1Special issue on Portuguese activitiesVol.12, No.2July 2002Portugal’sParticipationinESAAt the most recent ESA Ministerial Council meeting inEdinburgh (UK) in November 2001,Portugal wasparticipating for the first time as a full Member State.There it reconfirmed its subscription to the Agency’sNavigation andTelecommunications Programmes, andalso subscribed to a new initiative,namely the AuroraProgramme.Article 7 of the‘Agreement between the European SpaceAgency and the Government of the Portuguese Republicconcerning the Accession of Portugal to the Conventionof the European Space Agency and RelatedTerms andConditions’,a period of six years should follow for theimplementation of the transitional measures.Thesemeasures foresee the adaptation of Portugal’s industryto the Agency’s requirements and the maximisation ofthe mutual benefits for Portuguese industries,institutions and universities involved in space andrelated activities in all ESA Member States.To implementthese measures,a joint ESA - PortugalTask Force was setup to make proposals and recommendations to ESA’sDirector General.ThisTask Force is composed ofrepresentatives nominated by ESA’s Director Generaland by the Government of Portugal.The Institute of Scientific andTechnological InternationalCooperation (ICCTI),within the Ministry of Science andHigher Education,is serving as the focal point forcoordinating the participation of the Portuguesescientific community and Portuguese companies in theESA Programmes.Optional ESA Programmes aresupported by the Ministry of PublicWorks and Ministryof Economy directly or through the National Authority forCommunications,among others.ICCTI,Ministry of Science and HigherEducation,LisbonRésuméLors du plus récent Conseil ministériel de l’ESA àEdimbourg (GB) en Novembre 2001,le Portugalparticipait pour la première fois en tant qu’Étatmembre.À ce moment,il confirme sa souscriptionaux programmes de navigation et detélécommunications de l’Agence,et souscritégalement au nouveau programme Aurora.Following the signature of an Agreement betweenESA and Portugal’s Ministry of Science andTechnology and Ministry of Social Equipment in1997,Portugal started to participate in ESA activitiesthrough three ARTES Programme elements: GeneralStudies (Element 1),Telecommunications (Element5) and Navigation (EGNOS and GNSS2 – Element 9).Portugal subsequently became a full ESA MemberState in November 2000.In the meantime,in December 1999,a‘White Book forSpace Sciences andTechnologies’had been publishedand submitted for public discussion.ThisWhite Bookidentified four main strategic areas for Portugal’sinvolvement in space activities:space as a supportto knowledge of the Universe,to navigation,tocommunication and to Earth observation.Portuguese space policy is strongly influenced both bythe fact that Portugal is a Member of the EuropeanUnion and by its recent accession to the internationalspace arena through joining the European SpaceAgency.The adoption of the Resolution on theEuropean Space Strategy by both the EuropeanUnion’s Research Council and ESA’s Council,on16 November 2000,was a major step forward interms of European space policy,embracing all of thenational goals and where Portugal too finds the keyelements of its own policy in the space field reflected.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.22J.M. RebordãoPortuguese Delegate,ESA Industrial PolicyCommittee (IPC)RésuméLa survie à long terme des compagnies portugaisesdans le marché relié à l’ESA dépend de leur expertisereconnue dans un certain nombre de technologiesgénérales et de domaines techniques pouvant êtreutilisé pour générer produits,systèmes et servicesd’intérêt au plus grand nombre et types de missionset applications possible,également pour lesprogrammes scientifiques (obligatoire) et ceuxd’applications (optionnel),tel que ARTES,Galileoet Aurora.The long-term survivability of Portuguese companiesin the ESA-related marketplace depends on theirrecognised expertise in a number of generaltechnologies and technical domains that can be usedto generate recurrent products,systems and servicesof interest to the widest possible number and typesof missions and applications,from both scientific(mandatory) and application (optional) programmes,such as ARTES,Galileo and Aurora.At the same time,the expertise acquired,developed and consolidated inthe context of ESA’s technological programmes mustbe coherent with the overall business strategy of eachcompany,including space activities but not limitedto space.At the end of the transitional period of Portugal’saccession to ESA,in November 2006,Portuguesecompanies will compete openly with other Europeancompanies for ESA and Eumetsat business;contractsand/or subcontracts will be awarded if they canprovide higher technical value for a lower price.Giventhe late entry of Portugal into the space business,its companies should give higher priority totechnological niches in areas where ESA hasidentified needs not yet met by other Europeancompanies and institutes.Several such technicaldomains where developments are deemed necessaryby ESA in the medium- to long-term fulfil thedesiderata of the transition period granted toPortugal under the terms of the Portugal – ESAAgreement.For Portuguese companies,the following generic-technology areas seem particularly relevant:- overall space-systems aspects such as system-level functional architecture (space/ground trade-offs) and autonomy,system engineering,development and verification methods and tools,standardisation of system interfaces and data-exchange formats/protocols- platform or satellite bus technologies such asmechanical design,data handling,TT&C and AOCS- payload-related techniques and technologies thatare non-mission-specific,including commoninstrumentation technologies and supportingfunctions such as data handling,but also commontechnologies for electromagnetics,microwavesand optics- ground-segment operations such as missioncontrol,automation of control functions,andground station systems and networking- basic technologies and disciplines that contributeto several more application-orientedtechnologies/ products,such as space systemsoftware (i.e.ground and on-board) andinformation technology.Portuguese companies and institutes were thereforeasked to identify product groups and technologicalR&D requirements fitting with their interests andcapabilities,and to suggest specific activitiescomplying with ESA’s stated needs.Such proposedactivities may then find their way into Portugal’snational activities during the next revision of itstechnological programmes,or give rise to activitiesendorsed by the Portuguese – ESATask Force.Theactivities covered by theTask Force will includecontracts with Portuguese firms and institutionsinvolving,when needed,entities from other ESAMember States that will be instrumental in increasingthe activities’technical value and widening theirscope,thereby creating learning opportunities nototherwise available.Companies have been invited to identify activitiesthat,for example:prepare for focused industrialparticipation in the ground segments of futurescientific missions,can be linked to running framecontracts with key partners,help in developing anumber of information systems related to oceanmonitoring and navigation,support productdevelopment or software certification,integratePortuguese infrastructures into ESA networks,etc.In parallel,as candidates for potential governmentsupport,companies were also invited to identify theirneeds in terms of transfer of technology,support ofspace specialists under contract,national pilotprojects to demonstrate or consolidate products orservices,training (individualised,formal,organised atgroup level),contract R&D or specialised engineeringdevelopments,quality,certification (S4S,…),supportto marketing initiatives,presentations to Europeancompanies,participation in the ESA harmonisationinitiatives,etc.The above reflects,in general terms,the consensusreached among Portugal’s industrial companiesregarding the transition period,the businessobjectives of the most active industrial players,andthe relationships that they have already establishedboth with ESA and with other European firms.Participation ofPortugueseCompanies in ESA
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2D.RibeiroAEPOR Project,PortugalRésuméLe programme de transfert de technologie de l’ESAest un outil puissant pour aider à regrouper unegrande variété d’entités représentant plusieursintérêts portugais et divers secteurs d’activité.Parcontre,pour obtenir un support financierconsidérable des secteurs publics et privés,toutinvestissement relié à l’espace envisagé au Portugaldoit être relié aux besoins immédiats et à longterme de la société portugaise.The ESATechnologyTransfer Programme is a powerfultool for helping to bring together a wide variety ofentities representing numerous Portuguese interestsand areas of activity.However,all space-relatedinvestments being contemplated in Portugal mustbe properly matched with Portuguese society’simmediate and longer-term needs in order to obtainsubstantial financial support from both the privateand public sectors.The first few articles in this special issue of PFFabout Portugal are linked in one way or another witha space-awareness initiative known as the‘Alma daAgua’project,which involves the launch of acommemorative sounding rocket carrying a uniquepayload.Water samples from the eight countries in theWorld that use the Portuguese language will be mixedin reduced gravity using several transferable spacetechnologies that will be made more visible by theinternational public exposure of the event.3SpaceTechnologyTransferActivitiesinPortugalThere will be an important role for the telecommuni-cations and information industry,which is where mostPortuguese private high-tech investment is currentlyconcentrated.However,there are also other areaswhere potential developments can lead to viableproducts.While continuing to focus on some keyareas that were identified in 2000,it is desirable keepall other options ‘alive’,thereby ensuring a strongenough level of biodiversity in the industrial andtechnological options available.The Portuguese governmental space-policy asconceived by the former Portuguese Minister ofScience andTechnology was to have our spaceactivities reinforce the main priority of developingPortugals participation in the Information Society,not just by upgrading and increasing the nationalcomputer-industry infrastructure,but also bydeveloping innovative content in the Portugueselanguage.However,it is vital to guarantee the sustained long-term support of a minimum level of activities in allrelevant space-activity fields.In order to achieve thatgoal,a Portuguese Space Agency – Agencia EspacialPortuguesa, Sociedade Anonima (AEPOR SA) - isbeing set up.A wide network of low cost‘enablinginfrastructures accessible to the shareholders will beestablished as its backbone.These infrastructures willinclude a future multipurpose hangar with at least 30cubicles and other ground-based systems,a dedicatedcomputer network,a modified bus that will house amobile mission control centre’,and an airbornelaboratory that will also be used to transport andsupport small payloads,astronomy and remotesensing.The first step is already underway with apermanent ESA Logistics Support Office beingproposed in a hangar at Cascais Airfield.Initially,AEPOR will focus on providing variouslogistical support and information services to supplythe training that is so crucial to the development of aminimum level of sustained national space activities inall areas.This effort will reflect the quality ofPortuguese science and the still untapped possibilitiesof greater indigenous technological and industrialdevelopment.