The Effect of Schema Theory on Reading Comprehension

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The Effect of Schema Theory on Reading Comprehension

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents brief discussion of the background, research question, and the objective of the research, significance of the research, limitation of the research, hypothesis, and definition of key terms. 1.1 Background Reading is a complicated, actively thinking mental activity, a thinking process to experience, predict, verify and acknowledge information according to readers‟ previous information, knowledge and experience, and also an interactive language communication between readers and the writer through text (Yu-hui, et al:2010) Smith(1985)in Yu-hui, et al: 2010pointed out that in order to understand language, a reader must utilize direct and implicit information. Direct information refers to words written down, while implicit information includes knowledge of structures and words of a language in a text and knowledge of the discussed topic and certain experience. Based on the characteristics of reading process, the development of reading models can be classified into three phases: Bottom-up Model, Top-down Model, Interactive Model. Bottom-up Model came into being in 1960s, which emphasizes that reader, taking reading materials as information input, start from letters and words recognition and then combine information continuously to accomplish reading activity. This model highlights that reading must be done in a fixed sequence to get word meaning gradually and readers comprehend the reading materials mainly by language knowledge. In this model, readers‟ implicit information, that is, one‟s knowledge and life experience, is neglected and one‟s active processing of information is not taken into consideration. Following this model, teachers would concentrate mostly on words; sentence 1 patterns and grammatical knowledge relate to the reading material but pay little attention to relevant background knowledge when teaching reading.
  2. 2. 2 During late 1960s and early 1970s, Goodman (1967, as cited in Peglar, 2003), proposed a reading model based on psycholinguistics, named as “Topdown Model”. The model takes concept theory as basis, and points out that readers predict reading materials according to previous syntax and semantic knowledge and make confirmation and modification during reading process. The model assumes that reading process is based on readers‟ previous knowledge and is a circulating process of predicting, verifying and confirming. Under the guidance of this model, teachers would pay too much attention to students‟ previous knowledge, that is, implicit information in the reading process and overlook basic language knowledge teaching. In 1977, Rumelhart published Towards an Interactive Model of Readingas citedin Peglar 2003, which holds that in fact reading process is a complicated “interaction” process of many types of language knowledge, including letters, words, syntactic patterns and semantic meaning etc., that is, interaction of direct and implicit information; language processing interacts at different levels. In generally, the teaching of reading is based on intensive approach where the lesson consist of a core text (reading selection) and a list language points (grammar and vocabulary). In intensive reading, the reading has relationship with background knowledge in reading comprehension. According Anderson et al (1997:369)as cited in (Carrell and Eisterhold: 1983) “every act of comprehension involves one’s knowledge of the world as well”.
  3. 3. 3 Reading comprehension is commonly known as an interactive mental process between a reader‟s linguistic knowledge, knowledge of the world, and knowledge about a given topic. For instance, Nuttall (1996)as cited in Pratami (2011) believes that reading comprehension is a process of activating the knowledge of the word combined with the appropriate cognitive skill and reasoning ability to get ideas from the print i.e., the transfer of a message from writer to reader. So, the relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension is schema theory. There are some advantages that can be taken from schema theory, the first one is it helps the students to connect their idea with past experience, or background knowledge toward reading text. The seconds is helps the students in understanding and interpreting of new things based on the existing schema in mind. And the third is helps students to understanding not only thing and experiences, but also the language describing these thing and experiences, including written and spoken form. Rumelhart(1980 as cited in Yu-hui et al: 2010), proposed three possible reasons why students cannot understand a text: first, students lack proper schema. Under this condition, students cannot understand the meaning contained in the text at all. Second, students may possess adequate schema, but the author does not provide enough clues to activate the schema. Therefore, students still cannot get the meaning. If adequate clue is provided, students can understand the text. Third, students interpret the text in a consistent way but deviate from the author‟s intention. Under this condition, students seem to understand the text but
  4. 4. 4 misunderstand the author‟s intention. So, it will be better if the students have capability in interpreting the author intention deeply and also the students have more vocabularies to deny misunderstanding of the author purpose or the information that is given by author in a text. Based on the researcher experiences in reading subject (reading 1 until reading 4 subject), many techniques the lecturer used to improve reading skill in the classroom like Jigsaw, SQ3R, Pre-reading techniques, etc . Unfortunately, some students are still poor in reading comprehension. Based on the explanation above, the researcher was interested to investigate the effect of schema theory on student reading comprehension at 4th semester students‟ of English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in Academic Year 2011/2012. 1.2 The Problem of the Research Based on the background and explanation above the problem was formulated: “Was there a significant effect of schema theory on fourth semester students of English study program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in Academic Year 2011/2012?” 1.3 The objective of the Research Based on the problem of the research, the objective of the research was to know whether there was an effect of schema theory on fourth semester students of
  5. 5. 5 English study program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in Academic Year 2011/2012. 1.4 Significant of the Research The results of this research were expected to be useful for lecturer and students as follow: 1. For reading lecturer; the results of this research may become teaching technique increasing students‟ reading motivation and can make students interested in reading comprehension. 2. For students; the results of the research can give great motivation for them to develop their reading ability especially in improving their reading comprehension skills. 1.5 Limitation of the Research This research was carrying out at the fourth semester students of English study program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in Academic Year 2011/2012. The researcher focuses on the scope of the effect of schema theory on students reading comprehension. 1.6 Hypothesis The formulas of hypothesis were:
  6. 6. 6 H0 : There is no significant difference in reading post-test score average between the student who is give schema and those who is not give schema H1 : There is significant difference in reading post-test score average between the student who is give schema and those who is not give schema 1.7 Definition of Key Terms 1. Effect is defined as the outcome resulted from the introduction independent variable. 2. Schema theory is an active organization of past reaction, on past experience. 3. Reading comprehension is commonly known as an interactive mental process between a reader‟s linguistic knowledge, knowledge of the world, and knowledge about a given topic.
