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Green building


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About green building and also included case study

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Green building

  2. 2. Introduction  While the definition of what constitutes a green building is constantly evolving, the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive offers a useful working definition. This agency defines this term as:  the practice of (1) increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy, water, and materials, and (2) reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal—the complete building life cycle.  Similarly, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines green building as follows:  he practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Green building is also known as a sustainable or ‘high performance’ building.
  3. 3. Why does it matter?  Takes an intelligent approach to energy  Safeguards our water resources  Minimises waste and maximises reuse  Promotes health and well-being  Keeps our landscape green  Creates resilient and flexible structures  Connects us  Considers all stages of a building’s life-cycle
  4. 4. Fundamental Principles of Green Building  Sustainable Site Design  Water Quality and Conservation  Energy and Environment  Indoor Environmental Quality  Materials and Resources
  5. 5. Green Building Materials Green building materials are a rapidly developing and expanding sector of the construction materials market. What constitutes a “green” material varies widely depending on the source. While no official government standard exists to provide definable guidelines, the Federal Trade Commission is working on such a plan. Meanwhile, the certification of green and/or sustainable building materials has been left to professional trade organizations. While each sector of the construction materials industry has its own or multiple sets of criteria, the common bond tends to be the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) guidelines and standards. However, regardless of the source, the common elements that bind green material evaluation are very similar and include– production energy usage and waste, low toxicity/minimal emissions, recycled content/recyclability, locality of production, impact on indoor air quality, and affordability.
  6. 6. Flooring  Rapidly Renewable Flooring  “Waste” Based Flooring Options
  7. 7.  Sustainable carpeting  Dimension Stone :- Dimension stone is the name given to natural quarried stones that are cut to required dimensions and finished – such as granite, slate, limestone, sandstone, and marble. Used in building facades, indoor flooring, and outdoor walkways, it is widely noted as one of the most durable and green types of building materials. Of special note is the ease with which dimension stone can be recycled during old building demolition and used either in whole form or crushed into aggregates for use in concrete mixtures.
  8. 8.  Concrete:- As a general building material, concrete is considered “green” by most standards, although issues do arise concerning the amount of CO2 emissions released during cement its production. One remedy to that concern has been the addition of supplemental cementing materials to replace some of the Portland cement needed in the mix – to date this is generally accomplished with the use of fly ash, which is obtained and recycled from coal burning power plants.  Recycled Steel:- While the production of steel involves high emissions releases and large qualities of energy, the use of recycled material accounts for 2/3 of new steel production by weight in the United States. Additionally, the use of recycled materials reduces the necessary amount of energy needed to produce steel product compared to that needed when using virgin ore.
  9. 9. Wall Finishes  Natural Plaster  Natural Paints
  10. 10. Tile  Recycled stone tile  Recycled Ceramic Tile
  11. 11. Insulation  The insulating property of an opaque wall construction is indicated by the U-value. Use construction materials with low U-values to improve insulation in all opaque areas of the building envelope, not just the facade. Good roof insulation will have a major impact on reducing the solar heat gain of low rise buildings.  Cotton insulation
  12. 12. Reducing Urban Heat Islands with Green Roofs  A green roof, or rooftop garden, is a vegetative layer grown on a rooftop. Green roofs provide shade and remove heat from the air through evapotranspiration, reducing temperatures of the roof surface and the surrounding air. On hot summer days, the surface temperature of a green roof can be cooler than the air temperature, whereas the surface of a conventional rooftop can be up to 90°F (50°C) warmer.
  13. 13. Case Study  Growth of Green Buildings over the years:-
  14. 14. CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre  Location  Hyderabad, India  Name  CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre  Developer  The project is a unique and successful model of public-private partnership between the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Pirojsha Godrej Foundation, and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), with the technical support of USAID  Architectural Design  Karan Grover and Associates, India  Size  4.5 acres (total site area)  1,858 m2 (total built up area)  1,115 m2 (total air-conditioned area)
  15. 15.  Type  Office building  Building details  Office building  Seminar hall  Green Technology Centre displaying the latest and emerging green building materials and technologies in India Large numbers of visitors are escorted on green building tour  Ratings  Awarded the LEED Platinum Rating for New Construction (NC) v 2.0 by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in November 2003
  16. 16.  CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre
  17. 17.  Location  Climate responsive design
  18. 18.  Entrance  The main gate opens to a long driveway with lush greenery on both sides creating EMPHASIS to the entrance  The main building has direct access from the main road,  But the entrance to it is from the inside to ensure privacy and security
  19. 19.  Parking and accessibility  Bicycle riders are treated preferentially - convenient parking, lockers, shower cleaning  30 % of employee transportation: carpools, bicycles, and LPG cars  Use of battery operated vehicles encouraged – Charging stations available  The documented reduction of harmful emissions achieved is 62 %  Encourage building occupants to minimize their reliance on fossil fuel-based transportation.
