Green Remediation on a LEED Certified Brownfield Site

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A talk I gave at RTM recently

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Green Remediation on a LEED Certified Brownfield Site

  1. 1. Green Remediation Efforts as Part of LEED Silver Brownfield Development Project David Winslow and Angela Altieri GZA GeoEnvironmental Inc.
  2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Project Overview and Background </li></ul><ul><li>Why Sustainability was important to the Developer </li></ul><ul><li>What is Green Remediation and why is important to the public and the Developer </li></ul><ul><li>How we applied Green Remediation Principals to the Site </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>15-acre riverfront property </li></ul><ul><li>Former industrial usage: chemical plants, edible oil, soaps and detergents, roofing pitch storage, hydrogen gas plant </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed redevelopment as new Borough Hall and Police Station and a mixed use residential/commercial property </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated with arsenic, other metals, roofing tar/pitch material, benzene </li></ul><ul><li>Northern portion of site impacted by Quanta Superfund Site </li></ul>
  4. 6. Remedial Drivers <ul><li>Both roofing pitch and arsenic were defined as industrial process waste under NJDEP regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Coal-Tar derived roofing pitch defined as separate-phase product by the NJDEP </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic associated with arsenopyrite-rich slag from an adjacent sulfuric acid plant used as fill in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Roofing Pitch and Arsenic were impacting Groundwater (As 20,000 ppb, benzene 4,000 ppb) </li></ul><ul><li>Roofing Pitch and Arsenic impacting Hudson River Sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Contact and Vapor Intrusion Exposure </li></ul>
  5. 7. Importance of Sustainability <ul><li>End-User requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental, economic, and social benefits for building owners, occupants, and general public </li></ul><ul><li>Improve energy efficiency via sustainable design and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle land to reduce negative environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce O&M and energy costs, improve ROI and net operating income </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance building marketability, worker productivity and indoor air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of market and financial incentives for LEED certification on new buildings </li></ul>
  6. 8. Why Green Remediation Reference High Price Low Price Projections History 2005 dollars per barrel
  7. 9. Why Green Remediation <ul><li>EPA ADMINISTRATOR’S ACTION PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>… [Foster technological innovations to support the clean development of domestic energy resources (oil, gas, nuclear, coal, wind, and solar) </li></ul><ul><li>Restore contaminated properties, including brownfields, to environmental and economic vitality </li></ul><ul><li>Promote stewardship through increased resource conservation, including waste minimization and recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Expand the use of biofuels and promote diesel emissions reductions through retrofit and other technologies </li></ul><ul><li>OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE (OSWER) ACTION PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the reduction, reuse, and recycling of both municipal and industrial wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the appropriate reuse and revitalization of brownfields, USTfields, Superfund sites, RCRA facilities, BRAC sites, and other federal properties </li></ul>EPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2006-11 “ EPA’s Cleanup Programs have set a National Goal of returning formerly contaminated sites to long-term, sustainable and productive use.”
  8. 10. Why Green Remediation <ul><li>State, Local, NGO, business, international, community initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>35 states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies a percentage of total energy to be derived from renewable sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>19 states have public benefit funds (PBFs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports energy efficiency and renewable energy projects; collected through small charge to electric customers or utility contributions 22 states have GHG inventories </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Why Green Remediation <ul><li>23 states have energy efficiency standards </li></ul><ul><li>22 states have carbon sequestration programs </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Regional GHG Initiatives composed of states collaborating to create “cap and trade” systems and address GHG emissions across broad geographic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) will cap carbon emissions in 11 northeastern states. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Social Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Improve public health of work force and community. </li></ul><ul><li>Create more walkable, accessible, and livable neighborhoods by incorporating Smart Growth principles and ecological enhancements. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve aesthetics and public safety by cleaning up and reusing blighted areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Create jobs for the community and higher tax revenues for local government by creating new construction, commercial, and industrial opportunities and increasing property values. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce construction traffic, noise, dust, and safety concerns by reusing existing buildings and by employing deconstruction and material recovery practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by incorporating energy efficient processes, using renewable energy sources, recycling materials, and implementing activities that sequester carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve air quality by employing Smart Growth principles, making ecological enhancements, and incorporating Green Design features. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve greenspace and slow suburban sprawl by cleaning up and reusing contaminated properties and facilitating their reuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve resources, reduce landfill disposal, and limit the environmental impact of waste hauling by recycling and reusing industrial materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase biodiversity and restore watersheds by incorporating ecological enhancements and preserving green infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce long-term impact of structures on the environment and resource use by incorporating green approaches in building and landscaping construction, including stormwater management. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve lifecycle cost savings associated with green remediation and buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce energy footprint and save resources by using energy efficient equipment/processes and renewable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualify for tax benefits associated with brownfield redevelopment and LEED certification. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce construction costs, reduce disposal fees, and gain a new source of revenue by recycling materials onsite. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase property value by incorporating Green Design and Smart Growth principles, which can bring more business, people, and revenues into the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve employee satisfaction and productivity through green building design. </li></ul>Some Benefits Achieved by Adopting Sustainable Approaches Optimal Sustainable Revitalization Social Economic Environmental