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.24NewMeasurementTechniquesforthePortugueseFoodIndustry M.GraçaCompanhia Espacial Portuguesa Lda,PortugalRésuméLindustrie alimentaire portugaise effectue un grandeffort de modernisation.Une des améliorationsaportées au travers du niveau technique de lapremiére experience portugaise privee enapesanteur a eté non seulement le developmentd’une nouvelle norme de mesure pour desechatillions très réduits dans le système de controlede qualité national,mais aussi la sensibilisation detout le secteur de lindustrie alimentaire pourlutilisation de la microgravité comme un outilsupplémentaire dans la quete de nouvellesaméliorations pour les geo produits.The Portuguese MicrogravityEmulsion Experiment (PMEE)The PMEE was launched on the Space Shuttle (STS-95) in October 1998 as part of the Commercial ITABiomedical Experiments (CIBX-1) payload,andallowed the development of new measurementtechniques for the Portuguese Food industry.Four experiments were conducted,addressing:Emulsion Stability,Microbiological Behaviour,Oxidation Levels,and Migration of PackagingMaterial.Three small LMAs (Liquid MixingApparatuses),each with a volume of 5 ml,werepartially filled with margarine samples.Three groundcontrols were also analysed.As far as the emulsion-stability experiments areconcerned,the observations seem to suggest thatstabilisation of crystals or re-crystallisation occurreddue to flight conditions,but further research isneeded.In the microbiological behaviourexperiments,Aspergillus Niger cultures were grownon the margarine samples and no differences ingrowth were observed compared with the controls.A special protocol of sample preparation andinoculation was established.As for the oxidation level,the standard protocols NP 904 and NP 1819 werevalidated through a ring test between industrylaboratories and the Laboratório de Análises doInstituto SuperiorTécnico.There was no apparentchange in the pattern of oxidation.To evaluate if therewere modifications in the rate of migration ofpackaging material,a polyethylene PET plasticfilament was inserted on the margarine sample.Dueto the small size of the sample,a specific protocol wasdeveloped for the analysis.No modification in themigration process was detected.The full report isavailable at www.fiovde.pt.
Follow-up to the PMEEOne possible goal for the Portuguese food Industrywould be to supply European International SpaceStation (ISS) crew members with customisedpackages designed to be useful in meeting very tightnutritional standards.The ability to aggregatecrumbs in reduced gravity could be measured,forinstance.To achieve this,various physiological datamust be gathered,through dedicated studies.Variousfood samples could be tested using systems such asthe Globular Cooking Facility (GCF) being developedby researchers at the University of Stuttgart,andwhich was flown on the 29th ESA Parabolic FlightCampaign.The GCF is able to sterilise,stew,bake orfry the food.Development of various hardware itemscould be envisaged,relying on ESA funding or otherfunding approaches.Biosensors for food safetyThere are several customised biosensors that canbe developed for Portuguese factories involved inthe food industry.The need to understand therequirements for the different production lines,theanalysis of samples,the familiarisation with existingprocedures,the selection of existing sensorequipment and the calibration for the particularneeds of the factory chosen all represent excellenttraining opportunities,thereby developing part ofthe background needed to participate in futureresearch into space life-support systems or spacesuits.Should there be the need to develop totallynew biosensors or ground-based equipment,therewill be further opportunities to create new smallniche products.New ways to detect the presence ofmicro-organisms have been considered.Some ofthe initial costs of developing prototypes forexperimental apparatuses can be covered by theconstruction of educational demonstration modelsthat can be included in future science and technologyawareness programmes.Nutrition awarenessSuccessful awareness and promotion campaignscan focus on the education of the general publicregarding the appropriate intake of nutrients.Improving our nutritional habits requires the abilityto strongly motivate the general public usingeveryday items.That can be accomplished withwell-publicised special events involving the intakeof customised products by crew members,therebytaking advantage of the public’s natural curiosity.Food for harsh environmentsVarious Portuguese food industries can benefit fromthis kind of nutritional awareness,which can then beexpanded to cover systematically various other harshenvironments such as deserts,marine activities,themedical profession,fire fighters,the aeronauticalprofessions,military users,and humanitarian/reliefworkers,among others.In the specific case ofmargarine,its ability to provide a lot of quicklyassimilated energy,while blending easily with oraggregating crumbs from other foodstuffs,can be anasset for its broader application.In the business planto commercialise these enhanced products,the largermarket represented by all of these areas is significant.Commemorative foodsamplesA number of food samples have already been pre-selected to be added to the "Alma da Agua" payload.These small samples will be placed in space-qualifiedvials with the LMA configuration used previously onsounding-rocket flights.A number of different winesand other liquids used in food preparation will beflown.Their chemical composition will be analysedto determine their stability vis-a-vis the environmentencountered on the sounding-rocket flight.After theyare analysed,a small fraction will be used in theconfection of traditional dishes of all the eightcountries that use the Portuguese language.ConclusionThe largest European industry,the food industry,can continue to find new ways to get involved in thetransference of technology,either by incorporatingspin-offs,such as new measuring techniques,or bycontributing with spin-ins,such as various specificmeasurement techniques not previously tested inreduced gravity that can be evaluated using parabolicflights.5Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2Portuguese samplesbeing loaded into theC-RIM that flew inthe mid-deck lockerof STS-95
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2F.MeloFaculdade de Motricidade Humana,PortugalG.SilvaCNPA Lda,PortugalRésuméPuisqu’une des conditions pour que l’industriealimentaire puisse investir dans la recherche et ledéveloppement reliés au secteur spatial,est laquestion liée à la qualité de la nutrition,unprogramme structurant pour les sciences de la vie,notamment la physiologie dans le secteur spatial estproposé.La mesure,et surtout le traitementinformatique des données relatives que les nouvellesconditions physico-chimiques observées dansl’apesanteur peuvent créer sera le point de départpour viabiliser le développement de charges utilesautonomes sur ISS liées aux questions posées par lesdéveloppements de la biotechnologie.IntroductionBefore Portugal can contribute with fully fledgedresearch into medical issues using parabolic flights,itis important that sufficient people are trained andthe basic ground-based research conducted.This willprovide the basis for the development of a healthyphysiological research programme.The Portuguesespace-technology market has expressed a definiteinterest in both nutritional research and softwaredevelopment.Defining bed restBed-rest experiments on healthy subjects usuallytake place over the course of several days or weeks.During this time,subjects are normally not allowedto get out of bed except for very short periods andtherefore,for all practical purposes,remain supine.Many bed-rest experiments in which the simulationof weightlessness is of prime importance areperformed with the subject tilted to –3º to –10º(known as‘head-down tilted bed rest’,or HDT).Changes during bed rest and HDT are usuallycompared with results obtained while the subjectsare ambulatory or in a supine position in the hoursbefore and after bed rest and HDT.According toP.Bie,M.H.Bestle and L.B.Johansen,seated or supinetime control experiments have been performed onlyrarely.Therefore,this may become an area in which someof our effort will be invested.6BiomedicalSoftwareDevelopmentfromBed-RestStudiesDinner for one of the volunteers in the recentESA/CNES/NASDA 90-day bed-rest study