  7. 7. 7 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents brief discussion of, concept of reading comprehension , the purpose of reading, level reading, schema theory, type of schema theory and previous of study. 2.1 Concept of Reading Comprehension There are some definitions of reading. They can be different from each other and depend on the purpose of why people read. For beginners, people read just to know the written symbols and also to articulate or to pronounce the written. But for the higher level of senior high school or university, the purpose of reading become that is reading comprehension. Nuttal (1996) says that: “Whatever your reason for reading is not very likely that you are interested in the pronunciation of what you need and even less likely that you are interested in the grammatical structure used, you need because you wanted to get something from the writing”. It means that, we can read words because we are being able to identify and decode single letters. In other hand, we read word by fitting, its general visual “shop” into a sense context. Ur (1996) as cited in Pratamistates that reading understands all the words in order to understand the meaning of a text. Another opinion reading is one of the skills, which is learnt in reading is useless without sufficient comprehension.
  8. 8. 8 According to Langan (2002) in Pratami (2011)reading comprehension is the capability of understanding what the reader read. In this understanding the readers should recognize eight skills, they are recognizing definition and examples, enumerations, headings and sub heading, signal words, main idea in 7 paragraphs, and short selections, knowing how to outline, how to summarize and understanding graphs and tables. Comprehension is achieved gradually, as you move from a general feeling about what something means to deeper level of understanding. 2.2 The Purpose for Reading Comprehension. Comprehension in reading is needed by the readers to get know what they read. At least, there are five main purposes for comprehensive reading. First, reading for specific information, second, reading for specific application, third, reading for pleasure and entertainment, fourth, reading for ideas, fifth, reading for understanding (Newnue: 2011) 1. Reading for specific information Commonly, reading for specific information is used to look for specific or limited information. For example, when the students at elementary school recognize of simple symbols, words and sentences. It means they are looking for specific information and finding it quickly. Another example such as looking up a word in the dictionary or a number in the telephone book is involving reading for specific information. 2. Reading for application
  9. 9. 9 Reading for application is used to describe a special task. Includes for this type is reading a cake recipe or following instructions to make or fix something. Read a book written by author procedurally. For example, read the instructions how to switch on the computer. 3. Reading for pleasure and entertainment Usually, this type purpose of reading is liked by most of the human who want to get pleasure or entertain in their reading. This includes reading popular magazine, novels, anecdotes, comics and others similar books. 4. Reading for ideas This type of reading concerns how to get ideas in the text, and also finding the concepts of the presented information. The reader skims through major topics, headings, illustrations and conclusion in order to get a general idea of the content. 5. Reading for understanding. Reading for understanding is needed by the students to comprehend the relation between information and knowledge of the subject. They also understand the relation of topics to sentences, paragraphs and the main idea. For example, students reading an economic textbook must carefully compare and contrast similarities and differences of the facts and data presented in order to understand the subject. The most important for the explanation above is comprehension. It is important for the readers, because without comprehension, it is impossible to
  10. 10. 10 know what the readers read after. It be better if the readers know the comprehension of reading. There are three levels of reading comprehension. First, literal reading, second, aesthetic reading, third, critical reading. Literal reading is the ability to follow directions and understand exact words, meanings and characters. Aesthetic reading is the ability to appreciate artistically and overall quality of what is being read. Critical reading is the ability to make factual distinctions between common ideas, fact and opinion. 2.3 Level of Reading. Level of reading consist of: pre-reader, beginner, intermediate, advance, and professional level ( Nopriyanti: 2010). 1. Pre-reader Pre-reader books are for young children and adults that have not yet learned to read the language the book is written in, or have just started to learn to pronounce and read simple words. A pre-reader's vocabulary is typically small. A pre-reader is likely to have difficulty reading and understanding long words and sentences. These books should use of a lot of pictures and are likely to be read out loud with a parent or educator present. Pre-reader books should be part of Wikijunior. Use {{reading level |pre-reader}} to add a book to this category. 2. Beginner Books at the beginner skill level are intended for young children that can read on their own. Beginners can understand longer sentences and have a higher vocabulary than pre-readers. However, beginners are likely to have some
  11. 11. 11 difficulties still with pronunciation and comprehension when new vocabulary is encountered or introduced. These books are likely about basic subjects and use a minimum amount of difficult vocabulary. Difficult words that are used should be properly introduced. These books are likely to still rely heavily on pictures. Use {{reading level |beginner}} to add a book to this category. 3. Intermediate Books at the intermediate skill level are intended for readers at an average adult reading level. Sentence structures are likely to be more diverse and more difficult vocabulary is often used without an explanation. An intermediate reader is more likely to understand new words and vocabulary just from the context and usage. These books are likely to provide more in depth information about a subject than a beginner level book would, which may require using and explaining some specialized jargon. These books should be accessible to readers without any particular expertise in the subject area and should avoid using jargon without explanations. Use {{reading level |intermediate}} to add a book to this category. 4. Advanced Books at the advanced skill level depend on more background knowledge and understanding of more specialized vocabulary than is common for intermediate readers. Some subject-specific jargon is likely to be used without explanation, but a heavy reliance on subject-specific jargon should be avoided to increase readability and comprehension. Use {{reading level |advanced}} to add a book to this category.
  12. 12. 12 5. Professional Books at the professional skill level tend to be highly subject-specific and require extensive background knowledge among readers. Jargon tends to be used extensively, and readability is often sacrificed for precision. These books may be dry and academic and not welcoming to most readers. Use {{reading level |professional}} to add a book to this category. 2.4 Strategy for Reading Comprehension For most second language learners who are already literate in previous language, reading comprehension is primarily a matter of developing appropriate, efficient comprehension strategies. Some strategies are related to bottom-up procedures and another enhances the top-down process. Following are ten such strategies, each of which can be practically applied to your classroom technique (Douglas: 2001). 1. Identify the purpose in reading How many times have you been told to read something and you don‟t know why you‟re being asked to read it? You end up doing only a mediocre job of retaining what you “read” and perhaps were rather slow in the process. Efficient reading consist of clarify identifying the purpose in reading something. By doing so, you know what you‟re looking for and can weed out potential distracting information. Whatever you are teaching a reading technique, make sure students know their purpose in reading something.
