Foundations (Year Two)“Encountering the New Testament” Session #8. Encountering THE LETTERS OF PETER & JUDE.
Written earlier: The NT Writings Letter of James (40’s/50’s)Letters of Paul: Written later:Galatians (48/49 CE) Letters of Peter (64-66)1 & 2 Thessalonians (51-52) Mark (68-70 )1 & 2 Corinthians (53-57) Matthew (70-80)Romans (56-57) Luke-Acts (70-80)Prison letters (61-62): Hebrews (50’s/60’s?) (Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon & Philippians) Letter of Jude (50’s ?)Pastoral letters (64-66): Writings of John: (1, 2 Timothy & Titus) Gospel, Letters & Revelation (90-96)
The General Letters1. Hebrews2. James3. 1 Peter General = “catholic”4. 2 Peter Addressed to Christians in5. 1 John general, rather than to6. 2 John individuals or specific7. 3 John churches8. Jude …& not Pauline.
Authorship“Peter” (Disciple of Jesus/ Pillar of the Church - Gal. 2:9)[Jesus looked at him and said, "You are Simon son of John. You will be called Cephas" (which, when translated, is Peter – a rock). John 1:42]“an apostle of Jesus Christ”“my second letter” (2 Peter 3:1)“by Silvanus” (Lat.)/ Silas (Gk.) the scribe (5:13)from “Babylon” (5:13 cf. Revelation 17-18)“my son Mark” (5:13)
AuthorshipObjections to Peter as the author Linguistic How could a Galilean fisherman use such good Greek as a second language? Use of the Septuagint (LXX) Use of Silas as a scribe (5:12) Historical What persecution does all this reflect? Other pseudonymous writings attributed to Peter: Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Acts of Peter & Apocalypse of Peter.
The case for Petrine AuthorshipInternal claims Identifieshimself as Peter the Apostle (1:1) Words & experiences of Christ woven into writings - Eyewitness of Jesus’ life & ministry (2:23; 5:1) - Familiar with Jesus’ teachings (2:12/Matthew 5:16; 2:21/Matthew 10:38; 3:14, 4:13-14/Matthew 5:10-12) Similarity to Peter’s speeches in Acts Peter’s connection with Mark (5:13)
The case for Petrine AuthorshipExternal claims Papias claims that Peter’s interpreter was Mark 2 Pet. 3:1 speaks of a previous letter Clement (95 CE) Irenaeus (180 CE) and Origen (185-253 CE) allude to the letter. Following this, it is not questioned until recently. “Peter blows on the twin trumpets of his own epistles” (Origen)
Date of 1 PeterGenerally before 64/ 65, since Peter died shortly thereafterThe letter is written during a time of persecution (2:12, 20; 3:16,17; 4:4,16) Various persecutions are possible Initial Jewish persecution (Acts 4:17; 5:28,40; 9:16) Nero (starting 64) Domitian (starting 95) Trajan (starting 110)
Origin & Destination of 1 Peter“She who is in Babylon greets you” Babylon on the Euphrates Rome (as in Rev. 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2,10,21) Jerusalem (Rev. 11:8)“To the strangers…in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia” (v.1) Similar to James 1:1 People in this area are mostly non-Jews Geographical areas/ Roman Provinces in Northern Asia Minor (on circular trade route?) Message sent with Silas around churches?
