the team. Adding the releasing resources may be an informal or a formal process, depending on the organization.
Contains the details of a procurement item in clear, concise terms and includes the project objectives, a description of the work of the project, concise specifications of the product or services required, and a project schedule.
A network of storage arrays, designed to provide the safekeeping of information. May be connected by fiber-optic cabling using the fiber channel protocol, but this doesn’t have to be the case. May be connected by Ethernet, or other protocols.
A device that houses multiple disks designed to provide a highly fault-tolerant and highly available place where information can be stored. At a minimum, provides a method of making the information available to users and a system for monitoring the health of the array.
The final outcome of the design phase of SDLC; a document detailing what the system will do, how it will do it, and what it will cost. Used by systems developers who will actually build the new system.
Analyzing the details of a systems project request to determine how the current system (if any) flow and how the new system will change in its flows. Involves understanding the way that the business organization currently does its work and how that work translates into a new system. Also involves understanding how the various system components will connect physically and logically together. This is the second phase of an SDLC.
The lowest level in a WBS. Team assignments, time estimates, and cost estimates can be made when this level represents tasks or activities. On very large projects, this level is handed off to subproject managers who develop their own WBS to fulfill the requirements of the work package deliverable.