Text
ethan d. aines
photographic
entanglement
In 1839, Talbot and
Daguerre nearly
simultaneously announced
independent success making
what would later be called
photogr...
Talbot’s process, the
calotype, later evolved to
become modern negative-
positive photography.
The confluence of these
events and technologies is
dependent upon extremely
complex, interconnected
networks of things and
...
calotype
elements of a negative to
positive photo process.
lens
tripod
camera
film holder/
focusing
screen
body
chemicals
p...
lens
tripod
camera
film holder/
focusing
screen
body
lens
setting
lens
elements
apertures
lens cap
chemicals
pyrogallol
 fixer
acetic acid
succinic acid
acids
gallic acid
citric acid
developer
ammonium iodide
potassium bro...
lab/
darkroom
measuring
weight
time
volume
storage
and
pouring
safety
application
printing
watch or clock
scale
balance
gr...
Factors in the gathering and
evolution of photographic
technologies:
1) inception of the camera
obscura and diminution
towards greater haptic
affordance
Large portable camera obscura, 1646. Athansius Kircher.
Assorted camera
obscura, including
S’gravesande’s sedan
chair camera obscura,
1711.
Table camera obscura,1769. Georg Brander.
Tent camera obscura, 1825.
Talbot’s lab, 1849. Sliding box cameras.
William Henry Fox Talbot
w/ portable camera, 1864.
2) (re)combination of lens
elements towards greater
mimesis of human visual
perception
A small hole.
two examples of camera
obscura; contemporary
photographic paper
notable incongruity with
human visual perception
Wollaston Landscape Lens, 1812.
spherical aberration
French Landscape Lens, 1845.
Grubb Aplanat Lens, 1857.
Dallmeyer Patent Portrait Lens, 1866.
Dallmeyer’s Rapid Landscape Lens, 1880.
Dallmeyer’s Rectilinear Landscape Lens, 1888.
Hopkins and Feder f/1 Objective, 1948.
3) refinement of metallurgy
to alchemy to
photochemistry
Albertus Magnus, died
1280.
Silver
nitrate
silver
nitric acid
potassium
nitrate
sulfuric
acid
silver ore
sulfur
dioxide 
water
iron pyrite
ore
air
sal...
4) fusion of chemical and
optical technologies
Humphrey Davy Thomas Wedgwood
1794
Chemicals needed to
make a calotype
chemicals
acetic acid
gallic acid
 succinic acid
ammonia
ammonium iodide
potassium bro...
John Herschel, 1867.
5) description and
communication of process
6) shift in habitus and
attitudes toward memory
and remembering
Window at Lacock Abbey,
1835.
Calotype, 1842.
Portrait, 1845.
Arago, François, and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. Annales De Chimie Et De Physique. Paris: Crochard, 1818. Print.
Arnold, H. J...
Lindberg, David C. Studies in the History of Medieval Optics. London: Variorum Reprints, 1983. Print.
Niépce, Nicéphore. N...
the end
The Entanglement of Photography
The Entanglement of Photography
The Entanglement of Photography
The Entanglement of Photography
The Entanglement of Photography
The Entanglement of Photography
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The Entanglement of Photography

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A presentation given as part of the final paper-project package for Ian Hodder's "Things" graduate seminar at the Stanford University Archaeology Center. The presentation lays out the myriad connections between early calotype photography and other scientific and social movements from ancient times to the present including optics, alchemy, perspective drawing, and the industrial revolution. The presentation is image heavy and relies on narration that the 38 photographs, drawings, and graphics compliment. To read the accompanying paper, please visit http://www.eaines.com/photography/calotypes/photographic-entanglement/.

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The Entanglement of Photography

