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  1. 1. The Journal of Commerce, Vol. 3, No. 3ISSN: 2218-8118, 2220-6043Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, PAKISTAN WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA (A CASE STUDY IN ANDHRA PRADESH) Dr.S.Tarakeswara Rao1 , Prof.G.Tulasi Rao and in the society. They discover new sources of Mr.M.P.Suri Ganesh supply of materials and markets and establish new and more effective forms of organisation. Abstract Entrepreneurs perceive new opportunities and In India, entrepreneurship among women is of seize them with super normal will power and recent origin. Socio – economic background is an energy, essential to overcome the resistance that important factor that influences the woman to social environment offers2. start their business. Money is not the sole objective among woman entrepreneurs to enter Development of entrepreneurship among in to the business. The studies relating to women is a major step to increase women woman entrepreneurs in rural areas further participation in the process of economic reveal that training and awareness regarding development. It will speed up economic different agencies have proved beneficial for growth, and provide employment opportunities women entrepreneurs in building confidence. for women resulted in improving the economic Since entrepreneurship development involves independence. Provision of economic provision of additional channels of funds in the opportunities for women can also improve the form of working capital and credit, training, social, educational and health status of women management skill etc., DWCRA with an and their families. In advanced countries, there entrepreneurial development of women provides is a phenomenon of increase in the number of all these inputs by considering women as self – employed women after the World War II. critical to development. This intervention aims In U.S.A, women own 25 per cent of all business, at not only raising the income of rural women of even though their sales on an average are less poor households, but also enabling organized than two – fifths of those of other small participation of groups in the programme of business3. In Canada, one-third of small credit, skill training and infrastructure support business is owned by women and in France it is for self employment in groups who cannot take one – fifth. up economic activities, individually as their own. A similar trend is noticed even among the developed nations in Asia. Women constitute INTRODUCTION 40 per cent of the total workforce in these countries5. It has been seen that women Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the outnumber men by at least two times most important factors contributing to the particularly when it comes to starting business economic development of the society. in China. There are over five million women Entrepreneurs have been considered entrepreneurs constituting one-fourth of all the instrumental in initiating and sustaining socio- entrepreneurs in China6. In Japan to a similar economic development. There are evidences to trend has been noticed. Unfortunately, the trend believe that countries which have in India does not go along the same lines. The proportionately higher percentage of 1991 census shows that the proportion of entrepreneurs in their population have enterprises setup and run by women in India developed much faster as compared to was approximately a fraction of one per cent7. countries, which have lesser percentage of them The total number of women in India is a 1 whopping figure of 526 million. This female Faculty Member – Dept. of Commerce & Mgt. population is larger than the combined total Studies, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar University – populations of Canada, USA and the Russian Srikakulam- Andhra Pradesh – INDIA. Email: federation. Unfortunately a very small taraksivvala@gmail.com percentage of the woman population belonging 43
  2. 2. Women Entrepreneurship in India (A case study in Andhra Pradesh)to the elite, educated and upper – middle class independence of women. These views areespecially in the cities, has been exposed to antagonistic to the laws of Manu written early inissues on Women‟s roles, career options and the Christian era which stress the need tojobs. At the same time women are under – control women because of the „evils „ of femalerepresented in government and decision – character. The following lines reflect the age-oldmaking positions. At present, less than eight idea of keeping women dependent.per cent of parliamentary seats, less than six percent of cabinet positions and less than four per A woman is never independent. In childhood acent of seats in High Courts and the Supreme female must be subjected to her father, in youthCourt are occupied by women less than three to her husband, when her lord is dead to herper cent of administrators and managers are sons. A woman must never be independent.women. The not – so – fortune sister of the glamdoll urban and rural women consumer battle Women are often described as the better half oftheir day with inadequate wages, poverty, man. But the actual condition of women in thefemale feticide, sexual harassment, lack of world does not tally with this description. In noeducation and job skills, HIV infection etc. country have women achieved equality with men. Of the world‟s 1.4 billion poor people it isThe emergence of women on the economic scene estimated that nearly 70 per cent are women.as entrepreneurs is a significant development in Between 75 and 80 per cent of the world‟s 30the emancipation of women and securing them million refugees are women and children.a place in the society, which they have all along Educational backwardness is a major reason ofdeserved. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials women lagging behind men. Of the world‟s oneof women have gradually been changing with billion illiterate adults, two thirds are women.the growing sensitivity to the role and economic Two-thirds of the 150 million childrenstatus in the society. Women are increasingly worldwide who are not in schools are girls.8becoming conscious of their existence, theirrights and their work situations. Today women On the other hand history also records thatentrepreneurs represent a group of women who women in Vedic age have played an importanthave broken away from the beaten track and are part in religious and social functions. Theexploring new avenues of economic position of wife was an honored one as noparticipation. Among these reasons for women religious ceremony could be performed by theto run organized enterprises are their skill and husband alone. The third millennium B.C.knowledge, their talents and abilities in business Harappan and Mohanjodoro culture indicatesand a compelling desire of wanting to do that Indian women enjoyed a comparativelysomething positive. high status, which surpassed that of contemporary civilizations in ancient areas,What makes their arrival as well as Mesopotamia or Egypt. The Rugveda tooachievements even more significant and provides evidence to prove the concept ofcommendable are the struggles they have to put equality of women with men as regards theup, frustrations they have to experience and the access to knowledge, even to the knowledge ofmultiple handicaps they have to overcome to the absolute. There have always beenemerge as entrepreneurs at the early stage and outstanding women who have risen alonesubsequently achieving success in business at despite the constraints of their time.the stage of managing their enterprises. Unfortunately, due to social, economic and political changes later on women lost theirStatus of women freedom depends on economic position in education and other fields.conditions even more than political. If a woman Economically women became completelyis not economically free and self-earning, she dependent on men.9will have to depend on her husband or someoneelse, and dependents are never free. These were Although a lot has been done to ameliorate thethe ideas of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first condition of womankind, “InternationalPrime Minister of India, who vividly Women‟s Day”, which falls on March 8, remindshighlighted the importance of economic us every year that much more needs to be done to ensure a better deal for the female half of the 44
  3. 3. The Journal of Commerce, Vol. 3, No. 3ISSN: 2218-8118, 2220-6043Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, PAKISTAN humanist. The fourth world conference on skill and knowledge, their talents and abilities in women held in Beijing in 1995, resulted in business and a compelling desire of wanting to agreement by 189 delegations on a five year plan do something positive. to enhance the social, economic and political empowerment of women, improve their health, Over the last few decades, while women have advance their education and promote their come forward to establish their own enterprises, reproductive rights. Over 100 countries have their numbers remain few and far between. The announced new initiatives to further the entrepreneurial world is still male dominated. In advancement of women as a result of Beijing developed countries women tend to perform conference. The 1979 UN convention on the secretarial or low-level managerial jobs in the elimination of all forms of discrimination corporate sectors – indeed, less than five per amongst women, often described as the bill of cent of senior management portions are held by rights for women, has now been ratified by 154 women in the USA. In developing countries countries. such as India even in the small-scale sector, less than seven per cent of the enterprises have been “When women move forward, the families set – up by women. But probably what is moves, the village moves”. These words of noteworthy is that women have plunged into Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru are often repeated the field of entrepreneurship and have been because it is an accepted fact that only when the found effective in emerging social, economical women are in the mainstream of progress can role. Women had been a manager since long, any economic and social development be from the time the concept of living in a family meaningful. emerged. She had been an entrepreneur within the four walls where she was innovative in In India from the very beginning, women have terms of budgeting with the limited income been managers of the kitchen and have solely resources used the waste material for making dominated the area of household activities. So some useful products. With the changing role deep has been the impact of this, that the that women