The recipientsElect (of God) Exiles (in the world)Chosen… Strangers…acc. to foreknowledge of …throughout: God the father Pontusthrough the sanctifying Galatia work of the Spiritfor obedience to Jesus Cappadocia Christ & sprinkling by his Asia blood Bithynia
Pontus Bithynia Cappadocia Asia Galatia PETER, AN APOSTLE OF JESUSCHRIST, TO THOSE WHO RESIDE ASALIENS, SCATTERED THROUGHOUT PONTUS, GALATIA, CAPPADOCIA, ASIA, AND BITHYNIA, WHO ARE CHOSEN (1 PETER 1:1)
The theme & settingGrace in suffering salt in an open wound suffering x16 light shining in a dark place grace x10Jn. 16:33 "In this world you will suffer…"2 Tim. 3:12 "anyone who wants to live a godly life in Christ will suffer…"1 Pet. 4:12 "dont be surprised…as if something strange were happening"Jas. 1:2 "consider it joy when you face trials…"
1 Peter 1:3 -12 Opening greeting & blessing 1 Peter 2:13 - 1 Peter 3:8 – 1 PETER 1:13 - 2:12 3:8 4:19 Call to Call to Call to Submissive Living SufferingHoly Living Final words to 1 Peter 5:1-11 leaders & members Closing greeting 1 Peter 5:12-14 & blessing
Our salvation – what God has donePRAISE be (to this God)In his great mercy He has regenerated us (lit. caused us to be born) into a living hope (thru the resurrection of Jesus Christ) into an inheritance (that can never perish, spoil or fade) (kept in heaven for you)
Benefits & blessings of salvationA refined faith in Christ (vv.6-7)A personal knowledge of Christ (vv. 8-9)A privileged taste of the present grace & future glory of Christ (vv. 10-12)
Our salvationNOW NOT YET Into a living hope Into an inheritance Shielded by God’s power, Ready to be revealed in through faith the last time Though now you may have Your faith will result in to suffer grief through trials praise, glory & honour to for a time God You are filled with joy You do not see him You are receiving the goal of your faith = the salvation of your souls
Our salvation – how we should respond“Therefore…(1:13; 2:1; 4:1)”Embrace a life of holiness (1:13-2:12)Embrace a life of submission (2:13-3:8)Embrace a life of suffering (3:8-5:11)
#1. Embrace a life of holiness (1:13-2:12) Setting our priorities (on the call of God) 1:13-16 “Be holy (all of you) because I am holy” Living as strangers (in relationship with God) 1:17-2:3 Redeemed by the blood of Christ Regenerated through the word of God Building on the foundation (of the Son of God) 2:4-8 Loving one another (as the people of God) 2:9-12 “Love one another truly, madly, deeply” (1:22; 4:8)
The biblical image of the “stone”“The ROCK of Israel” (Gen. 49:24; 2 Sam. 23:3; Is. 30:29)“The LORD is my ROCK” (see handout)“The sacred stone of Baal” (2 Kings 10:26-27)“The cornerstone” (Psalm 118:22/ Isaiah 28:16)“The rock, not cut by human hands” Dan. 2:34-35, 42-45“The wise man built his house on a rock” (Matt. 7/Luke 6)“You are Peter…on this rock I will build my Church” (Matt. 16:18)“Jesus is the stone the builders rejected” (Matt . 21:42-44; Acts 4:10-12; Romans 9:30-33; 1 Peter 2:4-8)
#2. Embrace a life of submission (2:13-3:8)Submission to every authority (2:13-17) as unto GodSubmission to your masters (18-25) following the example of ChristSubmission as husbands & wives (3:1-7) cf. Eph. 5:21-33/ Col. 2:18-19 “Live in harmony with one another” (3:8)
#3. Embrace a life of suffering (3:8-4:19)Remember our calling vv.8-12 Called by God (“to this you were called”) Rewarded by God (Ps. 34:12-16a)Be prepared Don’t be intimidated vv.13-14 Acknowledge Christ (alone) as LORD v.15 Know your faith vv.15-19 Remember your baptism vv.20-22
Suffering – the example of ChristHave the same attitude Have the same response 4:1-11 4:12-19 Towards sin – hate it Don’t be surprised Rejoice – you’re becoming Towards God – love him like him Towards ourselves – deny Receive the blessing/ Towards others – serve Receive the discipline Commit yourself to God ** Just make sure it’s for the right reasons! (vv. 15-16)
Final words (5:1-11)To the elders (older men) vv.1-4 “Be shepherds…serve as overseers” NOT BUT because you must willingly for money as servants lording over as examples “When the Chief Shepherd appears…(rewarded)”To the younger men v.5 “Clothe yourselves with humility”To the churches vv.6-11 “Submit to God…resist the devil” (cf. James 4:6-10)
Relationship between 2 Peter & Jude2 Peter 2-3 and Jude are very similar Confront the problem of false teachers Severe warnings Use of similar OT examples Last (disputed) books to be accepted as scriptureOptions: Both rely on a (lost) common source 2 Peter borrows from Jude Jude borrows from 2 Peter This is most widely held, allowing Jude to be written anywhere from 65-80 CE, and Peter having greater authority as an apostle.
Who Were These False Teachers? Denied the lordship of Jesus by the way they lived (2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4). Defiled the love-feast (communion). Were immoral themselves and encouraged immorality in others. Minimized the place of law in the Christian life and emphasized freedom (2 Peter 2:10, 10ff, 18ff; Jude 4, 12). Were plausible and crafty, fond of rhetoric, out for gain, and pandered to those from whom they hoped to gain some advantage (2 Peter 2:3, 12, 14, 15, 18; Jude 16). Were arrogant and cynical of church leaders (2 Peter 2:1, 10, 11; Jude 8). Posed as visionaries or prophets (2 Peter 2:1; Jude 8). Were self-willed, divisive, and confident of their own superiority (2 Peter 2:2, 10, 18; Jude 19).