  13. 13. 13 2. Use graphemic rules and pattern to aid in bottom-up decoding (for beginning level learners) At the beginning levels of learning English, one of the difficulties student encounter in learning to read is making to correspondence between spoken and written English. In many cases learner have become acquainted with oral language and have some difficult learning English spelling conventions. They may need to be given hints and explanations about certain English orthographic rules and peculiarities. While in many cases you can assume that one to one graphemes-phoneme correspondence will be acquired with ease, other relationship might prove difficult. Consider how you might provide hints and pointers on such patterns as these:  “short” vowel sound in VC patterns ( bat, him, leg, wish, etc)  “long” vowel sound in VCe (final silent, e patterns (late, time, bite, etc)  “long” vowel sound in VV patterns (seat, coat, etc)  Distinguishing “ hard” c and g from ”soft “ c and g (cat vs, cit game vs gem, etc) 3. Use efficient silent reading technique reading technique for relatively rapid comprehension ( for immediate to advanced levels) If you are teaching beginning level students, this particular strategy will not apply because they are still struggling with the control of a limited vocabulary and grammatical patterns. Your intermediate to advocated level students need not
  14. 14. 14 be speed reads, but you can help them to increase efficiency by teaching a few silent reading rules:  You don‟t need “pronounce” each word to yourself  Try to visually perceive more than one word at a time, preferably phrases  Unless a word is absolutely crucial to global understanding skip over it and try to infer its meaning through its context 4. Skimming Perhaps those two valuable reading strategies for learners as well as native speakers are skimming and scanning. Skimming consist of quickly running one‟s eyes across a whole text (an essay, article, or chapter, for example) to get the gist. Skimming give readers the advantages of being able to predict the purpose of the passage, the main topic or message, and possibly some of developing or supporting idea. This given them “head start” as they embark on more focused reading. You can train students to skim passage by giving them, say, 30 seconds to look through a few pages of material, have them close their books, and tell you what they learned. 5. Scanning The second in the “most valuable” category is scanning, or quickly searching for some particular pieces or pieces of information in a text. Scanning exercise may ask students to look for names or dates to find a definition of key concept, or list a certain number of supporting details. The purpose of scanning is to extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text. For
  15. 15. 15 academic English, scanning is absolutely essential. In vocational or general English, scanning is important in dealing with genres like schedule, manuals, form, etc. 6. Semantic Mapping or Clustering Readers can easily be overwhelmed by a long string of idea or events. The strategies of semantic mapping, or grouping idea into meaningful clusters, help the readers to provide some order to the chaos. Making such semantic maps can be done individually, but they make for a productive group work technique as students collectively induce order and hierarchy to a passage. 7. Guessing This is an extremely broad category. Learners can use guessing to their advantages to  Guess the meaning of word  Guess grammatically relationship (e.g a pronounce references  Guess discourse relationship  Infer implied meaning (“between the lines”)  Guess about a cultural reference  Guess the content message 8. Vocabulary analysis to make guessing pay off when they don’t immediately recognize a word is to analyze of what they know about it. Several techniques useful here: a. Look for prefixes (co-inter, u, etc) that may give clues. b. Look for suffixes (-tion, -live, ally, etc) that may indicate what part of speech it is
  16. 16. 16 c. Look for roots that are familiar (e.g. intervening may be a word a student doesn‟t know, but recognize that the root vencomes from Latin” to come” would yield the meaning‟ to come in between”) d. Look for grammatical contexts that may sign information. e. Look at the semantic context (topic) for clues. 9. Distinguishing between literal and implied meanings. This requires the application of sophisticated top-down processing skill. The fact that not all language can be interpreted appropriately by attending to its literal syntactic surface structure make special demands on readers. Implied meaning usually has to be derived from processing pragmatic information, as in the following example: a. Bill walked into the frigid classroom and immediately notice Bob, sitting by the open window. “Brrl” he exclaimed, simultaneously eyeing Bob and the open Windows, “It‟s sure cold in here Bob” Bob glanced up from his a book and growled, “Oh, all right, I‟ll close the window‟s b. The policemen held up his hand and stopped the car. c. Mary heard the ice cream man coming down the street. She remembered her birth day money and rushed into the house. (Rummerlhart, 1977:265) Each of these excerpts has implied information. The request in (a) is obvious only if the reader recognize the nature of many indirect requests in which
  17. 17. 17 we ask people to do without ever performing question. We can‟t be sure in (b) if the policeman literally (physical) stopped the car is hand, but the assumption is that is a traffic policeman whose hand sign was obeyed by a driver. Rummerlthart‟s classic example in (c) lead the reader, without any other context, to believe Mary is going into the house to get money to buy ice cream until the last few words supplied”….and locked the door!”. 10. Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationship Many discourse markers in English signal relationship among idea as expressed through phrases, clauses, and sentences. A clear comprehension of such markers can greatly enhance learners‟ reading efficiency. Table 18.2 enumerates almost one hundred of these markers with which learners of intermediate proficiency level ought to be thoroughly familiar. Table 18.2.Types of discourse markers (Mackay, 1987: 254). National category/meaning 1. Enumerative. Introduce Marker in First(ly), second(ly), third(ly), one, order in which points are to be two, three,/ a, b, c, next, then, finally, made or the time sequence in last(ly), in the first, second place, for which actions or process took one thing/for another thing to begin place with, subsequently, eventually, finally, in the end, to conclude. 2.5 Schema Theory
  18. 18. 18 The theory with role of background knowledge in language comprehension is known as schema theory. According to this theory, meaning is not only found in the words on reads or hears. It is a process of interaction between what is in the reading or spoken passage and the readers or listeners previous knowledge. Ideally they bring meaning from the outside of world and combine them with the present in the present in the passage they read or heard to help their comprehension. Hence it could be stated that schema theory is a personification of background knowledge to unravel the meaning of the through involving previous experience. To understand the role of background knowledge in reading comprehension, it is often useful to draw a distinction between formal schemata (Background knowledge of the formal, rhetorical organizational structures of different type of text) and content schemata (background knowledge of content area of a text) (Carrelland Eisterhold: 1983). The role of background knowledge or schemata reading comprehension is very urgent and dominants for the reader. Good reader are the ones who do not concrete on individual words nor read word for word, but “ read by content”, making guesses of what they are going to read next, trying to get the meaning of unknown words using the content. In this case to use these types of knowledge, a good reader use „context meaning”, which available on a text. In other word, the way of reading passage is organized affects readers‟ understanding of difficult words. In this way the reader