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2Enabling interdisciplinaryaccess to physiological dataPossiblefuturePortugueseparticipationinmedicalresearchassociatedwithspaceflightcouldinvolveseveralmedicalspecialistswhoarealreadyconductingworld-classresearch.DuetotheconsiderablecostsoffinancingamissionforaPortugueseastronaut,thebuild-upofcapabilitiesmustratherbeconductedthroughparticipationintheon-goingresearchofcrewmembersfromothercountries.Prioritiesvaryovertimeanditiscurrentlydifficulttopredict themostviableareaforafruitfulfutureparticipationwherethePortuguesecontributioncanyieldasignificantadvantage.Therefore,toavoidtheprematurediscountingofanypotentiallyviableR&DareaforPortugueseparticipation,bed-reststudieshavebeenselectedasarelativelyneutraldeparturepointforallofthedisciplinesinvolved.Standardizationofdatabaseswouldbeagoodfirststep.Cardiovascular researchAfter bed-rest deconditioning,heart rate increasesand cardiac output decreases during cardiovascularstress.The change towards a more sedentary lifestylein Portugal in recent years has been leading todeconditioning of the cardiovascular system in aconsiderable part of the population.There are severalgroups in Portugal that have expressed interest inperforming research projects in this area usingmicrogravity as an additional parameter.Some jointresearch work with Poland has already taken place.This is an important issue in terms of potential publicsupport for this research,as cardiovascular diseasesare becoming increasingly common in Portugal.Food intake duringsimulated weightlessnessAfter long exposure to bed rest,there arephysiological changes that mimic the changesinduced by reduced gravity conditions,includingmodifications in the amount of calcium possiblyleading to osteoporosis.The correlation betweenthe impact of reduced mechanical loadings on thevertebrate skeleton and the nutritional regimebeing followed needs to be further examined.Functional balance testsafter simulated weight-lessnessA wide variety of functional tests can be performedto evaluate the effect that certain nutritionalapproaches can have in counteracting the negativeside-effects ofbedrest.Human-balanceresearchisaveryinterdisciplinaryactivity.Thevestibular,proprioceptive,andvisualsensorysystemsarelikethethreelegsofatripodstructurewiththecentralnervoussystemlinkingallofthem.Thereare60knowndifferentdiseasesthataffecthumanbalance.Dynamic Computerized Posturography is a spin-offfrom space research being used by CNPA Lda togetherwith FMH (Human Motricity University) in Portugalsince 1997.Initially,it was planned to study verysmall balance disturbances after space flight.It is aforce plate that allows analysis of the trajectory ofthe centre of gravity of the subject being measured,providing data that can be used in various computermodels.More information can be found atwww.onbalance.com and www.bionic.es.Broadening telemedicineMuch of the software developed that has directmedical applications,such as a system developed inPortugal to improve the delivery of anaesthetics bymonitoring muscle activity,can be improved andmodified in order to streamline its use in varioustelemedicine applications.A wide variety ofbiomedical data related to human performance aftersimulated weightlessness will be evaluated.Telemedicine demonstrations will be included topromote awareness.7The Dynamic Computerised PosturographysystemConclusionIn order to train significant numbers of people inthe life-sciences area,useful data must be generatedregularly.Due to its comparatively low cost,acomprehensive national bed-rest researchprogramme is being planned.There is interest inselecting at least 50 relatively healthy people tobe continuously tracked and measured.There arecurrently many bedridden patients in Portuguesehospitals and there is therefore a lot of potentialpublic support for this initiative.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2D.RibeiroAEPOR Project,PortugalR.ClarArt Technologies,FranceRésuméLe projet‘Alma de Agua’est conçu pour pouvoirfournir le‘fil conducteur’entre une variété de projetsqui sont essentiels pour faire démarrer en douceurles quatre sous-programmes de l’Agence SpatialePortugaise.Ces quatre programmes structurantsconsistent en premier lieu dans le développementd’un réseau d’infrastructures au sol,d’un réseaud’ordinateurs,puis il y aura le bus avec le centre decontrôle et coordination mobile,et finalement laconstruction et l’adaptation de l’avion laboratoire.Puisqu’il faudra du temps pour développer cesmoyens,une version très simplifiée des quatreinfrastructures sera disponible pendant le lancementde la fusée sonde qui aura lieu avant 2005.A long terme on envisage de créer les conditionspour le développement d’une constellation de 8nanosatellites destinés à être opérés par l’ensembledes pays qui utilisent la langue Portugaise.Introduction‘Alma da Agua’,or‘Soul of theWater’in English,is aninterdisciplinary space-art project that seeks to involvevarious institutions within seven countries historicallylinked to Portugal:Angola,Brazil,CapeVerde,Guiné-Bissau,Mozambique,SãoTomé e Príncipe,and EastTimor.The project addresses the possibility of greatertechnical unification and deeper collaborationbetween Portuguese-speaking countries andcelebrates their common bond of language,thushelping to create greater awareness in order tofacilitate the launch of future collaborative efforts.Numerous water samples are presently being collectedfrom all eight countries.The project’s cultural andeducational goals are currently being defined ingreater detail,but the various ceremonies willcontribute to a greater global awareness of the rolethat European space technology can have in watermanagement,from flood control (using early-warningsystems) to environmental control of water resources(using a network of low-cost sensors).The payload as a showcasefor transferable spacetechnologiesAlthough many Portuguese-speaking countrieshave very limited potential for using all of thetransferable space technologies directly,there isnevertheless some interest in broadening the marketto seven new countries outside Europe.Each of ESA’s 15Member States has been invited to supply componentsor some kind of technical support,and some havealready done so.The current pre-selection of equipment and support-service providers for the first‘Alma da Agua’payloadforesees overall technical support being supplied byDutch Space of the Netherlands,the batteries will comefrom Surrey SatelliteTechnology Ltd.of the UnitedKingdom,the video system will come from OIP SensorSystems of Belgium,and part of the payload computersystem may come from Saab-Ericsson of Sweden.Scientific support for fluid-physics water data analysismay come from Spain.There are many other smallsubsystems involved,such as a custom carrying caseand various items of ground-support equipment.8‘AlmadaAgua’:ASpace-AwarenessInitiative
Annual sounding-rocketlaunchesIn order to fulfil the training objectives,therefurbished and modified Alma da Agua payloadmust be launched at least once a year.Several of itssystems such as the video,the power,the computer,the GPS and so on will need to be reused,and willhave to be integrated with that goal in mind.Thereis great interest in developing small payloads of aninterdisciplinary nature,and unsolicited proposalsare welcome.We conceived this particular project and payload sothat it can become a precursor of a future family ofsmall low-cost national payloads,to be used foreducation,research and development,andcommercial activities.Technical aspectsIn its current design (Fig.1),the payload will weighapproximately 10 kg and is expected to be about30 cm in diameter.It will have a lower section witheight water bladders all linked to the mixing chamberlocated in the centre of this lower section.Thebladders will hold the water samples from each of theeight participating countries.Valves will inject thewater samples into the mixing chamber,where theywill coalesce rather like the liquid bridges in drop-tower experiments.A mirror mounted on top at45 deg to the support plate where the batteries andcamera are mounted will allow video pictures to bedownlinked in real time.A light box installed in thebottom of the payload will provide the necessaryillumination.This same basic configuration can be used for othersounding-rocket payloads by replacing the eightwater reservoirs with totally different instruments,forinstance to focus electromagnetic or acoustic energyonto samples in the central chamber.Creating trainingopportunitiesThere are several technical issues that can provide thetraining opportunities needed to create a Portugueseteam that will work with sounding-rocket payloads inthe future :º Launch preparation (filling of the waterbladders will take place in Portugal)º Mechanical aspects (exact diameter,type ofjoints,etc.)º Centre-of-gravity requirementsº Static-g and vibration loadº Antennas available,choice of matching groundstationº Recovery-module tests (parachute,float,buoywith transponder,etc.)º Tracking and telemetry / video reception(frequency,link budgets)º Payload recovery procedures (helicopter from theBrazilian navy)º Recovery procedures (Sagres school ship fromthe Portuguese navy to observe the re-entry).Parabolic flights of the payload are being considered,in order to fine-tune the creation of the floatingsphere of mixed water resulting from the coalescenceof the eight samples such that it is clearly visible andcan be measured in great detail.To maximise thetechnological return from the flight,a customizedset of accelerometers must be installed.An improvedGPS on board will allow this sub-orbital flight to yielddata that can be useful for future improvementsto recovery procedures from the Atlantic Ocean.Miniaturised cosmic-ray detectors should alsobe tested.Proposed launch dateCurrently we are aiming at June 2003 as the earliestpossible launch date for‘Alma da Agua’.Thediplomatic coordination efforts needed in order tohave eight countries in very different stages ofdevelopment come together in a joint internationalproject are also serving as a training exercise for someof the future staff of the Portuguese Space Agency.ConclusionThe low-cost,multi-purpose payload to be launchedbefore 2005 will be the first payload belonging to thePortuguese Space Agency.It will be a showcase fortransferable European space technologies,there willbe a globalTV broadcast,and a wide variety ofaccompanying artistic events will serve to promoteawareness in the Portuguese language.Such annualsounding-rocket launches will also provide badlyneeded training opportunities,with payloads thatare neither too costly,nor too complex.The long-termgoal is the development of a space-cooperationagreement between the eight Portuguese-speakingcountries,to be signed in Lisbon in 2005.The jointoperation of a future cluster of eight nano-satellites isalso a possible outcome of this precursor effort.9Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2Figure 1.The‘Alma da Agua’sounding-rocketpayload has a modular structure.Beyondsupporting future microgravity experiments,it is also being redesigned to become aprecursor for a possible Europeanstandardised low-cost‘service module’ableto carry and deploy clusters of eight nano-satellites,supporting the retransmission oftheir telemetry