accepted ever since mid- eighties, general attitude of the people about women the role of entrepreneurship amongst women entrepreneurs is that they are makers of pickles, has gained a considerable importance. papads, masalas, and other household goods. Today non – traditional enterprises are easily The 1991 Industrial Policy has envisaged special managed by women and are done so excellently training programmes to support women with them as the decision – makers. They are entrepreneurs. Accordingly women flourishing well as leading consultants, entrepreneurs are receiving training through publishers, exporters of machinery, Entrepreneurship Development Programmes manufactures of electric goods, exporters of (EDPS) conducted by various institutions and garments, designers, interior decorators and the organizations both at central and state levels. like. The Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO), with its field offices all over the country The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women has been carrying out development programmes have gradually been changing with the growing for women entrepreneurs and is providing sensitivity to the role and economic status in technical schemes for setting up of SSI units. In society. Women are increasingly being conscious view of the changing outlook for the promotion of their existence, their rights and their work of women enterprises, the SSI Board in 1991 situation. And yet the middle class strata revised the definition of women enterprises by women have accepted their role and are not omitting the condition of employing 50 per cent ready to alter for fear of a social backlash. of women workers. This provided a boost to Today, woman entrepreneurs represent a group women entrepreneurs to take up business and of women who have broken away from the avail all facilities / concessions as are applicable beaten track and are exploring new avenues of to a SSIs. economic participation. Among the reasons for women to run organized enterprises are their 45
  4. 4. Women Entrepreneurship in India (A case study in Andhra Pradesh)“Women in business” is considered a recent manufacturing, knitting and tailoring,phenomenon in India. The fact that almost half readymade garments, herbal, medicinesthe population of this large country comprises of manufacturing, etc. Indeed, a large number offemales while businesses owned and operated Indian women are engaged in suchby them constitute less than five per cent is a supplementary income generating activities. Thereflection on social, cultural as well as economic base of most such activities has been „home‟ anddistractions in the decades of development.12 those have been direct or indirect extensions ofIndeed, women‟s participation in economic the usual household chores of an Indian woman,activity and production of goods and services is something a woman is good at in the kitchen orfar greater than formal statistics might reveal, as a housewife.since much of it takes place in the informalsector as also in the households. But despite these numerous barriers and tangible obstacles women are, entering in to theAs education spread and compulsions for field of business in increasing numbers. Whatearning have grown more and more women makes their arrival as well as achievements evenhave started to go out of the homes and opt more significant and commendable are theeither for wage employment or self employment struggles they have to put up, frustration they/ entrepreneurial career. In case of woman, have to survive and the multiple handicaps theyhowever, handicaps to entry into business have to overcome to emerge as entrepreneurs atownership have been for too many given the the entry stage and subsequently achievingtraditional, conservative, orthodox Indian success in business at the stage of managingsociety. The process of breaking many of these their enterprises.shackles has been rather slow. However,changes have started taking place as far as role The women entrepreneur of today is neither aof women in economic development is rare orchid nor a voiceless heroine withconcerned and strides have been made by playback support rather she embodies awomen in setting up and managing business; a compelling urge for self-expression, whichfairly large number has „graduated‟ out of the needs encouragement from everyone concernedinitial phase of going out of the home to work with the progress of the nation.for somebody. Employment to self –employment has been a employment has been a STUDIES CONDUCTED ATnoticeable phenomenon in the emergence of NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONALnew women entrepreneurs. Many of them not LEVELonly own small business but have set up andrun manufacturing enterprises. Which is Studies conducted in Poland highlights thatultimate in the entrepreneurship movement. women entrepreneurs are involved inAnd by doing so successfully, they have traditional and non-traditional business.unquestionably established the fact that women However they are successful because of thecan be as capable and successful entrepreneurs formal training they took before the start of theas men in business and industry. business. In Jamaica, women have been involved in areas, which require less capital andAnd yet, the society at large continues to suffer extension of household activities. Householdfrom