  20. 20.  The traditional centre courtyard with colonnaded corridors:-  The spatial and formal elements around a courtyard create introverted blueprint.  Courtyard space was not rigidly fixed but could be adaptable depending on the time of day, season  Its mood changed with varying degrees of light and shade, and with them the ambience  Centrally located, serves as visual anchor. It was the spatial, social, and environment control centre of the home.  By building them around a central open space ensured close relationships between separate units  Brought in an additional usable space within the living space.
  21. 21.  Light and ventilation  Building layout ensures that 90 % of spaces have daylight access and views to the outside.  North facades are glazed for efficient diffused light  Low heat transmitting glass used  Double glass to further reduce heat gain  Natural lighting - no lights are used until late in the evening  Minimum lux levels for all work stations have been ensured  Light captured from as many sides possible - the use of courtyards
  22. 22.  Jali wall:-  Allow controlled passage of air and light into the interior space.  throw patterns of light and shadow on the floor enhancing aesthetics  Ensure constant flow of breeze into the interior - occupant comfort cools the interiors  An alternative to costly window construction  Diffuse the glare of direct sunlight.
  23. 23.  Energy efficiency:-  Use of Solar photovoltaic cells on the rooftop grid provides about 24 kilowatts, or 16 % of the building's electricity needs.  Placed appropriately on the roof facing South and West to capture maximum heat gain
  24. 24.  Wind scoop:-  Energy savings are achieved by the GBCs two wind towers  Air, cooled by up to 8 ^C, is supplied to the AHUs, substantially reducing the load on the air conditioning system.  A heavily insulated roof further reduces the cooling load.
  25. 25.  Earth sheltering:-  Earth sheltering is a an ancient architectural practice of using earth against building walls/ roofs for external thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor air temperature.  Roof Gardens cover 55 % of the exposed roof area of the building – high reduction of heat gain
  26. 26.  Water treatment:-  All wastewater generated - recycled by "root zone treatment" - simultaneously irrigates the vegetation.  Low operating cost, less energy requirement and ease of maintenance  Attractive alternative for wastewater management  Enhances the Landscape
  27. 27. Energy efficient building  Site selection:-  Energy used in driving from place to place can amount to a significant proportion of a household’s total energy consumption. By locating new houses near to workplaces, schools, public transport routes, etc., transport energy consumption can be reduced.  Transmission of sunshine through windows (passive solar heating) can reduce heating costs. The selection of a site which is exposed to the low-altitude winter sun can allow for passive solar heating.
  28. 28.  Building form and orientation:-  A compact building form of minimum surface-to-volume ratio is best for reducing heat loss. However, a rectangular building with one of the longer facades facing south can allow for increased passive solar heating, day-lighting and natural ventilation. As well as reducing energy costs, sunny south-facing rooms also have high amenity value.  Projections such as bay and dormer windows should be kept to a minimum, since by increasing the surface-to-volume ratio of the building, they will increase heat loss. They also tend to be more difficult to insulate effectively.  Pitched roofs should have one slope oriented south to allow for optimum performance of a roof-mounted or roof-integrated active solar heating system. Even if such a system is not planned during construction, it may be installed at some stage during the life of the building.
  29. 29. Building Fabric and Structure  Insulation:-  Levels of insulation higher than those required in the Building Regulations are in many cases economically justified. Insulation should be well distributed around the building shell. It is better to have a good overall level of insulation than, for example, a highly insulated floor with no roof insulation.
  30. 30.  Ventilation:-  Adequate ventilation is essential to provide fresh air and to remove moisture, odours and pollutants. However, excessive ventilation during the heating season results in energy wastage and can also cause discomfort due to draughts.  Controlled vents should be installed in every room; trickle or slot vents incorporated in window frames can ensure a reasonable amount of continuous fresh air and can be opened up or closed down to a minimum as required.