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2E.RosaInstituto Superior Técnico,PortugalRésuméLavalorisationduchêneintéresselePortugalleplusgrandproducteurmondial.Onadéveloppétouteunevariétéd’applicationsduchêneycomprispourl’insonorisationdessous-marins,etl’utilisationdansl’espaceextérieurenestlasuitenaturelle.Lesnouveauxtraitementschimiquesetmécaniquesnécessairespourpouvoirutiliserlechêne,d’aborddanslachargeutilepourfuséesonde“AlmadaAgua”,etplustardsurdespetitespalettesexposésauvidesurISS,ouvrirontlavoieàlacréationdenouveauxproduitsplusévoluésincorporantduchêneousesdérivés.IntroductionThe use of various cork components in the‘Almada Agua’sounding-rocket payload will allowcharacterisation of the material’s behaviour interms of its ability to dampen vibrations and itseffectiveness for thermal insulation.Thischaracterisation will be an extension of work alreadyunderway in which several properties of cork arebeing studied.The technology transfer in this casewill be a spin-in from materials research into newaerospace applications on sub-orbital payloads.Although there are more advanced syntheticmaterials,the low cost of cork may make itinteresting for commercial microgravity payloads.Properties of corkCork is a cellular solid.Its low modulus and lowthermal conductivity are a direct result of its lowrelative density (about 0.1) and the geometry of thesolid cell walls.The cells in cork are prismatic with,onaverage,six lateral faces,being roughly 40 µm highand 25 µm across.Thus even the finest cork-dustparticles contain 20 to 50 cells.Cork has the attractiveproperties of low density,high resilience,highthermal resistance,chemical stability,lowpermeability,and fire resistance.The chemistry ofcork is fairly well known:it contains about 30 wt.%suberin,30 wt.% lignin,20 wt.% holocellulose(cellulose and hemicellulose) and 4 wt.% ash.The restis usually termed‘extractables’and includes suchsubstances as waxes and tannins,which are removedby solvent extraction (using water,alcohol orchloroform).Consolidated cork dustCork dust was consolidated without additives byheating under pressure.Four engineering propertiesof the compacted cork were measured:density,modulus,strength and fracture toughness.Thethermal conductivity and the absorption of waterby the compacted cork were also measured.Theseproperties depend on the consolidation conditionsand on the origin of the cork dust,but not onparticle size.The samples obtained were comparedwith those of other common materials to identifypossible uses.10VibrationDampingandThermalInsulationusingCork
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2The ability of the cork-dust particles to bond to eachother is remarkable.The bonding effect may be dueto the tannins,which are an important corkconstituent,but it is not impossible that the hemi-celluloses and waxes also play a role.Experimentsshowed that a mixture of cork dust with ceramicpowders can be consolidated under the conditionsused for the cork dust alone.Three grades of cork dustwith average particle sizes of 100 µm,1 mm and3 mm were studied.Consolidated cork powder can be painted,machined,cut with a saw and does not fracture whenpenetrated by a 5 mm diameter nail.Cork dust is aby-product produced during the various phases ofindustrial cork processing.Its commercial value isinsignificant and it is usually burned.The ability of cork to bond to itself when heated,which is used to obtain the black cork agglomerates,has been known since 1892,but had not,untilrecently,been used to consolidate cork dust.Theagglomerate is used for thermal and acousticinsulation and as a shock absorber.Black cork isisotropic because of the random orientation of theindividual anisotropic cork granules;it is a‘polycrystal’of cork.Vibration dampingCork’s considerable loss coefficient (0.1 – 0.3) gives ita high coefficient of friction and the ability to dampvibrations and absorb sound.As part of ongoingstudies,three kinds of compression were considered,the loss coefficient was measured,and highfrequencies were studied.All compression curvesof heat-treated cork still show the same threedeformation regimes (bending,buckling and crushingof cell walls) that are observed in untreated cork.Ithas been used as a shock absorber for many years.Boiling causes cork to soften and also reduces itselastic anisotropy.These and other observed changesin the stress-strain curves during compression can beexplained in terms of the structural changes.Thermal insulationCork is light,chemically inert and fire resistant.Its lowdensity (120 - 230 kg/m3) makes it a good thermalinsulator.When cork is heated in air at temperaturesin the range 100 – 300 ºC,it swells and its massdecreases.Mass decreases of about 30% occur onheating to 300 ºC.This mass loss is due to thermaldegradation of the cell-wall material,leading tooutgassing products which diffuse to free surfaces.It is observed that the lenticular channels swell,whilethe originally corrugated cell walls become straight.These structural changes,together with the chemicalalteration of the cell-wall material,explain theobserved effects on mechanical properties.Afteridentical heat treatments,the radial direction isalways more compression-resistant than the othertwo directions,which show nearly identical strengths.Little difference was found between heating in airand heating in vacuum.There is presently considerable interest in developingnew materials incorporating cork for thermal-insulation applications.Future developmentsThe behaviour of cork under conditions of extremecold is of great interest not only for spaceapplications,but also as a low-cost insulationmaterial for weather stations in remote areas.A chemical and mechanical treatment initiallydeveloped to avoid wine seepage and microbiologicalcontamination can perhaps be applied for aerospaceapplications of Portuguese cork.Advanced insulationof several types of buildings and low-cost earthquakeprotection systems can be envisaged.Possible studiesof the viability of the use of specialized corkagglomerates for low-cost thermal protection duringreentry are interesting.The production of MaterialSafety Data Sheets (MSDS) for space-rated corkcomposites,together with flight certification oncethey have been shown to work as expected,willcontribute to expanding the use of cork.11ConclusionsCork is a low-cost material with several usefulproperties.An appropriate and well-thought-outspace application may open the way for thedevelopment of several sophisticated compositesthat will enable the construction of improvedelectrical appliances and other machines thatwill be more competitive in the global marketplace.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2J.CarreiraCritical Software SA,Coimbra,PortugalRésuméCritical Software SA est une jeune PME portugaisevisant sur les technologies et solutions de logicielinnovatrices et fiables.Elle planifie,conceptualise etdéveloppe des solutions personnalisées pour lessecteurs de télécommunication,de Défense,d’aérospatiale et de l’Industrie.La compagnie adémontré une expertise solide en processing –fiabilité,tolérance d’erreur,mise en place de réseau,et haut rendement – qui a été exploitée dans destechnologies innovatrices pour le marché global.Critical Software SA is a young Portuguese SMEcompany focusing on innovative and reliablesoftware technologies and solutions.It plans,designsand develops customized software solutions for theTelecom,Aerospace,Defence,and Industry sectors.The company has established a strong expertise independability,fault tolerance,networking,and high-performance processing that has been leveraged intoinnovative technologies for the global marketplace.Critical Software was founded in 1998 by a team ofcomputer and software engineers and post-Doctoralstudents from the University of Coimbra working inspecialised areas.Today the company has a workforceof 60 engineers dedicated to consulting,engineering,and new-product development.In 1999 the companyestablished a US subsidiary with offices in San José,California.The company is strategically organised into threeEngineering Divisions that collaborate very closely inmulti-disciplinary projects:Telecom & Networking,Aerospace & Defense,and Enterprise Solutions.Inaddition,R&D is undertaken and highly specialisedservices are offered by the Dependability/RAMS andHigh-Performance Computing Divisions.These units,which are focused on knowledge-intensive areas,have brought to market technologies such asXception™ andWMPI™,which have a growingcustomer base worldwide.Xception™ is a framework for advanced softwareverification and validation.The Xception concept is tocrash-test software by injecting artificial faults thatemulate real hardware and software failures.Thistechnique is used to validate mission-critical systems,which need exceptional verification and validation.Space is a harsh environment and it is widely knownthat electronic equipment and ultimately softwareare subject to electromagnetic interference andcosmic radiation,which cause errors to occur.Toprevent equipment from failing in space,and toensure that fault-tolerant mechanisms are workingproperly,thorough ground tests simulating theconditions to be endured in space are absolutelyessential.This is one of Xception’s roles for softwaresystems.WMPI™ is a clustering middleware for developingportable,parallel applications that run on low-costclusters of standard computers to solve performance-hungry problems.Critical Software’s activities in the space sectorstarted in 1999 when it was contracted by NASA’s JetPropulsion Laboratory in Pasadena to provideverification and validation technologies for the REE(Remote Exploration and Experimentation) project.The technology that caught NASA’s attention wasXception™.An additional step into space occurred in2000 when Critical joined a consortium with otherPortuguese companies to develop software for theground segment of the EPS (European Polar System),as subcontractors to Alcatel Space for a contractawarded by Eumetsat.12InnovativeSoftwarefromPortugal