  19. 19. 19 can read and understanding the meaning of passage without stopping to look up every new word I dictionary. Otherwise, the readers have to guess the meaning in the context. The context to make predictions about the meaning of the text or use textual and lexical cues to build a meaning in mental representation. Anderson et al (1977 : 369) in(Carrelland Eisterhold: 1983), suggested that every act of comprehension involves one‟s knowledge of the world as well. This idea is quite simple but it is one worth reminding ourselves of when we consider comprehension in a second or foreign language and specially reading comprehension in EFL/ESL. Background knowledge or schemata theory has been the most neglected in EFL/ESL reading. It related to: the reader than contributes more information by the print on the page. That is, readers understand they read because they are able to take the stimulus beyond its graphic representation and assign it membership to an appropriate group of concepts already stored in their memories. The readers bring to the task a formidable amount of information and ideas, attitudes and beliefs. This knowledge, coupled with the ability to make the linguistics predictions, determines the exceptions the reader will develop as the reads. Skill in reading depends on the efficient interaction between linguistic knowledge and knowledge of the world. In schema theory, comprehending a text is an interactive process between the readers‟ background knowledge and the text. So this activity requires the ability to relate the textual material to one‟s own knowledge. Nunan (1996:7) recognized the schemata as a useful concept in understanding how the reader is
  20. 20. 20 able to interpret text. It is evident that order to making successful reading comprehension, the readers should have enough schemata in other hands; every act of comprehension involves one‟s knowledge of the world simultaneously. 2.5.1 Types of schema Generally, there are three major types of schemata, namely,linguistic schemata, formal schemata and content schemata, which are closely related to reading comprehension (Salmi:2011). 1 Linguistic Schemata Linguistic schemata refer to readers‟ existing language proficiencyin vocabulary, grammar and idioms. They are the foundation of otherschemata. As is known, linguistic knowledge plays an essential part in textcomprehension. Without linguistic schemata, it is impossible for the readerto decode and comprehend a text.Therefore, the more linguistic schemata a reader has in his mind, thefaster the reader acquires information and the better understanding thereader may get. 2 Formal Schemata Formal schemata are the organizational forms and rhetoricalstructures of written texts. They include knowledge of different text typesand genres, and also include the knowledge that different types of texts usetext organization, language structures, vocabulary, grammar and level offormality differently. Formal schemata are described as abstract, encoded,internalized, coherent patterns of meta-linguistic, discourse and textualorganization that guide expectation in our attempts to understand a meaningpiece of language. Readers
  21. 21. 21 use their schematic representations of the textsuch as fictions, poems, essays, newspaper articles, academic articles inmagazines and journals to help comprehend the information in the text.Studies show that the knowledge of what type and genre the text is canfacilitate reading comprehension for readers because the type of the text willoffer detailed evidence of the content of the text. Nonetheless, compared702Schemata (background knowledge) and Reading Comprehensionwith the linguistic and content schemata, the formal schemata offer lesspower in the reading process (Carrell, 1984 in (Salmi: 2011). 3 Content Schemata Content schemata refer to the background knowledge of the contentarea of a text, or the topic a text talks about. They include topic familiarity,cultural knowledge and previous experience with a field. Content schematadeal with the knowledge relative to the content domain of the text, which is the key to the understanding of texts. Since one language is not only thesimple combination of vocabulary, sentence structure and grammar but alsothe bearer of different levels of the language‟s culture. To some extent,content schemata can make up for the lack of language schemata, and thushelp learners understand texts by predicting, choosing information andremoving ambiguities. 2.5.1 Applications of Schema Theory to ESL Reading Carrell (1988b:245) in Stott (2010) lists numerous ways in which relevant schemata may be constructed, including lectures, visual aids, demonstrations, reallife experiences, discussion, role-play, text previewing, introduction and discussion of key vocabulary, and key-word/key-concept association activities.
  22. 22. 22 Examples of such contextualization include, for example, showing pictures of a city before asking the students to read a text about that city, or playing a video clip from a film adaptation of the novel the class is about to study. Although helpful, these pre reading activities are probably not sufficient alone and teachers will need to supply additional information. 2.6 Previous Study In this research, there are some previous studies about reading comprehension strategies. It can be seen on the table 1 follow: No Researcher 1 Ansori (2001) 2 Ferbasari (2005) 3 Suramto (2002) Title Investigated about increasing student‟s reading comprehension through SQ3R at second semester of English Study Program Universitas Bengkulu Result The score of experimental was 72.50 and control group was 60.67 in the testing significant differences was 22.30 and 10.29 the significant different 0.5% and DF=60, t table 2.20, t obtained was 5.96(5.96>2.20). it means that there was a significant different between the mean score of two groups. It is can be conclude that SQ3R technique gave significant effect on student reading comprehension. The effect of Jigsaw technique was the technique thejigsaw technique that could be used in learning toward students‟ process, because of its reading interdependence to get information comprehension from the text. achievement Investigated reading The result of the research described strategies that are that there were 4 strategies, Catu used by second year strategies skimming strategies, students at SMUN 1 SQ3R strategies and selecting Argamakmur. strategies.
  23. 23. 23 2.6.1 Summary From the data in the table above, there are 4 researchers who have researched about reading comprehension. From the result, the researcher Ansori (2001) found out the increasing of student reading‟ comprehension through SQ3R at the second semester of English study program University of Bengkulu. The researcher Ferbasari (2005) found out the Jigsaw technique was the technique that could be used in learning process, because of its interdependence to get information from the text. And the last researcher Suramto (2002) found out reading comprehension strategies those are used by second year student at SMUN 1 Argamakmur, those are Catu strategy, Skimming strategy, SQ3R strategy, and the last selecting strategy. Based on the researcher result that had been done by some researchers above, so it can be concluded that there are some strategies that can be applied in teaching reading, especially reading comprehension such as SQ3R, Jigsaw technique and the technique that will be used by the researcher is schema theory technique. Through this technique the researcher hopes that the result will be positive. It means that it can increase the students reading comprehension ability in comprehending English test.
