Contingent scaffolding
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Transcript

  • 1. Contingent Scaffolding:Supporting AssessmentsRefugee Action Support Tutor Training27 February 2009
  • 2. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ...
  • 3. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!!
  • 4. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!!
  • 5. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is:
  • 6. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish
  • 7. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish Plan
  • 8. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish Plan Scaffold
  • 9. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish Plan Scaffold Monitor
  • 10. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish Plan Scaffold Monitor Communicate
  • 11. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish Plan Scaffold Monitor Communicate
  • 12. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan Scaffold Monitor Communicate
  • 13. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan what the students must do Scaffold Monitor Communicate
  • 14. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan what the students must do Scaffold the next step Monitor Communicate
  • 15. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan what the students must do Scaffold the next step Monitor student’s progress Communicate
  • 16. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan what the students must do Scaffold the next step Monitor student’s progress Communicate to Student and
  • 17. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan what the students must do Scaffold the next step Monitor student’s progress Communicate to Student and Coordinating Teachers what must be done next
  • 18. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDING
  • 19. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)
  • 20. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demands
  • 21. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demandsSTEP #3: Create an action plan / timeline
  • 22. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demandsSTEP #3: Create an action plan / timelineSTEP #4: Provide examples of finished products to annotate (if available)
  • 23. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demandsSTEP #3: Create an action plan / timelineSTEP #4: Provide examples of finished products to annotate (if available)STEP #5: Provide scaffold that allow students to gather ideas and info
  • 24. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demandsSTEP #3: Create an action plan / timelineSTEP #4: Provide examples of finished products to annotate (if available)STEP #5: Provide scaffold that allow students to gather ideas and infoSTEP #6: Scaffold, monitor, contribute to student’s composition
  • 25. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demandsSTEP #3: Create an action plan / timelineSTEP #4: Provide examples of finished products to annotate (if available)STEP #5: Provide scaffold that allow students to gather ideas and infoSTEP #6: Scaffold, monitor, contribute to student’s compositionSTEP #7: Discuss next step (return to and revise the checklist)
  • 26. STEPS TO CONTINGENT SCAFFOLDINGSTEP #1: Read the question or assessment task with student(s)STEP #2: Create a checklist of the task demandsSTEP #3: Create an action plan / timelineSTEP #4: Provide examples of finished products to annotate (if available)STEP #5: Provide scaffold that allow students to gather ideas and infoSTEP #6: Scaffold, monitor, contribute to student’s compositionSTEP #7: Discuss next step (return to and revise the checklist)STEP #8: Discuss and request revisions (if possible)
  • 27. Student arrives with an assessment and it’s due ... TOMORROW!!! DON’T PANIC!!! All you need to do is: Establish the demands of the task Plan what the students must do Scaffold the next step Monitor student’s progress Communicate to Student and Coordinating Teachers what must be done next
  • 28. PREPARING TOWRITE A REVIEWAN ANNOTATED TEXTA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FOR GUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDE TOWRITING A REVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF REQUIRED)
  • 29. PREPARING TOWRITE A REVIEWAN ANNOTATED TEXTA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FOR GUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDE TOWRITING A REVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF REQUIRED)