Outline (2 Peter)“Our precious faith”Introduction (1:1-2)Reminder #1: Privileges & responsibilities of faith (1:3-11)Reminder #2: Source of the truth (1:12-21)Reminder #3: Warning against the false (2:1-22)Reminder #4: The “Day of the Lord” (3:1-16)Conclusion (3:17-18)
2 Peter - IntroductionGreeting: “Simon Peter” “A servant and apostle” “My second letter” (3:1) An older man, about to die (cf. 1:13-15) A righteous God/ A precious faith (cf. I 1:19; 2:4-7; II 1:4) Grace & peace in abundance …through the knowledge of God (our father) and Jesus our Lord
Privileges & Responsibilities (1:3-11)God’s power has given us all we need for: “Make every effort to…” Life (in all it’s fullness; sacred/ secular) Add to your faith (v.5) Godliness (to become like God)God’s promises give us: “Be all the more eager Escape from the corruption of to…” this world Share in God’s divine nature Ensure your faith (v.10) Eph. 1:3 – every spiritual blessing
Seven Cardinal VirtuesFaith1. Goodness Appeal: Virtues to be2. Knowledge added, to our faith (vv.5-3. Self-control 7)4. Perseverance5. Godliness Warning: Consequence of adding - or not adding6. Brotherly kindness these virtues (vv.8-9)7. Love
The ConsequencesAdding these virtues will prevent negatives: Being useless or unfruitful Spiritual blindness or myopia Neglecting our salvationAdding these virtues will promote positives: Spiritual sure-footedness Receiving a rich welcome into the everlasting kingdom Assurance of our salvation
A reminder of the truth (1:12-21)Reminder of the message (12-15)It was rooted in history (16-18) We saw him “This is eternal life, that they We heard him may know…Jesus Christ whom you have sent.”(Jn. 17:3) We were with himIt was inspired as prophecy (19)It must be interpreted very carefully! (20-21)
A warning of the false (2:1-22)How to recognize false teachers (1-3) Remember the warnings of Jesus They are deceitful (denying the Lord/ secretly introducing heresy) They will have large followings (lead others astray) They are “covetous” (exploit others with grand stories) God has already condemned them
Illustrations of False Teachers (2:4-12)1. Angels who sinned (v.4)2. Noah & the flood (v.5)3. Sodom, Gomorrah & Lot (vv.6-9)4. Celestial beings (vv.10-12)Other examples of false teachers: NT – Acts 13; 2 Thess. 2; 2 Cor. 10-11 OT – Deut. 13:1-18; 18:9-22; Ezekiel 34
Attributes of False Teachers (vv.12-22)“Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheeps clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves.” Matt. 7:15 Like beasts (v.12) Blasphemous (v.12) Morally corrupt (v.13) Adulterous & greedy (v.14) Follow “the way of Balaam” (vv.15-16, Numb. 22-24) Empty & shallow (v.17) Vain & boastful (v.18) Deceitful: promise liberty – enslave people (v.19) Apostates (vv.20-22)
Christ’s return/ Second coming?Wholesome thinking (lit. sincere, cf. Phil. 1:10)KEY: “The Prophets…the Lord…the Apostles”God has a plan (creation…salvation…judgment)God’s timing is unique (perspective & patience)The LORD will come (unexpectedly)Judgment is determined (destruction or renewal?)Our ultimate hope: Redemption. A transformed cosmos - “new heavens & new earth” & a resurrected body (1 Cor. 15; Rev. 21-22) ** Apart from this no one knows, so STOP speculating and START living!
