While the definition of what constitutes a green building is constantly evolving, the Office of
the Federal Environmental Executive offers a useful working definition. This agency defines
this term as:
the practice of (1) increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy,
water, and materials, and (2) reducing building impacts on human health and the
environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and
removal—the complete building life cycle.
Similarly, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines green building as follows:
he practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible
and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle from siting to design, construction,
operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and
complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and
comfort. Green building is also known as a sustainable or ‘high performance’ building.
Why does it matter?
Takes an intelligent approach to energy
Safeguards our water resources
Minimises waste and maximises reuse
Promotes health and well-being
Keeps our landscape green
Creates resilient and flexible structures
Considers all stages of a building’s life-cycle
Fundamental Principles of Green Building
Sustainable Site Design
Water Quality and Conservation
Energy and Environment
Indoor Environmental Quality
Materials and Resources
Green Building Materials
Green building materials are a rapidly developing and expanding sector of the construction
materials market. What constitutes a “green” material varies widely depending on the source.
While no official government standard exists to provide definable guidelines, the Federal Trade
Commission is working on such a plan. Meanwhile, the certification of green and/or sustainable
building materials has been left to professional trade organizations. While each sector of the
construction materials industry has its own or multiple sets of criteria, the common bond tends to
be the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
guidelines and standards. However, regardless of the source, the common elements that bind green
material evaluation are very similar and include– production energy usage and waste, low
toxicity/minimal emissions, recycled content/recyclability, locality of production, impact on indoor
air quality, and affordability.
Dimension Stone :-
Dimension stone is the name given to natural quarried stones that are cut to required
dimensions and finished – such as granite, slate, limestone, sandstone, and marble. Used in
building facades, indoor flooring, and outdoor walkways, it is widely noted as one of the
most durable and green types of building materials. Of special note is the ease with which
dimension stone can be recycled during old building demolition and used either in whole
form or crushed into aggregates for use in concrete mixtures.
As a general building material, concrete is considered “green” by most standards, although
issues do arise concerning the amount of CO2 emissions released during cement its
production. One remedy to that concern has been the addition of supplemental cementing
materials to replace some of the Portland cement needed in the mix – to date this is generally
accomplished with the use of fly ash, which is obtained and recycled from coal burning
While the production of steel involves high emissions releases and large qualities of energy,
the use of recycled material accounts for 2/3 of new steel production by weight in the United
States. Additionally, the use of recycled materials reduces the necessary amount of energy
needed to produce steel product compared to that needed when using virgin ore.
Recycled stone tile
Recycled Ceramic Tile
The insulating property of an opaque wall construction is indicated by the U-value. Use
construction materials with low U-values to improve insulation in all opaque areas of the
building envelope, not just the facade. Good roof insulation will have a major impact on
reducing the solar heat gain of low rise buildings.
Reducing Urban Heat Islands with Green Roofs
A green roof, or rooftop garden, is a vegetative layer grown on a rooftop. Green roofs provide
shade and remove heat from the air through evapotranspiration, reducing temperatures of the
roof surface and the surrounding air. On hot summer days, the surface temperature of a green
roof can be cooler than the air temperature, whereas the surface of a conventional rooftop can
be up to 90°F (50°C) warmer.
Growth of Green Buildings over the years:-
CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre
CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre
The project is a unique and successful model of public-private partnership between the Government of
Andhra Pradesh, Pirojsha Godrej Foundation, and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), with the
technical support of USAID
Karan Grover and Associates, India
4.5 acres (total site area)
1,858 m2 (total built up area)
1,115 m2 (total air-conditioned area)
Green Technology Centre displaying the latest and emerging green building materials and
technologies in India Large numbers of visitors are escorted on green building tour
Awarded the LEED Platinum Rating for New Construction (NC) v 2.0 by the U.S. Green
Building Council (USGBC) in November 2003
The main gate opens to a long driveway with lush greenery on both sides creating
EMPHASIS to the entrance
The main building has direct access from the main road,
But the entrance to it is from the inside to ensure privacy and security
Parking and accessibility
Bicycle riders are treated preferentially - convenient parking, lockers, shower cleaning
30 % of employee transportation: carpools, bicycles, and LPG cars
Use of battery operated vehicles encouraged – Charging stations available
The documented reduction of harmful emissions achieved is 62 %
Encourage building occupants to minimize their reliance on fossil fuel-based transportation.