  1. 1. Text ethan d. aines photographic entanglement
  2. 2. In 1839, Talbot and Daguerre nearly simultaneously announced independent success making what would later be called photographs.
  3. 3. Talbot’s process, the calotype, later evolved to become modern negative- positive photography.
  4. 4. The confluence of these events and technologies is dependent upon extremely complex, interconnected networks of things and people.
  5. 5. calotype elements of a negative to positive photo process. lens tripod camera film holder/ focusing screen body chemicals pyrogallol fixer acetic acid succinic acid acids gallic acid citric acid developer ammonium iodide potassium bromide potassium iodide sodium chloride salts ammonia assorted others distilled water gold chloride potassium ferrocyanide contrast and color control arrow root sensitizer silver nitrate negative paper vellum lens setting lens elements apertures lens cap lab/ darkroom measuring weight time volume storage and pouring safety application printing practitioner light watch or clock scale balance graduated cylinder beaker flask measuring system brown glass bottles stoppers funnels glass baths eye protection ventilation droppers gloves glass coating rod printing frame
  6. 6. lens tripod camera film holder/ focusing screen body lens setting lens elements apertures lens cap
  7. 7. chemicals pyrogallol fixer acetic acid succinic acid acids gallic acid citric acid developer ammonium iodide potassium bromide potassium iodide sodium chloride salts ammonia assorted others distilled water gold chloride potassium ferrocyanide contrast and color control arrow root sensitizer silver nitrate
  8. 8. lab/ darkroom measuring weight time volume storage and pouring safety application printing watch or clock scale balance graduated cylinder beaker flask brown glass bottles stoppers funnels glass baths eye protection ventilation droppers gloves glass coating rod printing frame
  9. 9. Factors in the gathering and evolution of photographic technologies:
  10. 10. 1) inception of the camera obscura and diminution towards greater haptic affordance
  11. 11. Large portable camera obscura, 1646. Athansius Kircher.
  12. 12. Assorted camera obscura, including S’gravesande’s sedan chair camera obscura, 1711.
  13. 13. Table camera obscura,1769. Georg Brander.
  14. 14. Tent camera obscura, 1825.
  15. 15. Talbot’s lab, 1849. Sliding box cameras.
  16. 16. William Henry Fox Talbot w/ portable camera, 1864.
  17. 17. 2) (re)combination of lens elements towards greater mimesis of human visual perception
  18. 18. A small hole.
  19. 19. two examples of camera obscura; contemporary photographic paper notable incongruity with human visual perception
  20. 20. Wollaston Landscape Lens, 1812.
  21. 21. spherical aberration
  22. 22. French Landscape Lens, 1845.
  23. 23. Grubb Aplanat Lens, 1857.
  24. 24. Dallmeyer Patent Portrait Lens, 1866.
  25. 25. Dallmeyer’s Rapid Landscape Lens, 1880.
  26. 26. Dallmeyer’s Rectilinear Landscape Lens, 1888.
  27. 27. Hopkins and Feder f/1 Objective, 1948.
  28. 28. 3) refinement of metallurgy to alchemy to photochemistry
  29. 29. Albertus Magnus, died 1280.
  30. 30. Silver nitrate silver nitric acid potassium nitrate sulfuric acid silver ore sulfur dioxide water iron pyrite ore air saltpeter
  31. 31. 4) fusion of chemical and optical technologies
  32. 32. Humphrey Davy Thomas Wedgwood 1794
  33. 33. Chemicals needed to make a calotype chemicals acetic acid gallic acid succinic acid ammonia ammonium iodide potassium bromide potassium iodide gold chloride sodium chloride pyrogallol potassium ferrocyanide citric acid fixer acids contrast and color control developer salts assorted others sensitizer distilled water arrow root silver nitrate
  34. 34. John Herschel, 1867.
  35. 35. 5) description and communication of process
  36. 36. 6) shift in habitus and attitudes toward memory and remembering
  37. 37. Window at Lacock Abbey, 1835.
  38. 38. Calotype, 1842.
  39. 39. Portrait, 1845.
  40. 40. Arago, François, and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. Annales De Chimie Et De Physique. Paris: Crochard, 1818. Print. Arnold, H. J. P. William Henry Fox Talbot: Pioneer of Photography and Man of Science. London: Hutchinson, 1977. Print. Batchen, Geoffrey. Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photography. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997. Print. Darrigol, Olivier. A History of Optics: From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Oxford; Oxford University Press, 2012. Print. Fouque, Victor. The Truth Concerning the Invention of Photography: Nicéphore Niépce, His Life, Letters, and Works. Arno Press, 1973. Print. Gernsheim, Helmut. The History of Photography: From the Camera Obscura to the Beginning of the Modern Era. 2d ed. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Print. Herschel, J. F. W. "On the Hypersulfurous Acid and Its Compounds." The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal (1819). Print. James, André. William H. Fox Talbot, Inventor of the Negative-Positive Process. New York: Macmillan, 1973. Print. James, Christopher. The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes. 2nd ed. ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. Kingslake, Rudolf. A History of the Photographic Lens. Boston: Academic Press, 1989. Print. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. 1786. Print. Works Cited
  41. 41. Lindberg, David C. Studies in the History of Medieval Optics. London: Variorum Reprints, 1983. Print. Niépce, Nicéphore. Nicéphore Niépce:Lettres Et Documents Choisis Par Paul Jay. Paris: Centre national de la photographie, 1983. Print. Schaaf, Larry J. Records of the Dawn of Photography: Talbot's P&Q Notebooks. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print. Snelling, Henry Hunt. The History and Practice of the Art of Photography, or, the Production of Pictures through the Agency of Light: Containing All the Instructions Necessary for the Complete Practice of the Daguerrean and Photogenic Art, Both on Metalic Plates and on Paper. G.P. Putnam, 1849. Print. Szabadvary, Ferenc. History of Analytical Chemistry. Taylor & Francis, 1966. Print. Talbot, William Henry Fox. The Pencil of Nature. Chicago: KWS Publishers in association with National Media Museum, 2011. Print. Ward, John. Printed Light: The Scientific Art of William Henry Fox Talbot and David Octavius Hill with Robert Adamson. Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1986. Print. Wilford, John Noble. "Transforming the Alchemists." The New York Times 2006 08 01 2006, sec. Science. Print. "Nitric Acid (Chemical Compound) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia." "Saltpetre (Chemical Compound) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia." "Silver Nitrate (Chemical Compound) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia." "Silver Nitrate." prezi.com. "Sulfur Dioxide (Chemical Compound) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia."
  42. 42. the end

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