  • 30. PREPARING TOWRITE A REVIEWAN ANNOTATED TEXTA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FOR GUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDE TOWRITING A REVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF REQUIRED)
  • 31. PREPARING TOWRITE A REVIEWAN ANNOTATED TEXTA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FOR GUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDE TOWRITING A REVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF REQUIRED)
  • 32. PREPARING TOWRITE A REVIEWAN ANNOTATED TEXTA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FOR GUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDE TOWRITING A REVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF REQUIRED)
  • 33. DRAFTING AN ESSAY Sample Fishbone Map MAP TO SUMMARISE d foo as ing high in protein rill kill for bush meat for as ch go s hunters infect gorillas rill oa lla ort go sp ori economical xp kill for trophies government can’t CAUSE AND EFFECT lg ills se e protect gorillas rea kil k ns accidental killings sick gorillas while at war ola ea inc s more people while stealing infants infect other gorillas an Eb rop need more food r ric for zoos Wa Eu Af x z | ~ Root Directly and indirectly, COLUMNEDEffect Cause humans kill gorillas.Gorillas may y { destroy habitat } SCAFFOLD TO Mi Mi Af Af a tr Lo and food miners bring an increase inbecome extinct. comfort food ric s p rad rc p d nin g gg g GUIDE bush meat hunting i g an ar iti ers or gi ns a t t o r ril se to n inc logging roads ind llas i d s cre homesick at f th tb t e help poachers ea ir ire se us eir ctl es sh r COMPOSITION ty po me kil oa il at ch ch t ing n THE FINAL Copyright 2003 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved. ReadWriteThink materials may be reproduced for educational purposes. PRODUCT
  • 34. DRAFTING AN ESSAY MAP TO SUMMARISE CAUSE AND EFFECT COLUMNED SCAFFOLD TO GUIDE COMPOSITION THE FINAL PRODUCT
  • 35. DRAFTING AN ESSAY Gorillas in Crisis By Kathleen Donovan-SnavelyWhat will you have for supper tonight? Hotdogs? Pizza? Gorilla? It may surprise you toknow that these “gentle creatures of the jungle” regularly appear as the featured entrée atmany a meal served near the African rainforest. That isn’t the only problem that hauntsgorillas lately. The combined threats posed by hunters, loggers, and disease are eliminatinglarge numbers of gorillas in central and West Africa. The future of gorillas in the wild is atrisk. MAP TO1. SUMMARISEGorilla meat is a dietary staple for nearly 12 million people who live near the rainforests ofcentral and West Africa. Some Africans prefer bush meat, such as gorilla, because itprovides an economical source of daily protein. Poor families without the means to CAUSE AND EFFECTpurchase food at the market travel a short distance to the rainforest to get bush meat. Theironly expense is the cost of ammunition and the fee to rent a gun. Some of these same COLUMNEDfamilies raise chickens and goats, but do not eat them. Instead, they sell the animals for thecash they need for buying supplies. Africa’s population is increasing rapidly, along with itsdemand for bush meat. If nothing changes, primatologists fear that gorillas may becomeextinct in the next thirty years.2. SCAFFOLD TOMoving away from one’s childhood home sometimes leaves us longing for familiar placesand traditions. Naturally, the African families who move away from their originalrainforest homes struggle with these feelings of sadness and displacement. Now living in GUIDEvillages and cities, they eat bush meat to feel closer to the past and to their old way of life.For them, gorilla feeds the body and the soul as well. This custom brings little comfort toendangered gorillas, whose females produce only one offspring every five to seven years. It COMPOSITIONis easy to see why gorillas are being killed faster than they can reproduce.3.While Africans plunder the gorilla population, they are not the only ones. Over the years,their European neighbors have developed a taste for exotic bush meat as a status symbol. THE FINAL PRODUCTTrophy hunters value gorillas for their collectable heads and hands. Finally, some hunterspersist in the decades-long practice of trapping young gorillas to sell to zoos and privatecitizens across the world. When mature members of the gorilla troop try to defend aninfant, hunters shoot to preserve their prize. Entire troops of gorillas have perished thisway. The international gorilla trade continues even though it is illegal, since the laws arenearly impossible to enforce. Gorilla populations continue to decline.