How space technologies have been“spun-off” to use here on Earth:52 success stories about health,safety, environment, lifestylesand much more.Everyday Uses for Space TechnologyBy P. Brisson and J. Rootes128 pages/25 EuroESA PublicationsBR-175ORDER THISSPECIAL BOOKNOW!Contact: ESA Publications Divisionc/o ESTEC, PO Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The NetherlandsTel. (31) 71 565 3405 - Fax (31) 71 565 5433Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2When Portugal became the fifteenth ESA MemberState in 2000,Critical Software was naturallypositioned and committed to work with the Agency.The first approach was to search for opportunities inthe niches of dependability (RAMS) and high-performance computing,areas in which the companypossesses considerable expertise and could providesignificant know-how.During the year,Critical joineda consortium together with Astrium,DNV,Adelard,and EADS,which won a software-dependabilitycontract for a "Certification Scheme for Softwarewithin a Space System".This first ESA project the gavethe company a good opportunity to participate in thebasic definition of future certification schemes forsoftware in European space systems,whilst directlydrawing on experience from similar projects for otherclients.In November 2001,Critical Software was awarded thePREMFIRE contract,which was the first opportunityto get involved in the ESA Earth Observationprogramme.The main goal of this contract is toimplement a demonstration system for fire riskassessment that can be easily used by the civil-protection,fire-prevention or other services inPortugal.PREMFIRE will extend the currentlyoperating RISE system by adding wireless palmtopterminals providing real- or near-real-time dataexchanges with field staff.Traditional informationsuch as topography,fire-history and land-use datawill be integrated with meteorological conditions andEarth-observation data from ERS,SPOT and Landsat.Fire-risk maps will be generated and,in the case of anemergency,the alarm will be raised automaticallywith the appropriate local fire-protection units.Other projects already in progress with ESA includeSTADY for the "Applied Static and DynamicVerification of Critical Software",awarded through aSpecial Opportunities for SMEs initiative,which willinclude the migration of Xception to the ERC32platform.Another contract was received for the"Product Assurance for Pre-Developed Software"project,for which Critical has teamed withTerma AB,SynSpace AG,and SofwCare Ltd.In terms of software process quality,an issue ofthe utmost importance in the space sector andincreasingly important in other sectors also,thecompany has also set an evolutionary path.In 2001,Critical Software hosted a S4S (Spice for Space)assessment (based on ISO 15504) sponsored byESA,and is currently implementing a process-improvement plan to increase the level of maturityof software life-cycle processes.In addition to theongoing activities with ESA in knowledge-intensiveareas such as RAMS,Critical also hopes to leverage its13experience and know-how in telecommunications,networking,high-performance computing,and EAI(middleware) into software-engineering activitiesat the ground-segment level.The company is alsolooking closely at further opportunities in theTelecommunications,Earth Observation andNavigation programme areas.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2M.Roos-SeroteAstronomical Observatory,University of Lisbon,PortugalRésuméÊtre État-membre de l’ESA pourrait se comparer àcelui d’un membre de club de golf – on y paie unfrais annuel afin d’avoir le droit de jouer sur leparcours,mais pour jouer bien on doit satisfairedeux critères :º on doit avoir le bon équipement,etº on doit avoir l’entraînement professionnel.Donc,la question importante à résoudre est à savoirsi le Portugal a les joueurs nécessaires,entraînésprofessionnellement et bien équipés,pour participeraux activités scientifiques de l’ESA.The equipment is important,but the latest clubs andballs developed in the various countries quicklybecome globally available to all players,at nationaland international level.In order to win against thecompetition,therefore,and avoid that membership ofthe club only provides a privileged viewing point forwatching others play the game,you also have todevelop competitive skills and expertise.ESA has many activities in many areas,one ofwhich is science,i.e.life sciences,earth sciences,astrophysics,fundamental physics,etc.I will focuson the science activities here,but the same story isprobably true for other areas (i.e.technologydevelopment,etc.) to a greater or lesser extent.The important question to be answered,then,iswhether Portugal has the well-equipped andprofessionally trained players needed to participate inESA’s scientific activities.I believe the answer to thisquestion is a thin yes.It is yes,because (some)Portuguese scientists have already been working withdata from instruments on ESA (or ESA/NASA)spacecraft,including the SOHO,ISO,Hubble SpaceTelescope and Hipparcos observatories in space.It isalso yes because other Portuguese scientists arecurrently preparing to participate in future ESAmissions,such as Mars Express,Herschel,Planck andGAIA.I see this as very positive.It is thin becausethere are not many scientists yet who are interestedand are willing to embark on space adventures.Also,there seems to be no clear political policy (yet) tostimulate the involvement of scientists in suchmissions.These are probably all facets of the newness ofPortugal’s membership of ESA.In order to get theprocess running,it is vitally important to informPortuguese scientists about the ESA missions,aboutthe way ESA works,and about how they canparticipate.Some small steps have already beentaken in this direction,I believe with some initialsuccess (still to be confirmed in the long run).In June 2001,I organised a workshop at the Centre forAstronomy and Astrophysics of the University ofLisbon (CAAUL),based at the Lisbon AstronomicalObservatory (OAL).This workshop was focused ongenerating a Portuguese reply to the secondAnnouncement of Opportunity (AO) for Mars-Express/Beagle-2 for Interdisciplinary Scientists (IDS)and Recognised Cooperative Laboratories (RCL - alaboratory that wishes to develop competence in,inthis case,planetary research on Mars).Such an AO is,needless to say,an ideal chance for a country suchas Portugal to get involved in an ESA mission.14DoesPortugalPlayGolf?
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2The workshop attracted the participation of some 20Portuguese scientists and students from variouscentres and scientific interests,to whom Dr.R.Grard –the ESA Project Scientist for BepiColombo - explainedthe Mars Express and BepiColombo projects.Iteventually resulted in three proposals in the areas ofgeophysics,atmosphere-surface interaction,andexobiology.The geophysics (laboratory from Coimbra) andexobiology (laboratory from Lisbon) proposals arefrom teams with no previous experience in planetarydata analysis.If selected and financed (by thePortuguese government),they will obtain consultingsupport from an IDS in the respective area.Theacquired know-how will prepare those laboratoriesfor participating in other future missions,and forextending their teams.A new workshop was organized in early March 2002at the Lisbon Astronomical Observatory on asomewhat larger scale.It focused on ESA’s SolarSystem missions:Huygens,Mars-Express/Beagle-2,BepiColombo,SMART-1 and Rosetta.The process of informing our scientists about futuremissions must also include students from the relevantareas.They will be the young PhDs and postdocs whowill work on the incoming scientific data in the nearfuture and they are the ones who will play animportant role in defining and executing the sciencemissions of the more distant future.The earlier theyare aware of the potential that ESA offers and theway in which it works,the better.At this moment,several Portuguese students areundergoingYoung GraduateTraining or have stagiairescholarships at the various ESA centres.ESA alsoalready has two young Portuguese staff members.However,the message about the possibility ofobtaining training at ESA needs to reach morestudents,and this is one of the concrete areas ofaction to be addressed in the very near future.To try to interest students in Solar System research,Dr.João Fernandes from the University of Coimbraand I have been organising a bi-annual week-longInterdisciplinary Summer School on the Solar System(EVISS in Portuguese).At EVISS,a carefully selected number of students (21)enjoy the teaching of several specialists in planetaryand solar research,and perform a small researchproject with one of these scientists.They are alsointroduced to ESA’s activities through a talk by Dr.Marcello Coradini from the Agency’s Directorate ofScientific Programmes.The formula seems to work,asless than three years after the first event,from a totalof 42 students (two events),four are performing PhDstudies in planetary physics across Europe,three areESAYoung GraduateTrainees (YGTs),and one iscurrently working with me.The Portuguese Solar System team is small,but isgrowing.At the time of writing,there areapproximately 10 scientists working in solar physics,atmospheres,and atmospheric dynamics,and thisnumber could increase significantly when the PhDstudents andYGTs mentioned above return toPortugal.The Astrophysics team is larger (about 50),and is also growing,but at a slower rate.There aretherefore quite some potential users for ESA’sastronomy missions."How can Portugal build,train and equip these andother teams to work under the ESA flag,andguarantee them a healthy future ?"This is thequestion that the Portuguese scientific communityand policy makers will have to address in the nearfuture,and make decisions about concrete actions tobe undertaken.15The answer must also take into account a veryimportant and urgent concern,and one that affectsthe entire Portuguese academic world – namely jobs,or rather the lack of them! Research is the drivingforce of any self-respecting scientific institution andESA offers many exciting opportunities for cutting-edge research in many different areas,in a highlyinternational environment.The challenge is thereforeto create a solid and stable job base for Portugueseparticipation.I believe that Portugal’s membership of ESA offershuge potential not only for our scientists,but also forour technologists – so lets roll up our sleeves andlet’s play some golf !