  11. 13. Green Remediation Practices <ul><li>Commitment to optimal solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of fuel and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation options selection criteria </li></ul>Boulevard Sewage Treatment Plant and Proposed Aquaculture Regional Center
  12. 14. How ? <ul><li>Use a systems approach </li></ul><ul><li>Look for environmental opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and balance tradeoffs </li></ul>Cleanup, Remediation, and Waste Management Deconstruction, Demolition, and Removal Design and Construction for Reuse Sustainable Use & Long-Term Stewardship
  13. 15. Cleanup, Remediation, and Waste Management Deconstruction, Demolition, and Removal Design and Construction for Reuse Sustainable Use and Long Term Stewardship <ul><li>Reuse/recycle deconstruction and demolition materials </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse materials on site whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Consider future site use and reuse existing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve/Reuse Historic Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Use clean diesel and low sulfur fuels in equipment and noise controls for power generation </li></ul><ul><li>Retain native vegetation and soils, wherever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Protect water resources from runoff and contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Power machinery and equipment using clean fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Use renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and methane to power remediation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Improve energy efficiency of chosen remediation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Select remediation approaches, such as phytoremediation, that reduce resource use and impact on air, water, adjacent lands, and public health </li></ul><ul><li>Employ remediation practices that can restore soil health and ecosystems and, in some cases, sequester carbon through soil amendments and vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Use Energy Star, LEED, and GreenScapes principles in both new and existing buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce environmental impact by reusing existing structures and recycling industrial materials </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate natural systems to manage stormwater, like green roofs, landscaped swales, and wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate Smart Growth principles that promote more balanced land uses, walkable neighborhoods, and open space </li></ul><ul><li>Create ecological enhancements to promote biodiversity and provide wildlife habitat and recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce use of toxic materials in manufacturing, maintenance, and use of buildings and land </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize waste generation, manage waste properly, and recycle materials used/generated </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain engineering and institutional controls on site where waste is left in place </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce water use by incorporating water efficient systems and use native vegetation to limit irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize energy efficiency and increase use of renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Take appropriate steps to prevent (recontamination) </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><ul><li>Some Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse/recycle deconstruction and demolition materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse materials on site whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider future site use and reuse existing infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve/Reuse Historic Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use clean diesel and low sulfur fuels in equipment and noise controls for power generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain native vegetation and soils, wherever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect water resources from runoff and contamination </li></ul></ul>Sawyer Passway Asbestos Abatement Project Cleanup, Remediation, & Waste Management Design and Construction for Reuse Sustainable Use & Long Term Stewardship Deconstruction, Demolition, and Removal
  15. 17. <ul><li>Some Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Power machinery and equipment using clean fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Use renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and methane to power remediation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Improve energy efficiency of chosen remediation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Select remediation approaches, such as phytoremediation, that reduce resource use and impact on air, water, adjacent lands, and public health </li></ul><ul><li>Employ remediation practices that can restore soil health and ecosystems and, in some cases, sequester carbon through soil amendments and vegetation </li></ul>Sawyer Passway Asbestos Abatement Project Cleanup, Remediation,& Waste Management Design and Construction for Reuse Deconstruction, Demolition, and Removal Sustainable Use & Long Term Stewardship
  16. 18. <ul><li>Risk Based Cleanups, Vapor Intrusion and Residential Use </li></ul><ul><li>Assess ecological and human health risks to evaluate risk –based cleanup criteria for exposure to soil, groundwater and volatilization </li></ul><ul><li>Assess contaminant fate and transport mechanisms through establishing and verifying a conceptual site model </li></ul><ul><li>Design engineering and institutional controls on site where waste is left in place </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze risks due to dewatering, excavation, transport and disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Take appropriate steps to remove sources of contamination or isolate contamination to mitigate risks and reduce energy </li></ul>Cleanup, Remediation, & Waste Management Deconstruction, Demolition, and Removal Sustainable Use & Long Term Stewardship Design & Construction for Reuse