  • 36. THE TASKEach of you has a set of student case studies
  • 37. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK Each of you has a set of student case studies
  • 38. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK• select a case study Each of you has a set of student case studies
  • 39. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK• select a case study•identify one task the students Each of you has a set of student must do urgently case studies
  • 40. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK• select a case study•identify one task the students Each of you has a set of student must do urgently case studies
  • 41. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK• select a case study•identify one task the students Each of you has a set of student must do urgently case studies•discuss the demands of the task and the issues the student(s) might face
  • 42. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK• select a case study•identify one task the students Each of you has a set of student must do urgently case studies•discuss the demands of the task and the issues the student(s) might face• sequence a checklist that the task is asking the student to accomplish
  • 43. As a group I would like you to: THE TASK• select a case study•identify one task the students Each of you has a set of student must do urgently case studies•discuss the demands of the task and the issues the student(s) might face• sequence a checklist that the task is asking the student to accomplish•develop activities and scaffolds which would help you guide the student(s)
  • 44. To do
  • 45. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development;
  • 46. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles;
  • 47. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication;
  • 48. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice;
  • 49. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication;
  • 50. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication; build communication by requiring reflective thinking;
  • 51. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication; build communication by requiring reflective thinking; focus on both process and product, thus modeling behaviors;
  • 52. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication; build communication by requiring reflective thinking; focus on both process and product, thus modeling behaviors; model the conventions of texts through both scaffolding and spoken interaction;
  • 53. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication; build communication by requiring reflective thinking; focus on both process and product, thus modeling behaviors; model the conventions of texts through both scaffolding and spoken interaction; contextualise new communication forms through group problem solving, role playing and group construction of text (e.g. a poster or news article);
  • 54. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication; build communication by requiring reflective thinking; focus on both process and product, thus modeling behaviors; model the conventions of texts through both scaffolding and spoken interaction; contextualise new communication forms through group problem solving, role playing and group construction of text (e.g. a poster or news article); balance group and individual tasks;
  • 55. To do work within a student’s zone of proximal development; focus on long-term gradual development, knowing students’ strengths, weaknesses and learning styles; learn to effectively scaffold the conventions of communication; build communication through practice; build communication through revising communication; build communication by requiring reflective thinking; focus on both process and product, thus modeling behaviors; model the conventions of texts through both scaffolding and spoken interaction; contextualise new communication forms through group problem solving, role playing and group construction of text (e.g. a poster or news article); balance group and individual tasks; renegotiate outcomes so that the essential skills and knowledge are achieved.
  • 56. What to avoid
  • 57. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps;
  • 58. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding;
  • 59. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding; focus on the product without any reflection on the language choices and form;
  • 60. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding; focus on the product without any reflection on the language choices and form; focus the students’ attention on the rules/conventions but not reinforcing the conventions through regular written and spoken practice;
  • 61. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding; focus on the product without any reflection on the language choices and form; focus the students’ attention on the rules/conventions but not reinforcing the conventions through regular written and spoken practice; co-write a task with the student, when the student fails to see the pattern and process in the communication;
  • 62. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding; focus on the product without any reflection on the language choices and form; focus the students’ attention on the rules/conventions but not reinforcing the conventions through regular written and spoken practice; co-write a task with the student, when the student fails to see the pattern and process in the communication; becoming impatient and frustrated (sometimes difficult to avoid);
  • 63. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding; focus on the product without any reflection on the language choices and form; focus the students’ attention on the rules/conventions but not reinforcing the conventions through regular written and spoken practice; co-write a task with the student, when the student fails to see the pattern and process in the communication; becoming impatient and frustrated (sometimes difficult to avoid); require the performance of the rules/conventions of new communication forms without scaffolding and/or contextualising the communication form through group activity.
  • 64. What to avoid offering broad tasks without clear product or steps; creating a one-size-fits-all approach to scaffolding; focus on the product without any reflection on the language choices and form; focus the students’ attention on the rules/conventions but not reinforcing the conventions through regular written and spoken practice; co-write a task with the student, when the student fails to see the pattern and process in the communication; becoming impatient and frustrated (sometimes difficult to avoid); require the performance of the rules/conventions of new communication forms without scaffolding and/or contextualising the communication form through group activity. to measure students against a standard that is outside of their zone of proximal development.