Chapter Five <ul><li>Egoism, Self-Interest, and Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Morality of Self-effacement:  A condition where...
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) <ul><li>Hobbes stated that human nature is basically self-interested. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes...
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) <ul><li>Nietzsche believed that we should all strive to satisfy our own will to power </li...
Four Types of Ethical Egoism <ul><li>Psychological Egoism </li></ul><ul><li>We always do that act which we perceive to be ...
Four Types of Ethical Egoism <ul><li>Individual Ethical Egoism:  Everyone ought to serve my best interest only. </li></ul>...
Paradox of Hedonism <ul><li>The best way to get happiness is to forget about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Worthy goals will indir...
Three Forms  of Ethical Egoism <ul><li>Personal Egoism:  Describes a type of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Ethi...
Ayn Rand’s Argument <ul><li>Selfishness is a virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism is a vice. </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism is a...
Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Inconsistent Outcomes  </li></ul><ul><li>Argument:  </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Egois...
Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Publicity Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>Unless principles are put forth as universal ...
Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Paradox of Egoism: </li></ul><ul><li>To reach the goal of egoism one must give up e...
Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Argument from Counterintuitive Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute ethics not ...
Evolution and Altruism <ul><li>Sociobiology theorizes that social structures and human behavioral patterns, including mora...
Egoism and the Problem of Posterity <ul><li>Egoism seems unable to deal with the problem of obligations to posterity. </li...
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Chapter 5: Egoism and Altruism

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Chapter 5: Egoism and Altruism

  1. 1. Chapter Five <ul><li>Egoism, Self-Interest, and Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Morality of Self-effacement: A condition where a person has self-hatred, a lack of self-confidence, masochism, and pervasive, irrational guilt. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) <ul><li>Hobbes stated that human nature is basically self-interested. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes no sense to expect people to be altruistic. </li></ul><ul><li>All altruistic acts, when examined closely, are disguised acts of selfishness. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) <ul><li>Nietzsche believed that we should all strive to satisfy our own will to power </li></ul><ul><li>We should accomplish this even if we must exploit and dominate others. </li></ul><ul><li>If we do not do this, others will do this to us. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Four Types of Ethical Egoism <ul><li>Psychological Egoism </li></ul><ul><li>We always do that act which we perceive to be in our own best self-interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Egoism: The state of being selfish by choice. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Four Types of Ethical Egoism <ul><li>Individual Ethical Egoism: Everyone ought to serve my best interest only. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Ethical Egoism: Everyone ought always to do those acts that will serve his or her own best self-interest, even when it conflicts with the interests of others. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Paradox of Hedonism <ul><li>The best way to get happiness is to forget about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Worthy goals will indirectly bring about happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the goals, not the happiness. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three Forms of Ethical Egoism <ul><li>Personal Egoism: Describes a type of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Ethical Egoism: Everyone ought to serve my self-interest. What is good for everyone is what is good for me. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Ethical Egoism: Everyone ought to serve their own self-interests. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ayn Rand’s Argument <ul><li>Selfishness is a virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism is a vice. </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism is a doctrine that leads to the undermining of individual worth. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Inconsistent Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Egoism cannot be true because it fails to meet a necessary </li></ul><ul><li>condition of morality – being a guide to action </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Publicity Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>Unless principles are put forth as universal prescriptions that are accessible to the public, they cannot serve as guides. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Paradox of Egoism: </li></ul><ul><li>To reach the goal of egoism one must give up egoism and become (to some extent) an altruist, which is the very antithesis of egoism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Four Refutations of Egoism <ul><li>The Argument from Counterintuitive Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute ethics not only permits egoistic behavior, but demands it. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Evolution and Altruism <ul><li>Sociobiology theorizes that social structures and human behavioral patterns, including morality, have a biological base, explained by evolutionary theory. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Egoism and the Problem of Posterity <ul><li>Egoism seems unable to deal with the problem of obligations to posterity. </li></ul><ul><li>Why should one care about posterity? </li></ul><ul><li>What has posterity ever done for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have obligations to a future people? </li></ul>

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