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD This chapter discusses about (1) Research Design, (2) Population and sample, (3) Research Instrument, (4) Procedure, (5) Data Collection and (6) Analysis technique 1.1 Research Design The design of this research was Quasi-experimental. Quasi-experimental designs are similar to randomized experimental designs in that they involvemanipulation of an independent variable but differ in that subjects are not randomly assigned to treatment groups (Ary:2010:316). Experiment has two criteria‟s: (1) there were at least two groups include in the study, a control group and experiment group; and (2) the subjects were randomly assigned to one of those groups. In this research, the students were divided into two groups; they were experimental group and control group. Each group had been treated by using different treatments. In the experimental group the researcher taught by using schema theory technique, while in the control group researcher taught without schema theory technique. Before giving treatment the researcher gave pre-test “reading test” to the two groups. The purpose of pre-test was to know do the two groups have the same ability or not. After giving treatment to the two groups, the researcher gave the post-test “reading test” to the two groups. It gave in order to whether the using schema theory technique in experimental group was success or 24
  26. 26. 26 not in increasing the students‟ ability in reading and in control group without applying schema theory. Table 1. Table of Groups Groups Experimental group Control group Pre-test Y1 Y1 Treatment X1 X0 Post-test Y2 Y2 Where: Y1: pre-test Y2: post-test 1.2 X1: using schema theory technique Xo: without using schema theory technique Population and Sample 1.2.1 Population Population is the all members of any well defined class of people, event, or objects (Ary: 2010:148). The population of this research was the fourth semester students of English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu. They were 141 students. There were 5 classes; they were IVA, IVB. IVC, IVD, and IVE as the table below: Table 2 the Population Number Classes A B C D E ∑ Number of Student 30 33 32 25 21 141 Source: Taken From the English Study Program of Muhammadiyah university of Bengkulu 2011/2012.
  27. 27. 27 1.2.2 Sample Ary (2010:148) states sample is the small group that is observed. The samples of this research were the students of class IV D consists of 25 students and IV E consist of 21 students, the reason why did the researcher take these classes because after the researcher did the pre-test, class IV D and class IV E have same average score. 1.3 Instrument of the Research The instrument used in the research was a reading test. According to Sharon (2012) reading test is the process of observing and measuring learning. Teacher evaluate a student‟s level of achievement and skill for the purpose of supporting and improving students learning and the researcher chose a reading test in order to know the students reading comprehension ability before and after given treatments. There were 20 items that had beengiven far this test where it was taken from 4 English texts (In Good Company by Ane Marie Dryton and Charles Skidmore), test consisted of 20 items. 1.4 Data Collecting Technique The researcher did the following steps in order to get the date: a. Administrating Pre-test The researcher gave pre-test to the students in order to know the students‟ preliminary reading ability of two classes before conducting treatment.
  28. 28. 28 b. Treatment The treatment had been done four times. The researcher applied schema theory technique in reading test for the experiment class and without using schema theory technique for control class. c. Administrating Pos-test The post test had been given after conducting the treatment four meetings. Post- test had been given at the end of treatments in order to know the increasing of their students‟ reading ability at two classes. 1.5 Research Procedure In this research, to get the data the researcher used two groups: experimental and control class. In teaching and learning process, researcher taught by using different techniques, but with same amount of time and the same materials. 1.5.1 Treatment for Experimental Class 1. Treatment 1 In this treatment the researcher taught the students by using schema theory technique, with the following steps: a. The researcher entered to the classroom and gave greeting b. The researcher asked the students understanding about schema theory c. The researcher students explained about the schema theory to the
  29. 29. 29 d. The researcher gave questions to build the students background knowledge e. The researcher gave English texts. Topic: ANN LANDERS 1. The researcher asked the students to read the text. 2. The researcher gave 10 questions related to the topic which was being discussed and the time was given only 20 minutes to answer the questions 3. After the students finished in answering the questions, so the researcher asked them to discuss their answer together in the class in order to found out the correct answers. 2. Treatment II In this treatment the researcher taught the students by using schema theory technique, with the following steps: a. The researcher entered to the classroom and gives greeting b. The researcher took the picture in front of the class to build the students background knowledge c. The researcher gave English texts. Topic: THE PROMISE 1. The researcher asked the students to read the text. 2. The researcher gave10 questions related to the topic which was being discussed and the time was given only 20 minutes to answer the questions
  30. 30. 30 3. After the students finished in answering the questions, so the researcher asked them to discuss their answer together in the class in order to found out the correct answers. 3. Treatment III In this treatment the researcher taught the students by using schema theory technique, with the following steps: a. The researcher entered to the classroom and gives greeting b. The researcher gave video in front of class to build the students background knowledge c. The researcher gave English texts. Topic: THE CHINESE HOROSCOPE 1. The researcher asked the students to read the text. 2. The researcher gave 10 questions related to the topic which was being discussed and the time was given only 20 minutes to answer the questions 3. After the students finished in answering the questions, so the researcher asked them to discuss their answer together in the class in order to found out the correct answers. 4. Treatment IV In this treatment the researcher taught the students by using schema theory technique, with the following steps: a. The researcher entered to the classroom and gives greeting
  31. 31. 31 b. The researcher did the realia in front of class to build the students background knowledge c. The researcher gave English texts. Topic: MR. FOX‟S BIRTHDAY 1. The researcher asked the students to read the text. 2. The researcher gave 10 questions related to the topic which was being discussed and the time was given only 20 minutes to answer the questions 3. After the students finished in answering the questions, so the researcher asked them to discuss their answer together in the class in order to found out the correct answers. 3.5.2 Control Class In the control class the researcher gave the same topics with experiment class but without using schema theory. It means that, the researcher applied the common technique which was applied by reading lecturer when teaching reading in the class room. In this treatment the researcher had been done four times and taught the students without using schema theory technique, with the following steps: a. The researcher entered to the classroom b. The researcher gave greeting c. The researcher gave English texts.
  32. 32. 32 Topic: 1. The researcher asked the students to read the text. 2. The researcher gave10 questions related to the topic which was being discussed and the time was given only 20 minutes to answer the questions 3. After the students finish in answering the questions, so the researcher asked them to discuss their answer together in the class in order to found out the correct answers. 3.5.3 Pos-Test After the researcher gave the treatment to the experiment class, the researcher gave the post-test to experiment and control class. The purpose of post-test was to know the effect of schema theory technique in their reading ability. In order to get data the researcher did the following steps: 1. The researcher gave a post-test in experiment and control classes. The topic of pest-test was the same in the pre-test. There were 20 items had been given to the students in this test and the topics were used, Ann Landers, The Promise, The Chinese Calendar, Mr. Fox‟s Birthday. And the time given for the students to do test is only 60 minutes. 2. Then the researcher gave greeting to the students and explained about reading test.