Getting ready for Christ’s returnLive a holy & godly life (v.11)Looking forward to the day of God/ looking forward to a new earth – “speed its coming” (vv.12-13)Be diligent in applying the truth (v.14)Be familiar with apostolic teaching (vv.15-16)Be on your guard against error (v.17)Grow in grace & knowledge (v.18)
Jude The brother of Jesus? (Judas/ Jude)Matt. 13:55-56/ Mark 6:3 "Isnt this the carpenters son? Isnt his mothers name Mary, and arent his brothers James, Joseph, Simon and Judas? Arent all his sisters with us?" The letter is written to: The “called ones” The “beloved ones” The “kept ones” The purpose of the letter Our “common salvation” Contend for what is true Recognize what is false
Why Did Jude Write? (vv.3-4)Original intention: “the salvation we share”Immediate necessity: “contend for the faith”The false teachers : v.4 “Certain men have crept in, unawares.“ v.4 “(they) change the grace of God…deny Jesus Christ as lord” v.8 “(they) pollute their own bodies” v.8 “(they) reject authority” vv.8-10 “(they) blaspheme/ slander what they don’t know” v.11 They follow bad (historical) examples (ie. Cain, Balaam & Korah) v.12 “They are (corrupt) blemishes at your love-feasts” v.15 “(they) are ungodly…ungodly…ungodly…ungodly” v.16 “(they) grumble…complain…boast…flatter” v.19 “(they) are divisive, follow natural instincts…don’t have the Spirit”
Who were the False Teachers?Theologically in error“Believers” who had craftily perverted the apostolic doctrine.“For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith - and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God - not by works, so that no one can boast.” (Eph. 2:8-9)Ethically immoral“Believers” who had taken up an extreme position in opposition to the legalistic Judaizers.“What shall we say, then? Shall we go on sinning so that grace may increase? By no means! We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer?” (Romans 6:1-2)
Jude – an outline1. INTRODUCTION — vv. 1-2 What constitutes a true believer?2. THE NEED TO CONTEND — APOSTATE TEACHERS — vv. 3-16 Their evil perversions: Three basic denials (faith, grace, Lord) vv. 3- 4 Their certain doom: Three historic examples vv. 5- 7 Their impious ways: Three historic examples vv. 8-11 Their utter depravity: Six terrible metaphors vv. 12-13 Their final destruction: Enochs testimony vv. 14-163. THE WAY TO CONTEND — AVAILABLE RESOURCES — vv. 17-25 Recognize that apostasy has been foretold vv. 17-18 Analyze their actions, and fruit v. 19 Draw upon Divine resources vv. 20-21 Seek to reclaim, where possible vv. 22-23 Rest in the security of Christ vv. 24-25The natural division occurs at v. 17 with the statement: "But, beloved ones". Having warned them of the dangerous influence of apostasy, Jude then instructs his readers how to counter it.
The marks of a true believer (vv.1-2)They recognize the family of God “servant of Jesus…brother of…”They respond to the work of God “called & loved by the Father, kept by/ in the Son”They receive the gifts of God “mercy, peace & love…in abundance”
Three basic denials (vv.3-4)The faith… “once for all delivered to the saints”The grace (of God)… “changed…into a licence for immorality”The Lord… “Jesus Christ, our only sovereign & Lord”
Three historical warnings (vv.5-7)The Children of Israel (v.5)cf. Numbers 14; Heb. 3-4The fallen angels (v.6)cf. Rev. 12:7-9; Luke 10:18; 2 Peter 2:4-5; Is. 14/ Ezek. 28Sodom & Gomorrah (v.7)cf. Genesis 19; Deut. 29:23; Is. 1:9-10; 13:19; Jer. 23:14; 49:18; 50:40; Amos 4:11; Zeph. 2:9. Matt. 10:15; 2 Peter 2:6-7
Three historical examples (v.11)“The way of Cain” The envious murderer (cf. Gen. 4; Heb. 11:4; 1 John 3:12)“Balaam’s error” The greedy diviner (cf. Numbers 22-24; Deut. 23:3-6; Josh. 24:8-10; Neh. 13:1-2; Micah 6:5; 2 Pet. 2:14-16; Rev. 2:14)“Korah’s rebellion” The disobedient rebel (cf. Numbers 16; 26:9-11; 27:3) We did it our way!
Illustrations of false teachers (vv.12-13)1. “Hidden Blemishes”2. “Selfish shepherds”3. “Clouds without water”4. “Trees without fruit”5. “Raging waves of the sea”6. “Wandering stars”
What Does Jude Quote?The Book of Enoch: Presumed visions of the “Enoch” of Genesis 5 Focus on angels, demons, & spiritual battles Tells of spiritual conflicts that spill over into the history of Israel from the beginning of time through the inter- Testamental periodThe Assumption of Moses: Presumed to be the Final Testimony of Moses as dictated to Joshua Warns of coming days when people will be led astray by lying spirits & false teachers
The verdict“See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones to judge everyone, and to convict all the ungodly of all the ungodly acts they have done in the ungodly way, and of all the harsh words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.“ (Book of Enoch 1:9, disc. by James Bruce, 1773)“The Lord rebuke you” (The Assumption/ Testament of Moses, disc. by Antonio Ceriani, 1861)[Not found in text, yet approx one-third believed missing]
Contending for the faith (vv.17-25)Recognize apostasy has been foretold vv. 17-18 (cf. Matt. 24:10-13; 2 Tim. 3:1)Analyze their actions, and fruit v. 19 (They are divisive – “soul men” vs “spiritual men”)Draw upon divine resources vv. 20-21 Build yourselves (in your faith), keep yourselves (in God’s love), wait (for the completion of eternal life)Seek to reclaim, where possible vv. 22-23 “Be merciful to doubters… save (those in peril)…”Rest in the security of Christ vv. 24-25
The Doxology“To him who is able to keep you from falling and to present you before his glorious presence without fault and with great joy - to the only God our Saviour be glory, majesty, power and authority, through Jesus Christ our Lord, before all ages, now and forevermore! Amen.”