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2IntroductionEddington is a proposed ESA scientific flexi-mission(F2/F3 – small size),which addresses two majorscientific goals:to produce seismic data on starsacross the HR Diagram and to detect and characterizeextrasolar habitable planets.The scientific goal for Eddington in terms of stellarseismology is to produce the data necessary for adetailed understanding of the interior structure ofstars and the physical processes that govern theirevolution.Seismology is a unique tool,which is ableto provide the empirical basis for developing thetheory of stellar evolution to the stage where it canbe applied with confidence to address some of themajor issues in modern astrophysics.The detailed study of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram through asteroseismology –i.e.the study of the resonant oscillation frequenciesof stars of different masses,ages and chemicalcompositions – is the fundamental component forunderstanding the evolution of structures of all scalesin the Universe (Fig.1).16M.J.P.F.G.MonteiroCentre of Astrophysics,University of Porto,PortugalRésuméEddington est une petite mission scientifiquepotentielle (F2/F3) qui adresse deux butsscientifiques majeurs:l’un est de produire desdonnées sismiques d’étoiles sur le diagramme H-R;l’autre est de déceler et caractériser les planèteshabitables extrasolaires.Le Portugal s’est impliquédans le projet Eddington,en début 2000,suite à unecollaboration de longue date entre le Centred’Astrophysique de l’Université de Porto (CAUP),leCollège Queen Mary (Londres) et l’Institut danois dePhysique et Astronomie (Aarhus),sur la sismologiestellaire.PortugueseParticipationinESA’sEddingtonMissionFigure 1.TheHertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram forpulsating stars
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2The objective of the mission element on habitableplanets is the detection of terrestrial planets aroundother stars,and in particular planets orbiting insidethe "habitable zone",and thus in principle able tosustain life.The method consists of searching forphotometric dips caused by the transit of a planet infront of its parent star.A large number of planets willbe found which will also provide unique data for thestudy of the formation and evolution of planetarysystems around stars with different characteristics.The Eddington mission proposal (Fig.2) wassubmitted in reply to ESA’s Announcement ofOpportunity (AO),in early 2000,by I.W.Roxburgh(Queen Mary College,London),J.Christensen-Dalsgaard (Aarhus,Denmark) and F.Favata(ESA/ESTEC).This proposal followed on from previousefforts to pursue the possibility of using stellarseismology from space to study and solve some ofthe fundamental problems in stellar structure andevolution.The mission will complement,and extend,the scientific goals addressed by the smallerexploratory space missions in preparation withinnational programmes (France,Denmark or Canada).Portugal became involved in the Eddington proposal,in early 2000,as a result of the long-standingcollaboration (over more than 10 years) between theCentre for Astrophysics of the University of Porto(CAUP) with Queen Mary College (London) and theDanish Institute for Physics and Astronomy (Aarhus),on stellar seismology.From this initial contact,thePorto team was incorporated into the proposedplans for the Scientific Data Centre (SDC) forAsteroseismology.Such a collaboration would buildon the existing strong scientific cooperation withAarhus (the institution proposed to host the SDC).Itwas subsequently possible to secure the confirmationfrom Portugal (given by ICCTI) of the national interestin the participation of the Portuguese teams in sucha mission.The mission proposal went through a feasibility studyand the preparation of the scientific case,culminatingin the submission of the Assessment Study Report inJuly 2000.Later that year the report was evaluated bythe ESA Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC),which recommended Eddington’s inclusion in thepackage of ESA scientific missions for the 2008-2013time frame.Following that decision,in October 2001the ESA Science Programme Committee (SPC)unanimously endorsed the SSAC’s recommendations,defining Eddington as a "reserve" mission in the ESAschedule for 2008-2013.The "First EddingtonWorkshop" took place inCórdoba-Spain in June 2001.Also in 2001 there wasan Invitation toTender (ITT) for the study of thetelescope (May) and a Call for Letters of Interest forscientific involvement in the Eddington studyactivities (June).Two Portuguese teams haveintegrated the proposal of a consortium to form the"EddiSDC DefinitionWorking Group",aiming atachieving full definition of the Eddington payloadand mission by the end of 2002. It will be followedby a final evaluation by ESA in order to decide onthe mission’s implementation in the proposed timeframe.17Figure 2.Artist’s impression of theEddington spacecraftConclusionThe Portuguese involvement in the planning,preparation,definition and support of an ESA mission(and Eddington in particular) has been mainlypossible due to the close and extensive collaborationwith the teams heading the initiative of proposing aspace project in this field.Such an involvement is achallenge and has a strong and positive impact ondeveloping the capacity of the Portuguese researchcommunity and institutions to take full advantage ofthe opportunities (present and future) provided byPortugal’s participation in ESA.To understand the inner workings of ESA and to knowwhat is the most effective way to contribute to thesuccess of the ESA activities,requires a strong scientificcapacity on the part of the teams in Portugal and theexistence of effective connections with other majorgroups in Europe. But above all,Portugal mustreinforce the experience of the researchers bysupporting an active involvement of the communityin the preparation of the major missions of the ESAprogramme.Such participation requires supportfrom funding agencies in Portugal and an openmanagement of the projects by ESA.At this point CAUP is still working on the stimulatingpossibility of contributing to the understanding of theinner workings of stars,through asteroseismology,by using a unique and powerful tool provided by aspace mission dedicated to stellar seismology.WithEddington,or a similar mission,we will work towardsthe success of an ESA scientific programme whichwill contribute to putting the European researchcommunity at the forefront of stellar astrophysics.For further information see:Http://astro.esa.int/SA-general/Projects/Eddington/Http://www.astro.up.pt/
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2M.C.Espirito Santo & M.PimentaLaboratory for Instrumentation and ParticlePhysics (LIP),PortugalRésuméL’expérience EUSO a été proposée à l’ESA en janvier2000 et sélectionnée quelques mois plus tard pourune étude d’adaptation sur la Station spatialeinternationale (ISS).C’est une mission innovatricequi nous permettra d’explorer la queue de hauteénergie du spectre de rayon cosmique,adressant lesquestions fondamentales de particule physique etastrophysique.L’étude d’un an a débuté en mars2002 pour établir la faisabilité du projet,de laconception d’instrument détaillé aux installations etopérations à bord de l’ISS.Le Laboratoire pourinstrumentation et physique de particule (LIP) duPortugal est membre du consortium EUSO.IntroductionThe Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) wasproposed to ESA in January 2000 and selected a fewmonths later for an accommodation study on theInternational Space Station (ISS).It is an innovativemission that will allow us to explore the high-energytail of the cosmic-ray spectrum,addressingfundamental questions in particle physics andastrophysics.A one-year study has started in March2002 to establish the feasibility of the project,addressing aspects ranging from the detailedinstrument design to its installation and operationon the ISS.Portugal’s Laboratory for Instrumentationand Particle Physics (LIP) is a member of the EUSOconsortium.18DetectingVery-High-EnergyCosmicRayswithEUSOFigure 1.The EUSO operating principle
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2The main goal of the proposed EUSO experiment is todetect Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR) andneutrinos,indicative of unknown particle productionand acceleration mechanisms in the Universe.Whena high-energy cosmic particle enters the Earth’satmosphere,a shower of billions of relativisticparticles is produced.The interaction of this particleshower with our atmosphere produces ultraviolet(UV) fluorescent light.EUSO,to be installed as anexternal payload on the ESA Columbus module of theISS,will look down on the Earth’s atmosphere,detecting the faint ultraviolet traces produced by theEECRs (Fig.1).About one thousand such events areexpected annually.The observation of meteors andother atmospheric phenomena producing UV lightare other scientific objectives of the EUSO mission.Ultra-high-energycosmic raysThe energy spectrum of cosmic rays extends over manyorders of magnitude,following an almost perfectexponential power law.The expected fluxes decreasesteeply with energy.For energies of the order of 1 GeV(equivalent to the proton mass),one particle per m2per second is observed,while this number goes downto one particle per km2per year at 109GeV.Thechanges in the slope of the exponential spectrumobserved at energies of about 106and 109GeV(known as the "knee" and "ankle",respectively) couldcorrespond to a change in the production mechanismor to changes in the primary elemental composition.The existence of extreme-energy cosmic rays(E > 3x1010GeV) has already been proven by severalexperiments,but they still constitute a puzzle.TheEECRs interact with the 2.7 K universal backgroundradiation,losing energy in the process (Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect).This constrains the mean freepath of high-energy protons and nucleons to 50-100Mpc,a short distance in cosmological terms,posingsevere questions about the nature of the sources andtheir distribution in the Universe.With only about30 events logged over the last 30 