a various misconceptions (myths) responsibility plays a significant role in choice ofapprehensions and suspicions about women economic activity. Comparative studies ofentrepreneurs in business and industry. This is women entrepreneurship in India and U.K.the result of inadequacies of literature about reveals that the share of women entrepreneur inIndian women in business and industry. The business is relatively more in U.K. than in Indiadearth of documentation, information and since better facilities are available to women inpublications about women entrepreneurs has U.K. In both the countries family responsibilityallowed a stereo type image of women in is the main concern faced by them.business to persist. Typically women have beenportrayed as those undertaking business ofpredictable lines – the papad – pickle 46
  5. 5. The Journal of Commerce, Vol. 3, No. 3ISSN: 2218-8118, 2220-6043Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, PAKISTAN Woman enterprise challenge to the government, funding agencies and non-government organisations. It is A woman entrepreneur is an adult who owns important for these people to focus on the and runs an enterprise, especially a commercial limitations faced by the women and to plan one, often at personal financial risk. A recent supporting systems to enhance the women ILO-Indian study of woman entrepreneurs gave entrepreneurship in India. the definition of women‟s enterprise as „a small unit where one or more women entrepreneurs Need and importance of women have not less than 50 per cent financial entrepreneurs holdings.13 It is imperative to note the participation of The concept of women entrepreneurship is women in economic activities as self-employed becoming a global phenomenon playing a vital individuals. Many of the traditional occupations role in the business community. In India women open to women were mainly based on caste, have made a comparatively late entry into creed and the nature of self-employment based business scenario mainly due to the orthodox on the standard of living. Presently, women are and traditional socio-cultural environment. generating employment for themselves in an Although women face various problems in the unorganized sector and another category of process of establishing, developing and running women who provide employment for others. their enterprise, nevertheless, their scope of development is very high in India, especially in The country needs to mobilize and utilize fully rural areas with more women making all its resources including human resources. The development – oriented programme viz. participation of women in economic activities is Development of Women and Children in Rural necessary not only from a human resource point Areas, (DWCRA) launched in and being of view but also is essential even from the implemented in 1982-83. In what follows, an objective of raising the status of women in the attempt is made to analyze the success of such a society. The economic status of the women is scheme in terms of its survival, growth and now accepted as an indicator of a society‟s stage development of women entrepreneurs and of development and therefore it becomes identify the problems faced by the women imperative for the government to frame policies entrepreneurs. for development of entrepreneurship among women. The long-term objectives of the Woman Entrepreneurship in India development programmes for women should aim to raise their economic and social status in Around 50 per cent of India‟s population is order to bring them into the mainstream of women. Yet, business spheres such as trade, national life and development. For this, due commerce and industry, is still considered a recognition has to be accorded to the role and male preserve. Entrepreneurial work has also contribution of women in the various social been a predominantly a man‟s world in India. economic and political and cultural activities. This is based on the fact that only seven per cent of the total entrepreneurs in India are women. Factors influencing women Indian women are in no way inferior to men in entrepreneurs all walks of life and they can be as good The following are the major factors influencing entrepreneurs as men in the country. Therefore, the women entrepreneur. it is essential to exploit the potentials of Indian  Economic independence. women. Women‟s participation in trade,  Establishing their own creative idea. industry and commerce, requiring  Establishing their own identity. entrepreneurship, is still poor mainly because of  Achievement of excellence. the problems associated with their gender roles. Therefore, promotion of entrepreneurship and  Building confidence. economic empowerment of women poses a  Developing risk-taking ability. 47