  33. 33. 33 3. The researcher collected the data by using reading test to know the students ability in reading IV subjects at Muhamadiyah university of Bengkulu. 4. The researcher controlled while the students during the reading test. 5. The researcher used handy cam to take the picture and recorded the activities to make the data more reliable. 6. After the students finished doing the test, so the researcher and collected and corrected it. 3.6 Data Analysis Technique 1. After the researcher gave reading test in experiment and control classes: the researcher classified the students‟ ability in reading based on the score collected and corrected it. 2. The researcher gave the score for reading test by using key answer. Then the researcher analyzed the result of reading test to know student ability in reading subject for experimental through schema theory technique and control class without schema theory. 3. The data of this researcher wastotal number of score wrote by students in reading test based on schema theory which gave as treatment for the experimental class, and the students score in control class and after get the score, the researcher compares the two both groups :
  34. 34. 34 The data was analyzing by using T-test formula: T c= Ary (2010: 172) Note: Tc = t-count X1 X2 = mean score for control class ∑X1 = sum of students‟ score in experimental class ∑X2 = sum of students‟ score in control class n1 = The number of the students in the experimental class n2 3.7 = mean score for experimental class = The number of the students in the control class The Criteria of Scoring To find out the description of students‟ reading comprehension, the score of test had been analyzed by using formula: Level of mastery = x 100% In determining the students‟ reading comprehension, the percentage an interval criterion of ability was used. The criteria as below:
  35. 35. 35 Table 3. The Percentage Interval Criteria of Ability (Rachmadie: 1986:14) Interval Qualification 90-100% 80-89% 70-79% <70% Very good Good Sufficient Insufficient
  36. 36. 36 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter presents brief discussion of the pre-test result, treatment, the post test result, analysis of pre-test and post-test and discussion. 4.1 Result The population of this research was the fourth semester students of English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in Academic Year 2011/2012. The sample in this research was divided into two classes.They were4D class as the experimental class (treatment with schema theory), and class 4E as the control class (without schema theory). The total number of the sample was 46 students.The treatment was conducted from the 24th of May 2012- 6th of June 2012 on fourth semester students‟ of English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu. 4.1.1 Description of the Pre-Test Result The pre-test was conducted on the 24th of May 2012.The pre-test was given before the treatment period to see the starting point of the experimental class 4D and the control class 4E, and also it employed to know the students‟ ability before giving the treatment. The instrument used in getting the data of pretest was the item of essay reading comprehension, which consisted of 20 items. In the experimental class the researcher used the schema theory as a treatment while in the control class the researcher taught without using schema theory. In the pre-test the researcher asked to students to answer the questions 35
  37. 37. 37 based on the topic given. The topics are: Ann Landers, My Promise, Chinese Horoscope, and Mr. Fox Birthday. The purpose of pre-test is to know the students‟ problems in reading comprehension such as how to connect their idea with past experience (background knowledge) and also thing. The average scores of the pre-test of both groups were different.It can be seen that in experimental class, the result shows that the total score was 903, and the mean score was 36.12. Furthermore, in the experimental class the highest score who gained by students was ≥ 50 for 1student and lowest score was ≤ 40 for 18students (In Appendix I).While in the control class, the result shows that the total score was 1114, and then mean score was53.04. Furthermore, in the control class the highest score who gained by students was ≥50 for 14students and the lowest score was ≤ 40 for 1 student(In Appendix II). The result of pre-test score of two classes showed that score of the experimental class was 903, and the control class was 1114, the mean score of the experimental class was 36.12 and the control class was 53.04. While standarddeviations of two classes were 2.30and t calculation (t-count) of two classes were 0. 25. The t count was consulted with the value of t-table in significant 0.05 (5%) level and degree of freedom (df) was (25+21-2=44). The value oft-table 44df0.05 (5%) level in two tailed was 2.0154. Thus, the t-count < t-table (-7.35<2.0154).So, the conclusion that H0 is accepted and H1 is rejected. In others words, there was no significant difference in pre-test between experimental class and control class. It means that the students‟ ability was the same grade they could be accepted as sample in this research.
  38. 38. 38 4.1.2 Treatment After giving the pre-test for the two classes, the researcher gave the treatment for the experimental class. In teaching and learning process, the researcher used schema theory in the experimental class while in the control class did not give any treatment but only came and shared texts that had some questions as the data. It meant that in the control class the researcher taught by using lecturer method by giving text then explained the instructions for them to do, such as; asking them to read the text for 15 minutes, asking them to answer related questions on the text, asking them to submit their answer sheets, and asking them to discuss the right answers of the questions that they had done before. 4.1.2.1 Experimental Class (by using schema theory) Treatment I The first treatment was conducted on 25thof May 2012. In this treatment the researcher taught the students by using schema theory technique, with the following steps: first, the researcher entered to the classroom and gave greeting. Second, the researcher asked the students understanding about schema theory. Third, the researcher explained about the schema theory to the students and the researcher gave questions to build the students background knowledge then, the researcher gave English texts with the topic: ANN LANDERS. Fourth, the researcher asked the students to read the text and the researcher gave 10 questions related to the topic which was being discussed and the time was given only 20 minutes to answer the questions. After the students finished in answering the
  39. 39. 39 questions they were asked to submit it. Next, the researcher asked them to discuss their answers together in the class in order to make them know the correct answers. Based on the students‟ results, sothe researcher concluded that the students did not really understand about the schema theory yet (see appendix III) because some of them still answered by the wrong answers. Treatment II The second treatment was conducted on 26thof May 2012 at C15 building. The steps that had been done by researcher during this treatment were; entered and gave greeting. In building the background knowledge of the students that related, the students were given a picture. Next the researcher gave English text with the topic; “THE PROMISE”, shared the text which consisted of 10 essays to the students after they had finished reading it by giving 20 minutes to answer the essays and the researcher asked them to submit their test after they had finished doing it. The test results that had been submitted by students were corrected at home.The result showed that 50% students had understood about the reading text and they looked so relax and enjoy during teaching and learning process (see in Appendix IV). Treatment III On28thof May 2012 the researcher conducted the third treatment at B6 building. Atfirst step, the researcher entered and gave greeting for the students to make them closed to the researcher. Asking students understanding about the schema theory became the second step in this treatment. The third step was the
  40. 40. 40 researcher gave video to build the background knowledge students that related to the test. English texts with the topic:”CHINESE HOROSCHOPE” was given then, asking them to read the text for 5 minutes.The fourth was sharing the text which consisted of 10 essays to the students by giving 20 minutes to do the questions. Finally, the researcher asked them to submit their paper after they had finished in answering the questions. As usual both researcher and students discuss the correct answers in order to make the students understood the correct answers of the questions that they had done. As the result by using schema theory in this treatment the researcher found that 70% students had understood about the reading text and this matter can be seen from the students‟ answer sheets (see Appendix V). Treatment IV The fourth or lasttreatment was conducted on 29thof May 2012. Entering and giving greeting became the starting step in doing this treatment. Then,the researcher gave the realia in building students‟ background knowledge. Next was the researcher gave English text with the topic was”Mr. FOX‟SBIRTHDAY” to read for 10 minutes. 10 essays were given after the students finished reading the text where in doing this activity the students were only given 20 minutes to do the questions.At last, the researcher asked them to submit their paper. Andthe answers had been corrected at home. As the result by using schema theory in the treatment the researcher found that 70% students had understood about the reading text it can be seen from the students‟ answer sheets (see appendix VI).