years,no conclusionscan be drawn.The EUSO telescopeTheEUSOinstrument(Fig. 2)consistsofawide-angleopticalsystem(Fresnellenses)concentratingtheUVlightontoalargefocalsurfacemadeupofthousandsofmultipixelphotomultipliers.On-boardelectronicstakecareoftheoveralltriggeringanddata-takingoperations,uptoandincludingdataselectionandtransmission.TheEUSOdesigncriteriaarebasedonanorbitalaltitudeofabout380km,afieldofviewof±30°aroundthezenithangle,anareaonthegroundcorrespondingtoapixelofabout1km2,andanenergythresholdofabout3x1010GeV.Operatinginspaceimposessevereconstraintsonthedesignoftheinstrument,whichhastobecompact,highlyefficientandmodular,andmeetstrictpower-consumptionandmasslimitations.Thetelescope’sdesignistheresponsibilityoftheScientificConsortium,whilstESA’sScienceandMannedSpaceFlightandMicrogravityDirectoratesareresponsibleforthepayload.EUSOisacollaborativeeffortbyresearchgroupsfromEurope,JapanandtheUSA.Portugal’s contributionIn the EUSO study phase,LIP is responsible for thecoordination of the EUSO Science Operations and DataCentre Subsystem (SODC).The SODC must generateEUSO-specific commands,monitor the instrument’shealth and performance,and notify any relevantscientific/ monitoring events.It will also beresponsible for the preliminary calibration of theEUSO instrument,and for establishing,in coordinationwith the EUSO Scientific Data Analysis Centre,theEUSO archive,and for providing data to the users.Themain topics to be addressed in Phase-A are:telemetryrequirements evaluation;identification of theoperation requirements;and definition of the mainSODC components/functionalities (generalarchitecture).The operational SODC will eventually belocated in one of the participating Europeancountries,with Portugal being a potential host.19Figure 2.Schematic of the EUSO instrumentLIP is also participating in a programme ofexperimental support activities,performing variousstudies of critical EUSO parameters.In particular,thedetermination of the UV light-diffusion coefficients atthe Earth’s surface (in different types of media) is thesubject of the ULTRA (LightTransmission andReflection in the Atmosphere) study.The ULTRAdetector is a hybrid system consisting of a UV opticaldetector and an array of scintilators.The developmentof the position determination and synchronisationsystem is the responsibility of the Portuguese group,which will also be taking part in simulation andanalysis software development and in education andpublic outreach programmes.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2M.TiagoPrintinova Lda,PortugalRésumeLe développement du marché spatial au Portugala été fait très graduellement,d’abord au traversd’activités de télécommunications,puis avec latélédétection,maintenant avec plus d’intérêt pardes industries liées a la microéletronique . Lafaiblesse du secteur privé reste un facteur qui freinela croissance du secteur.Néanmoins on assiste à uneévolution favorable.Un élargissement des activitésspatiales au niveau de la microgravité,de laconstruction de nanosatellites,et de toute unevarete‘de charges utiles offrira de possibilitésnouvelles pour renforcer et accélérer la croissancede ce secteur.IntroductionThe aerospace sector,per se,is virtually non-existentin Portugal,or at least that is still the very strongperception of the Portuguese public.So far,most ofPortugal’s participation in the sector,particularly bySmall- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs),hasbeen in the information technology (IT) area.Thenumber of enterprises in Portugal falling into the‘high technological intensity’category,such asaerospace and defence,is lower than the Europeanaverage.In addition,the number of R&D centresbelonging to multinational companies is even lower.Within such a context,Portuguese R&D investmentis still quite low,especially in terms of privateinvestment,where the desire for short-term profithas severely limited development activities.Current situationPortuguese entities have the knowledge andpotential to be in the front line of research,butfrequently the means or opportunities have beenlacking.The approach has tended to be very passiveand/or reactive,and seldom pro-active.Three kindsof situations are most frequent:º Portuguese SMEs participating in the aerospaceindustry as indirect suppliers,beingsubcontracted for very specific and limiteddevelopment and without receiving due credit(producing but not creating value).º Portuguese SMEs,especially those working in IT,tackling and winning in some market niches,and with a bigger scale/capacity than thePortuguese market can handle (with most oftheir clients outside Portugal),as is the case forCritical Software,Skysoft and several defence-related companies.º Portuguese Universities and R&D institutesconducting up-to-date research,but often suchwork or researchers are integrated into foreigndevelopment efforts and are not perceived asPortuguese.20CurrentStatusofthePortugueseSpaceMarket
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2Ongoing changesIn order for Portugal to reach the European level,there is the need for a change in the economicstructure,giving greater weight to high-technological-intensity economic activities.Despiteits fragility,the system has progressed in the lastyears in the following ways:º Increase in the number of companiesundertaking R&D activities,due to the existenceof national and international researchprogrammes.The impact of such programmes onthe innovation capacity of such enterprises canonly be assessed through further in-depthstudies.º Strong growth in the IT sector,by as much as20% in the last years,even though Portugal isstill below the European average.º Higher weighting of the high- and medium-technological-intensity sectors in the R&Ddomain.º Intensive investment in telecommunicationsinfrastructures.º The re-training of those involved in R&Dactivities.º Trend towards increased added-value in productsand services.º Production of electronic components withgreater technological complexity.º Increased size of local technical research centres,mainly within international enterprises settled inPortugal.º Growing internationalisation of R&D activitieswithin enterprises.º Substantial increase in the number of enterpriseswith quality and/or environmental certification.Technology TransferorganisationsTechnology-transfer and innovation organisations,such as PrintINOVA,can assist the companies andtechnological centres in their aerospace-related activities.PrintINOVA is a private Portuguese consultancy thatprovides guidance and practical support to SMEs fortechnological development from or towards aerospace.A concrete frame for these activities is provided throughbeing a member the LOSTESC (Leveraging On SpaceTechnologies to Enhance SME Competitiveness) Project,which is co-financed by ESA and the EuropeanCommission.It is led byTechnofi (email@example.com)in France and,includes Innova (Italy),YellowWindow(Belgium),Asessoria Zabala (Spain) and Mind Consult(Austria).The support provided can take several forms:º Knowledge of the constant and rapid tech-nological evolution in the sector.º Provision of strategic information about markets,technologies and products.º Guidance and contacts for integration andcooperation with national or internationalsuppliers and developers.º Conceiving funding opportunities for risk-sharing.º Providing training on innovation and technologymanagement.º Proposing project opportunities for PortugueseSMEs and centres at European level.Future industrialprogrammesResearch activities and some know-how exist inPortugal in most classical aerospace areas,such asproject management and the design of aerospacevehicles and various research areas,such as flightdynamics and stability,propulsion,structures,controland steering systems,avionics (including sensors,telecommunications and processing) and otheronboard systems (electrical,pneumatic,hydraulic).The main developments at this point are expected tolie with IT and related activities.A market survey wasperformed in 2000,aimed at developing a nationalspace industry.It was commissioned by Empordef(Portuguese Defence Group),Efacec (ElectricalIndustry) and AIP (Portuguese Industrial Association),funded by PEDIP II (European Funds),and performedby ColoradoTechnologies (North American ITconsulting company).Fourteen areas were suggestedas having the greatest probability of success,withconsiderable and relatively fast financial returns oninvestment.Of these,only five are currently being21pursued by the entities that ordered the study:º Remote sensingº Narrow-band communicationsº Broad-band communicationsº Multimediaº Satellite navigation.The main investment is expected to be in thetraining of personnel,who are the commondenominator in all areas considered.In the field ofsatellite remote detection,the study foresees thecreation of a centre of excellence in Portugal for suchapplications as monitoring natural hazards,detectingforest fires,and sea surveillance.Regardingtelecommunications,multimedia and satellitebroadband services,the main target market will betelecommunications service suppliers,who make useof the infrastructure to provide such services asbroadband Internet access,interactive television orvideo-on-demand.Satellite broadband technologyalso has many other fields of application,for militaryuse,hazard prevention,in developing technologiessuch as telemedicine,and for distance working anddistance learning.In terms of narrow-bandcommunications products and services,the mainmarkets will be in environmental monitoring,facilities and property surveillance or trackingsystems.As regards satellite navigation,thedevelopment of a centre of excellence in Portugal isunder study,with practical applications such asaeronautical and shipping traffic control foreseen.ConclusionsSince becoming full member of ESA,Portugal isslowly beginning to accelerate the rate of change inthe nature of its aerospace market.At this point,it isbasically a quantitative change,but the potential fora deeper and more qualitative evolution is clearlypresent.At this point,there are more opportunitiesavailable than interested entities with ongoingprojects,but this should hopefully change inthe coming years.
Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2Agência de Inovação SA (AdI)Lisbon,PortugalRésumeAgencia de Inovação,SA (Adl),une agencegouvernementale sous les auspices du Ministère dela Science etTechnologie du Portugal,estessentiellement dédiée à la promotion d’innovationsbasées sur la technologie.Elle agit en tant quecourtier et facilite l’interaction entre les secteurs derecherche et développement et le secteurcommercial portugais.Travaillant au travers unréseau de services administratifs,de centrestechnologiques,d’associations d’affaires et d’autresentités scientifiques et technologiques situés auPortugal,Adl poursuit également une politique depromotion de coopération internationale.Commetel,Adl agit en tant que lien entre agences similaireset organismes internationaux en recherche etdéveloppement de l’Union Européenne,l’Asie etl’Amérique Latine.IntroductionAgência de Inovação,SA (AdI),a state-owned agencyunder the auspices of Portugal’s Ministry of Scienceand Higher Education,is essentially dedicated to thepromotion of innovation based on technology.It actsas a broker and facilitator between the research anddevelopment sector and the Portuguese businesssector.Working within a network of administrativedepartments,technological centres,businessassociations and other scientific and technologicalentities located in Portugal,AdI also pursues a policyof promoting international co-operation.As such,itacts as a link between the European Union,Asia andLatin America for similar agencies and internationalR&D organisations.InnovationAdI provides financial and technical support throughvarious incentive schemes to applied-researchprojects in order to promote technological innovation.These schemes mainly finance market-orientedR&D projects undertaken by consortia and areinstrumental in promoting co-operation betweencompanies and R&D institutions and in facilitatingthe transfer of know-how.AdI relies on its networkof national and international experts to assess andmonitor the various projects.TrainingAdI also provides incentives for researcher mobility byco-financing the hiring by companies of staff withdoctorates and masters degrees.In order to fosteradvanced skills tailored to the needs of Portugueseindustry,AdI fosters the creation of Masters Degreecourses promoted by the business sector.The Agencyhas also signed protocols enabling recent universitygraduates to receive advanced on-the-job training atmajor international scientific organisations such asthe European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN),theEuropean Space Agency (ESA),the European SouthernObservatory (ESO) and the European SynchrotronRadiation Facility (ESRF).Opportunities for trainingare advertised in the media and on the AdI web site.InformationBy participating in various international networkssuch as the Innovation Centres,Eureka and Iberoeka,AdI is able to maintain a systematic overview of theresults being obtained in R&D projects and to lookfor opportunities for the marketing of innovativetechnologies.Its membership of these networksenables AdI to channel the supply and demand fortechnology between Portuguese and foreigncompanies and institutions. The holding of periodicBrokerage Events allows AdI to provide informationon the supply and demand for technology,so thatmeetings may be arranged and experiences sharedbetween the various partners interested intechnological innovation.This information is madeavailable on the Internet,at meetings with selectedtechnological themes,at InnovationWorkshops andin the magazine "InovaçãoTecnológica".22PromotingTechnology-BasedInnovation
InternationalisationAdI manages Portugal’s participation in the EurekaInitiative.This initiative provides opportunities fortechnological cooperation between companies,technological centres,research institutes anduniversities from the member countries,as well asthose from non-European countries under certaincircumstances.AdI also organises technology shows,specialisedworkshops and the ongoing exchange of informationvia the networks,such as:the Eureka (meets) Asiaevent in Macao every other year,organised jointlywith CPTTM (Macao Productivity andTechnologyTransfer Centre) and CSTEC (China Science andTechnology Exchange Centre),to promote contactsand the exchange of know-how,mainly with Chinaand the other Asian countries in general.The Iberoeka programme,created under CYTED(the Ibero-American Science andTechnology forDevelopment Programme),focuses on intensifyingtechnological co-operation between Ibero-Americancompanies and institutions.AdI is the focal point forPortuguese participation in Iberoeka.In addition to the scientific benefits,Portugal’sparticipation in major international scientificorganisations also gives companies the opportunityto supply technologically advanced goods andservices,and opens a path both for the transfer oftechnology and the education and training of youngengineers.AdI functions as an Industrial Liaison Office with theEuropean Particles Physics Laboratory (CERN) and theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO),assistingPortuguese industry in its relations with thoseinternational bodies and in the supply of goods andservices,and facilitating the transfer of technologydeveloped by both organisations to Portuguesecompanies23Preparing for the Future,July 2002,Vol.12,No.2NewsFlashNewsFlashSpace TechnologyManagement andInnovation WorkshopLisbon,Portugal,Spring 2003The ESATechnology Programmes Departmentorganises workshops on a regular basis dedicated tospace-technology issues.Recent workshops havecovered European space strategy (Seville,2000) andtargeted ESA innovation activities (Copenhagen,2001).The next workshop will be organised in Lisbon,Portugal,and will address space-technologymanagement issues,ranging from R&D managementto application case studies.The workshop will consist of both invited andcontributed papers.Topics of interest will be,but are not limited to:º Management of the innovation processGet More from Space SMEsA new way of protecting machinery againstvibrations and a system for tracking down bugs insoftware are two innovations from space SMEs(Small and Medium-sized Enterprises),which arenow finding their way into other industrialapplications, thanks to LOSTESC - a scheme to helpSMEs in the space industry adapt their technology toother markets.The space business is glamorous,but risky.Theindustry is dominated by a handful of largecompanies,but numerous small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs) also contribute to the Europeanspace effort by supplying specialised products andservices.What happens with these small companieswhen there is a lull in space activity? A solution is toget into other market segments,in order to make anew business with the technology and expertisegained in contributing to space projects.The LOSTESC (Leveraging on SpaceTechnologies toEnhance SME Competitiveness) programme is co-funded by the European Space Agency,the EuropeanCommission (EC) and a consortium of six innovationconsultancy companies in Austria,Belgium,France,Italy,Portugal and Spain.It aims at promoting thetechnological skills of space-based,innovativeEuropean SMEs and helping them create newbusiness opportunities at a European level.The programme was initiated in late 2000 and is nowwell under way:21 technologies,which were auditedamong a pre-selection of about 100,participated inthe proposals.At the end of the Fifth ResearchFramework Programme,10 technologies are or will befunded by the EC to help SMEs get into new businessareas.Eight new technologies should be submitted forEC support to the first Draft Call of the Sixth ResearchFramework Programme.º Disruptive versus sustaining innovationº Selection of R&D portfoliosº Evaluation of R&D outcomes.In addition,the following case studies will beaddressed:º Galileo System:from technology developmentto applicationº Satellite Platforms:towards a 30 year-lifetimeplatform familyº Onboard Instruments:technologyrequirements,user and supplier viewpointsº Additional cases from non-space areas.The first officialWorkshop Announcement andCall for Papers will be issued in October 2002,and the Final Programme in March 2003.For additional information please contact theOrganisers Udo.Becker@esa.int orMarco.Guglielmi@esa.int, or theWorkshop Secretariat at firstname.lastname@example.org.