  31. 31.  Lighting and Appliances:-  Energy-efficient lamps and fittings should be chosen for all rooms where lights are likely to be switched on for long periods - living rooms, kitchens, halls, security lighting etc. While a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) costs more to buy than an ordinary tungsten bulb, the energy savings it will yield will more than recoup the investment over its long operating life.  All fridges, freezers, washing machines and tumble dryers on display in shops are now required by law to display Energy Labels indicating their energy efficiency. These labels can assist the purchaser in selecting an energy efficient model.
  32. 32. Green Building Rating System  Why rating System?  Some of the benefits of a green design to a building owner, user, and the society as a whole are as follows:  Reduced energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels (lower operational costs)  Reduced water consumption  Reduced system sizes (HVAC, transformers, cabling, etc.) for optimal performance at local conditions.  Reduced investment (lifecycle cost)  Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats, biodiversity, reduced soil loss from erosion etc.  Reduced air and water pollution (with direct health benefits)  Limited waste generation due to recycling and reuse  Reduced pollution loads  Increased user productivity  Enhanced image and marketability
  33. 33. LEED  Effective in India from 1st Jan 2007  Based on professional reference standards like NBC, ASHRAE, and ECBC etc.  Assessment by 3rd party assessors & USGBC  Voluntary, Consensus- based, Market driven  Certification levels
  34. 34.  Few LEED rated buildings in India:-  Platinum rated:  CII –Godrej GBC, Hyderabad  ITC Green Centre, Gurgaon  Wipro Technologies, Gurgaon  Gold rated:  IGP Office, Gulbarga  NEG Macon, Chennai  Grundfos Pumps, Chennai  Silver Rated :  L&T EDRC , Chennai
  35. 35.  Leed India Green Building Rating System
  36. 36. GRIHA - Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment  GRIHA is India’s National Rating System for Green buildings. It has been developed by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) and is endorsed by the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy).  It is based on nationally accepted energy and environmental principles, and seeks to strike a balance between established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international.  GRIHA attempts to minimize a building’s resource consumption, waste generation, and overall ecological/ environmental impact by comparing them to certain nationally acceptable limits / benchmarks.  It does so, adopting the five ‘R’ philosophy of sustainable development, namely
  37. 37.  Project scoring  50-60 points is certified as a 1 star GRIHA rated building,  61-70 is a 2 star GRIHA rated building,  71-80 is a 3 star GRIHA rating building,  81-90 is a 4 star GRIHA rated building and  91-100 is a 5 star GRIHA rated building
  38. 38. IGBC  IGBC green new buildings rating system® addresses green features under the following categories:  Sustainable Architecture and Design  Site Selection and Planning  Water Conservation  Energy Efficiency  Building Materials and Resources  Indoor Environmental Quality  Innovation and Development
  39. 39.  The various levels of rating awarded are as below:  Certification Level Recognition
  40. 40. CONCLUSION  the differences in green and normal building is that “Green Buildings” are more environment friendly as they help in resources conservation .Also the initial cost may be higher but they prove to be economical in long run. Due to this advantage it is predicted that in 2 or 3 years there will be the 10% of the buildings will be green.  Green building – high performance building increases the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials.  Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health.  The `Green Building' concept is gaining importance in various countries, including India. These are buildings that ensure that waste is minimized at every stage during the construction and operation
  41. 41.  The sustainability requirements are to a greater or lesser extent interrelated. The challenge for designers is to bring together these different sustainability requirements in innovative ways. The new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural resources of the local, regional and global environments.  The ‘GREEN BUILDING’ concept is gaining importance in various countries, including India. These are buildings that ensure waste is minimized at every stage during the construction and operation of the building, resulting in low costs, according to experts in technology.  A Green building is a structure that is environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout its life cycle.  Green building benefits:-  Increased occupant health and comfort as well as cost savings.  Reduction of VOCs that can off-gas from materials into the air we breathe.  Absenteeism and employee turnover dramatically decreases in several studies.  Reduced health care costs,
  42. 42.  Increased recruitment appeal to employees,  Boost to reputation and public relations  Shortened project timeline,  Increased rents/asset values  Longer tenant tenure  Longer asset life  Increased business traffic and purchasing  Regulatory approval streamlining  Remaining competitive as product and service providers  Better access to funds and financing,  Emotional benefits from doing something good
  43. 43. THANK YOU -Malay Talaviya