  17. 19. <ul><li>Some Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce use of toxic materials in manufacturing, maintenance, and use of buildings and land </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize waste generation, manage waste properly, and recycle materials used/generated </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain engineering and institutional controls on site where waste is left in place </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce water use by incorporating water efficient systems and use native vegetation to limit irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize energy efficiency and increase use of renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Take appropriate steps to evaluate insurance for financial, legal, regulatory risks due to unknowns (cost cap policy, guaranteed remediation contracts) </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to prevent re-contamination </li></ul>Cleanup, Remediation, & Waste Management Deconstruction, Demolition, and Removal Sustainable Use & Long Term Stewardship Design & Construction for Reuse
  18. 20. Application to The Site <ul><li>Remedial Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate Site Specific Cleanup Standards and Remedial Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARSR for Arsenic 600 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remediate Pitch Areas Impacting Groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect Hudson River from residual dissolved contamination and Pitch </li></ul>
  19. 21. Arsenic and Groundwater Geochemistry <ul><li>Groundwater geochemistry was causing arsenic dissolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated Eh (ORP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated pH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found different geochemical zones corresponding with dissolved arsenic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Eh / High pH (Zone 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Eh / Low pH (Zone 2) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Eh > 100 mV pH < 5.5 Eh < 0 mV pH > 8.0
  21. 23. <ul><ul><li>Range of arsenic speciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eh/pH range indicated groundwater zones straddled the arsenite (As[III]) stability field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As(III) is more soluble than As(V) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><ul><li>Eh/pH range indicated groundwater in two zones fell outside iron oxyhydroxide stability field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eh/pH conditions promote mineral formation that occurs in the iron oxyhydroxide stability field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest concentration of arsenic is found in the dissolved ferrous iron stability field where there are no iron oxyhydroxides to which arsenic can bond </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Dissolved As > 1,000 ppb Zone 2 Zone 1 Dissolved As > 1,000 ppb
  24. 26. Arsenic Cleanup Standard <ul><li>NJDEP sets direct contact SCC </li></ul><ul><li>Recently issued guidance for calculating Impact to Groundwater ARS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze soils for SPLP compare to LS (3 ppb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARS = Highest C T for which C L ≤ LS = 22 ppm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARS using site specific Kd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kd ranged from 22 to 17,000 L/kg. ARS using 22 = 0.8 ppm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regression analysis of C T vs C L = Failed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Arsenic Cleanup Standard <ul><li>Arsenic cleanup standard is very dependent on site geochemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear correlations with SPLP results or Coefficient of Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Argued that arsenic solubility was dependent on Eh, pH and iron oxyhydroxide stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at correlations between soil and groundwater hot spots </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Arsenic in Unsaturated Soil
  27. 29. Arsenic in Saturated Soil
  28. 30. Arsenic > 1,000 ppb in groundwater Arsenic > 600 ppm in soil
  29. 33. Carbon Footprint <ul><li>Remedial Alternatives Screening and Selection </li></ul><ul><li>During the Feasibility Process Evaluate Alternatives for Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse/Recycling of Material </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Option A Option D Option B Option C Transportation Air releases Treatment Water use Off-site transfers Greenhouse gases Energy consumed Soil/Solid material Water use Land use volume matrix material depth mobility contaminants 2 Remedial Options 3 Calculation Modules 4 Sustainability Factors 1 Project Data Option E Conceptual Framework for Sustainability Analysis
  31. 35. Step 3 – Identify Components ISS + MNA Task Item Quantities Mobilization and Site Prep Time Staff Equipment 10 days 11 - 1 Super, 1 Eng’r, 9 Operators & Laborers Man lift, forklifts (2), crane, mix head, others Crane and Mix Head Assembly Time 5 day Soil Mixing Time Staff Equipment Materials 14 days 11 - 1 Super, 1 Eng’r, 9 Operators & Laborers Mix head/crane, fork lifts, excavator 1200 tons Cement, 240 tons ferric sulfate 130,000 gal water Demob, including grading Time Staff Equipment 4 days 11 - 1 Super, 1 Eng’r, 9 Operators & Laborers Excavator, man lift, forklifts (2), crane, mix head
  32. 36. Step 3 - Quantify Components ISS + MNA <ul><li>Fuel for remedy </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilization/demob </li></ul><ul><li>Soil mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Regrading </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-base installation </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of Ferric Sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling events </li></ul><ul><li>Consumables </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Ferric Sulfate </li></ul>Gasoline (gallons) Diesel (gallons)
  33. 38. Total CO2 Tons T&D = 1989 Total CO2 Tons ISS = 537 Activity Excavation, Transportation and Disposal In-situ ISS and T&D Arsenic Pitch T&D 1339 Tons - Arsenic T&D 161 Tons 161 Earthwork 166 Tons 166 Import Fill 157 Tons 62 Place Fill 166 Tons 66 Import Concrete - 82
  34. 39. Other Sustainable Measures <ul><li>Selected AirLogics Perimeter Air Monitoring System </li></ul><ul><li>Re-used Concrete and Cinderblock from Building Demolition as Fill Above the Water Table </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Permeable Reactive Barrier or Solar Powered Groundwater Control System to Protect Hudson River </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Venting Systems and Vapor Barriers Beneath all Buildings. </li></ul>
  35. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>Portions of Site Were LEED Silver </li></ul><ul><li>Developer wanted Green Remediation in order to fit his Development Model </li></ul><ul><li>Used Sustainable Development Principals to help select and “sell” remedial options </li></ul><ul><li>ISS resulted in decreased Carbon Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Used alternative energy systems as well as low energy remedial options when possible </li></ul>

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