The traditional centre courtyard with colonnaded corridors:-
The spatial and formal elements around a courtyard create introverted blueprint.
Courtyard space was not rigidly fixed but could be adaptable depending on the time of day, season
Its mood changed with varying degrees of light and shade, and with them the ambience
Centrally located, serves as visual anchor. It was the spatial, social, and environment control
centre of the home.
By building them around a central open space ensured close relationships between separate units
Brought in an additional usable space within the living space.
Light and ventilation
Building layout ensures that 90 % of spaces have daylight access and views to the outside.
North facades are glazed for efficient diffused light
Low heat transmitting glass used
Double glass to further reduce heat gain
Natural lighting - no lights are used until late in the evening
Minimum lux levels for all work stations have been ensured
Light captured from as many sides possible - the use of courtyards
Allow controlled passage of air and light into the interior space.
throw patterns of light and shadow on the floor enhancing aesthetics
Ensure constant flow of breeze into the interior - occupant comfort cools the interiors
An alternative to costly window construction
Diffuse the glare of direct sunlight.
Use of Solar photovoltaic cells on the rooftop grid provides about 24 kilowatts, or 16 % of
the building's electricity needs.
Placed appropriately on the roof facing South and West to capture maximum heat gain
Energy savings are achieved by the GBCs two wind towers
Air, cooled by up to 8 ^C, is supplied to the AHUs, substantially reducing the load
on the air conditioning system.
A heavily insulated roof further reduces the cooling load.
Earth sheltering is a an ancient architectural practice of using earth against building walls/
roofs for external thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor
Roof Gardens cover 55 % of the exposed roof area of the building – high reduction of heat
All wastewater generated - recycled by "root zone treatment" - simultaneously irrigates the
Low operating cost, less energy requirement and ease of maintenance
Attractive alternative for wastewater management
Enhances the Landscape
Energy efficient building
Energy used in driving from place to place can amount to a significant proportion of a
household’s total energy consumption. By locating new houses near to workplaces, schools,
public transport routes, etc., transport energy consumption can be reduced.
Transmission of sunshine through windows (passive solar heating) can reduce heating costs. The
selection of a site which is exposed to the low-altitude winter sun can allow for passive solar
Building form and orientation:-
A compact building form of minimum surface-to-volume ratio is best for reducing heat loss.
However, a rectangular building with one of the longer facades facing south can allow for
increased passive solar heating, day-lighting and natural ventilation. As well as reducing
energy costs, sunny south-facing rooms also have high amenity value.
Projections such as bay and dormer windows should be kept to a minimum, since by
increasing the surface-to-volume ratio of the building, they will increase heat loss. They also
tend to be more difficult to insulate effectively.
Pitched roofs should have one slope oriented south to allow for optimum performance of a
roof-mounted or roof-integrated active solar heating system. Even if such a system is not
planned during construction, it may be installed at some stage during the life of the building.
Building Fabric and Structure
Levels of insulation higher than those required in the Building Regulations are in
many cases economically justified. Insulation should be well distributed around
the building shell. It is better to have a good overall level of insulation than, for
example, a highly insulated floor with no roof insulation.
Adequate ventilation is essential to provide fresh air and to remove moisture, odours and
pollutants. However, excessive ventilation during the heating season results in energy wastage
and can also cause discomfort due to draughts.
Controlled vents should be installed in every room; trickle or slot vents incorporated in
window frames can ensure a reasonable amount of continuous fresh air and can be opened up
or closed down to a minimum as required.