  41. 41. 41 4.1.2.2.Control Class (without using schema theory) The researcher gave essays tothe control class on, 1st, 2nd, 4thand 5thof June 2012 where the steps were; first, the researcher entered to the classroom and the researcher gave greeting. Then the researcher gave English texts with the same topic as in experimental class. After that, the researcher asked the students to read the text and the researcher gave 10 questions related to the topic which was discussed and the time given was only 20 minutes to answer the questions. After, the students finished answering the questions, so the researcher asked them to discuss their answer together in the class in order to make them knew the correct answers.And then, the researcher asked them to submit their test. After their tests were submitted, the researcher corrected their tests. As the result without using schema theory in the control class the researcher found that the mean score of the students‟ score was 58.09without using schema theory was a little same to their score in pre-test this was on the first day (1stJune 2012), whereas in the second day (2nd June 2012) the mean score was 65.47, third meeting (4th June 2012)showed that the students‟ mean score was 77.14, and the last day 5th of June 2012 showed the mean score was 57.85. (See Appendix VII). In the last day, the mean score of control class underwent decreasing that was because of some students did not answer the questions seriously. 4.1.3 Description of the Post-Test Result The post- test was conducted on 6th of June 2012. After the researcher had done the treatment to the experimental class by using schema theory, the post-test was given at the end of the treatment period to the experimental class and the
  42. 42. 42 control class. In the experiment class the researcher still explained about schema theory to make the students focused what to do. The topic of post-test was the same in the pre-test. There were 20 items had been given to the students in this test and the topics were used, Ann Landers, The Promise, The Chinese Horoscope, Mr. Fox‟s Birthday. And the time given for the students to do test was only 60 minutes. Where, the steps were; the researcher gave greeting to the students and explained about reading text. And thenthe researcher collected the data by using reading test to know the students ability in reading IV subjects at Muhamadiyah university of Bengkulu.The researcher controlled while the students during the reading test.The researcher used handy cam to take the picture and recorded the activities to make the data more reliable. After the students finished doing the test, so the researcher and collected and corrected it at home. Whereas in the control class, the researcher only came to the classroom, gave greeting and gave the test directly. The result of post-test in experimental class was different with the pre-test score, it can be seen that the total score in pre-test result was 903, whereas in posttest was 2063 and the mean score in pre-test result 36.12 and post test was 82.52. As compared the total score of the pre-test and post-test increased 1160, and the mean score of pre-test and post test increased 46. 4. Furthermore, in pre-test result there was 1 student who gained the score >50, it means that the students in pretest who gained the high score were5% and the lowest scores 95%, while in the post-test result, there were 25students who gained the score >50, it means that the students in post-test who gained the high score were 100%. Comparing the high
  43. 43. 43 score of the pre-test to the post-test increase 100%, it can be concluded that there was a significant difference between the result of pre-test and post-test scores, it means that the treatment gave the effect to the experimental class (In Appendix VIII) The post-test of the control class shows that the total score was 1352, while in the pre test was 1114and the mean score of the post-test increase 11. 34. Further, in the pre-testthere were 14 students who gained the score ≥50. It meant that, the studentsin pre-test who got the high score was66.6%, while33.4% students get low score. The table shows that in post-test result there were 13 students gained the score ≥65. It means that the students in post test who got the high score was 61.90% and the low score were 38.1%. It can conclude that there was no difference between the result of pre-test and post test score ofthe students control class. In other word, both pre-test and post-test scores were the similarly.(In Appendix IX). The average difference between the pre-test and post-test for the experimental class. Post-test Pre-test Gain Total score 2063 903 1160 Mean score 82.52 36.12 46. 4 t-count 6. 29 -7.35
  44. 44. 44 The average scores between the pre-test and post-test were compared to as certain that the treatment produced a greater change to the experimental class, it can be seen that the total score pre-test result was 903, while in post-test result was 2063, and the mean score in pre-test result was 36.12, while in the post-test 82.52. As compared to the total score, so the pre-test increase 1160, the mean score increase 46.4. Besides that the result of t-calculation (t-count) in pre-test was (-7.35) while in post-test result was 6.29. As comparedthe t-calculation of the post-test (13, 68) was consulted with the value of t-table in significant 0.05(5 percentage level) and degree freedom (df) was (46-2=44). The value of t-table 44 df 0.05 (5%) in two-tailed was 2.021. So t-count >t-table (6.29>2.0154), it means there was significant difference between pre-test and post-test result. Consequently the alternative hypothesis (H1) was accepted and null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. In conclusion the hypothesis “There is an effect of schema theory on students reading comprehension” was statistically acceptable or the research hypothesis was accepted (The Calculation in Appendix X) 4.2 Discussion On the basis of the result in this research, it was found that the teaching English by using schema theory helped the students to build background knowledge in reading comprehension. Schema theory is vital to develop comprehension in reading (Hattenet all: 2010) and according to Anderson et al (1997:369) in (Carrell and Eisterhold: 1983)“every act of comprehension involves one’s knowledge of the world as well”.