  6. 6. Women Entrepreneurship in India (A case study in Andhra Pradesh)  Motivation. Since entrepreneurship development involves  Equal status in society. provision of additional channels of funds in the  Greater freedom and mobility form of working capital and credit, training, management skill etc., DWCRA with anThe concept of developing women entrepreneurial development of womenentrepreneurship lays emphasis of the provides all these inputs by considering womenproductive utilization of women labour force to as critical to development. This interventiongenerate income and output. The programme aims at not only raising the income of ruralfor developing women entrepreneur would women of poor households, but also enablingmake a dent to alleviate poverty. The Sixth Five organized participation of groups in theYear Plan for the first time highlighted the programme of credit, skill training andproblem of women integration in economic infrastructure support for self employment indevelopment in India and emphasized need to groups who cannot take up economic activities,expand women employment in the household individually as their own.sector by providing adequate support in theareas of technology upgradation, training, CONCLUSIONcredit, raw material requirements anddevelopment of financing loans. For this The main objective of the scheme is to improvepurpose, sincere efforts have been taken under the economic, health, educational and socialvarious plans, policies, programmes for the status of rural women by providing themdevelopment of women entrepreneurship since assistance and creating employment1990‟s. opportunities. The specific objectives of the scheme are:The DWCRA groups (also known as SHGs) isconsidered as a viable organisation of the rural 1. To help and promote self-employmentpoor particularly women for delivering micro among the rural women, who are belowcredit in order to undertake entrepreneurial the poverty line, by providing skillactivities. Some of the studies on these groups training in vocations which areparticularly those managed by women acceptable to the beneficiaries, bysuccessfully demonstrated how to mobilize and encouraging productivity in theirmanage thrift activities, appraise credit needs, existing vocations and by introducingenforce financial discipline, maintain credit new activities hitherto undertaken;linkages with banks and effectively undertake 2. To organize the beneficiaries in groups,income generating activities etc.16 These studies activity-wise and promote economicalso showed that the poor as a group are quite and social self-reliance.creditworthy and repayment of loan is quite 3. To generate income for the rural poorsatisfactory. by creating avenues for production of goods and services;Women Entrepreneurship in AP: A 4. To organize production enhancingcase SHGs programmes in rural areas; and 5. To provide for care of the children ofThe scheme, Development of Women and the workingwomen by providing anChildren in Rural Areas (DWCRA) launched in improved environment, care and food1982-83 (presently called as SHGs), inaugurated by establishing crèches / balwadis.an era for systematically organizing women ingroups for providing them opportunities of self- The programme called for formation of groupsemployment on a sustained basis. Several of 10-15 women who could collectively engagethousands of rural women from the length and in an activity. One woman amongst thebreadth of the country participate in this members functions as the group organizer whoprogramme and they have taken up a number of helps in the choice of activity, procurement oftrades under DWCRA banner. raw materials, marketing of products etc. A revolving fund of Rs. 15,000/- (subsequently increased to Rs.20, 000/-) was made available to 48
  7. 7. The Journal of Commerce, Vol. 3, No. 3ISSN: 2218-8118, 2220-6043Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, PAKISTAN each group for credit and administrative needs. N. Rajendran, OP. Cit. P – 40. The programme is implemented by the District Kumar K.P. “Role of SHG‟s in promoting Rural Development Agency (DRDA) at the Micro Enterprises through Micro district level. SHG is the only programme of its Credit: An empirical study” Journal of kind, which aims at empowering the rural poor Rural Development Vol.21 (2) P 232. women by inculcating entrepreneurial skill. It Manimekalai and Rajeswari: 2000; Myrada: seeks to encourage collective action in the form 1995; NABARD; 1989; and Dinakar Rao of group activities, which are known to work 1992. better than individual efforts. Self-employment is emerging to be a very important source of livelihood for women in Asia and South East Asia. This is due to paucity of employment opportunities. There is an additional factor that many types of paid employment are felt to be more suitable to males than females. REFERENCES Anil Kumar, “Women Entrepreneurs Profile of the Ground relatives”, SEDME Vol. 30 No. 4 December 2003 P – 1. S.K. Dhameja, “Women Entrepreneurs: Opportunities, Performance, Problems Deep Publications Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi, P – 9. Anil Kumar, Financing Pattern of Enterprises owned by women Entrepreneurs. The Indian journal of Commerce, Vol. 57 No.2, April – June. 2004. P-73. Bhandari, Arivid: Women Deserve a Better. The Tribune March 8th 2000. Dhameeja S.K. Women Entrepreneurs; Opportunities, Performance, Problems, Deep Publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi, P – 11. Women Entrepreneurs, SIDBI Report on Small Scale Industries, OP Cit. Kanitkar, Ajit and Contractor, Nalinee: in Search of Felentity the women entrepreneurs of India. Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, Ahemedabad, 1992. Mohhiceddin. A. (1996). “Entrepreneur – Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Cottage Industries in India”. (ILO /SIDA) N.Rajendran, “Problems and Prospects of Woman Entrepreneurs”, SEDME, Vol.30, No.4 December, 2003, P – 39. 49