Lighting and Appliances:-
Energy-efficient lamps and fittings should be chosen for all rooms where lights are likely to
be switched on for long periods - living rooms, kitchens, halls, security lighting etc. While a
compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) costs more to buy than an ordinary tungsten bulb, the
energy savings it will yield will more than recoup the investment over its long operating
All fridges, freezers, washing machines and tumble dryers on display in shops are now
required by law to display Energy Labels indicating their energy efficiency. These labels can
assist the purchaser in selecting an energy efficient model.
Green Building Rating System
Why rating System?
Some of the benefits of a green design to a building owner, user, and the society as a whole are as
Reduced energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels (lower operational costs)
Reduced water consumption
Reduced system sizes (HVAC, transformers, cabling, etc.) for optimal performance at local
Reduced investment (lifecycle cost)
Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats, biodiversity, reduced soil loss from erosion etc.
Reduced air and water pollution (with direct health benefits)
Limited waste generation due to recycling and reuse
Reduced pollution loads
Increased user productivity
Enhanced image and marketability
Effective in India from 1st Jan 2007
Based on professional reference standards like NBC, ASHRAE, and ECBC etc.
Assessment by 3rd party assessors & USGBC
Voluntary, Consensus- based, Market driven
Few LEED rated buildings in India:-
CII –Godrej GBC, Hyderabad
ITC Green Centre, Gurgaon
Wipro Technologies, Gurgaon
IGP Office, Gulbarga
NEG Macon, Chennai
Grundfos Pumps, Chennai
Silver Rated :
L&T EDRC , Chennai
GRIHA - Green Rating for Integrated Habitat
GRIHA is India’s National Rating System for Green buildings. It has been developed by
TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) and is endorsed by the MNRE (Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy).
It is based on nationally accepted energy and environmental principles, and seeks to strike a
balance between established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international.
GRIHA attempts to minimize a building’s resource consumption, waste generation, and
overall ecological/ environmental impact by comparing them to certain nationally acceptable
limits / benchmarks.
It does so, adopting the five ‘R’ philosophy of sustainable development, namely
50-60 points is certified as a 1 star GRIHA rated building,
61-70 is a 2 star GRIHA rated building,
71-80 is a 3 star GRIHA rating building,
81-90 is a 4 star GRIHA rated building and
91-100 is a 5 star GRIHA rated building
IGBC green new buildings rating system® addresses green features under the
Sustainable Architecture and Design
Site Selection and Planning
Building Materials and Resources
Indoor Environmental Quality
Innovation and Development
The various levels of rating awarded are as below:
Certification Level Recognition
the differences in green and normal building is that “Green Buildings” are more
environment friendly as they help in resources conservation .Also the initial cost may be
higher but they prove to be economical in long run. Due to this advantage it is predicted
that in 2 or 3 years there will be the 10% of the buildings will be green.
Green building – high performance building increases the efficiency with which buildings
and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials.
Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce
and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health.
The `Green Building' concept is gaining importance in various countries, including India.
These are buildings that ensure that waste is minimized at every stage during the
construction and operation
The sustainability requirements are to a greater or lesser extent interrelated. The challenge for
designers is to bring together these different sustainability requirements in innovative ways. The
new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural
resources of the local, regional and global environments.
The ‘GREEN BUILDING’ concept is gaining importance in various countries, including India.
These are buildings that ensure waste is minimized at every stage during the construction and
operation of the building, resulting in low costs, according to experts in technology.
A Green building is a structure that is environmentally responsible and resource efficient
throughout its life cycle.
Green building benefits:-
Increased occupant health and comfort as well as cost savings.
Reduction of VOCs that can off-gas from materials into the air we breathe.
Absenteeism and employee turnover dramatically decreases in several studies.
Reduced health care costs,
Increased recruitment appeal to employees,
Boost to reputation and public relations
Shortened project timeline,
Increased rents/asset values
Longer tenant tenure
Longer asset life
Increased business traffic and purchasing
Regulatory approval streamlining
Remaining competitive as product and service providers
Better access to funds and financing,
Emotional benefits from doing something good