  45. 45. 45 Before the researcher implementing schema theory as a technique in order to increase the students‟ reading comprehension, the researcher gave the two groups‟ pre-test to see the score of both groups. From the pre-test score it was known that there was significant difference between the two groups. In experimental class, the result showed that the total score was 903, and the mean score was 36.12 and highest score who gained by students were ≥ 50 for 1 students and lowest score was ≤ 40 for 18 students. While in the control class, the result showed that the total score was 1114, and then mean score was 53.04 and the highest score who gained by students was ≥50 for 14 students and the lowest score was ≤ 40 for 1 student. It means that the students‟ reading comprehension was still limited and very poor. In experimental class, at first treatment was conducted on 25thof May 2012. In this treatment the researcher taught the students by using schema theory technique by giving questions to build the students‟ background knowledge. In teaching process the studentslooked unhappy and some other students looked confused because it was the first meeting and also they need to adapt themselves with the teaching and learning process by using schema theory technique.Ministry of Educational (2009) stated that adaptations are teaching and assessment strategies especially designed to accommodate a student‟s needs so he or she can achieve the learning outcomes of the subject or course and to demonstrate mastery of concepts. Essentially, adaptations are “best practice” in teaching. A student working on learning outcomes of any grade or course level may be supported
  46. 46. 46 through use of adaptations and Joyce et al (1972) says that the students will be easy to remember something if they pay attention on it The second treatment was conducted on 26th of May 2012. The researcher gave the picture to build the background knowledge students that related to the test. In teaching process the students‟ looked happy but some other students still looked confused. It can be seen by the students‟ positive respond; unfortunately the scores of their task were still low. It might be caused by less motivation, attention and also student problem solving in familiar and unfamiliar of text. (Din: 2008) motivation is the heart of teaching and learning process. The third treatment was conducted on 28th of May 2012. The researcher gave the video to build the background knowledge students that related to the test. The students‟result of the task was good. The students‟ did not have problems with reading comprehension and enjoyable with the video. It might be caused by the students were familiar with the text and know how to answer the question based on the texts and also they can relationship between a text and the interpreter‟s background knowledge. According Snell (2006), meanings are constructed in the interaction between a text and the interpreter‟s background knowledge The fourth treatment was conducted on 29th May 2012. The researcher gave the realia to build the students background knowledge that related to the test. In this treatment the student‟s result of the task was very good. The students‟ did not have problems with reading comprehension after their background knowledge stimulated. It was because the students were familiar with the text and know how
  47. 47. 47 to answer the question based on the texts. So, the students shared their knowledge or their idea and made the teaching process was active.Actively engaging students motivates deeper thinking about course content, brings additional energy to a classroom, and helps an instructor pin point problem areas(http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsal.php). Meanwhile, in the control class the researcher gave the same topics with experimental class without using schema theory. It meant that, the researcher applied the common technique which was applied by the lecturer when teaching reading in the classroom. The researcher came to this class also for 4 times, and from the result of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4thtreatments. Where for the first treatment the researcher came to the classroom, gave greeting, gave the text to read for 15 minutes, and asked the students to answer the questions. All steps that the researcher did in the treatment of control class were the same. The result of first treatment in this class was 58.09, the second treatment was 65.47, the third treatment was 77.14, and the last was 57.85. In control class the students had less motivation in learning of reading.It might be caused by the students answered the questions individually without sharing their background knowledge to other students and also some of them did not do the test seriously, so that in the last meeting the result was decreased. Pow (2006) Said that a systematic presentation of teaching experiencein the form of a model can facilitate the sharing of teaching experience with others bysupporting reflection on key elements within their practice and applying a formal model to teaching experience sharingand to develop this model in a participative way is innovative.
  48. 48. 48 After doing four times treatments in the experimental class and taught four times in the control class, so the researcher did post test. The post- test was conducted on 6th of June 2012.There were significant differences of scores between experimental class and control class where in experimental class score in post-test was 2063 and the mean score post test was 82.52. The post-test result, there were 25 students who gained the score 50, it meant that the students in post-test who gained the high score were 100%, and the low scores were 0%. It showed that schema theory was interesting technique to build their background knowledge and also made them enjoyable in learning the reading comprehension and they also felt more confident to answer the questions.While the post-test of the control class showed that the total score was 1352, the mean score of the posttest increase 11.35. In post-test result there were 13 students gained the score ≥ 65. It means that the students in post test who got the high score was 66.6% and the low score was 33.4%. It can be concluded that there was no difference between the result of pre-test and post test score of the students control class. In other word, both pre test and post-test scores were the similarly. Based on the discussion above, schema theory is one of techniques to build students background knowledge. As stated by Rumelhart (1980), schemata can represent knowledge at all levels-from ideologies and cultural truths to knowledge about the meaning of a particular word, to knowledge about what patterns of excitations are associated with what letters of the alphabet. We have schemata to represent all levels of our experience, at all levels of abstraction. Finally, our schemata are our knowledge. All of our generic knowledge is
  49. 49. 49 embedded in schemata. (p. 41). It showed by the scores of students who taught through schema theory was better than the students who were taught without it. The researcher found the mean score in the experimental group was 82.52 while the mean score in the control group was 64.38. The score indicates that the difference between the means was significant at 5 % level and 44df (t count = and 6.29, t-table = 2.0154; t count t table). At the end of this research, the researcher can conclude that the alternative hypothesis was accepted and the null hypothesis was rejected. In conclusion, the schema theory has a positive effect to increase students‟ reading comprehension.
  50. 50. 50 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION This chapter presents brief the conclusion and suggestions based on the finding of the research. 5.1 Conclusion The result of this research reveals that the schema theory treatments worked well and gave positive effect on reading comprehension of the fourth semester students‟ of English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu. It was because schema theory did not only build the reading comprehension and background knowledge of the students but also can increase their interest and help students build the prerequisite knowledge, or remind them of what they already know before introducing new material. From the result of research, the researcher found the mean score in the experimental group was 82, 52 while the mean score in the control group was 64, 38. The score indicates that the difference between the means was significant at 5 % level and 44df (t count =and 6.29 t-table = 2.0154; t count t table).It meant that there was significance difference between the experimental class and control class.It showed that the Alternative Hypothesis (H1) was accepted and Null Hypothesis (Ho) was rejected. Therefore, it could be concluded there is a positive effect of schema theory on fourth semester students of English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in Academic Year 2011/2012.
  51. 51. 51 5.2 Suggestions After doing the research, the researcher would like to give the following suggestion for: 1. Lecturers It is suggested for who teach reading subject to use schema theory as one of alternative techniques in teaching reading because schema theory can increase the students‟ motivation and ability in learning. 2. The students Schema theory can be used to motivate the students in reading skill especially in improving their reading comprehension skill. 3. Further researchers Further researchers are hoped to do research with the other reading strategies, such as pre-questioning, SQ3R method. This research can also be one of references for other researchers.
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