Year-round Color - Notes
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Year-round Color - Notes Year-round Color - Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Year-round Color with CA Native Plants C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants May 1 & 4, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  • Gardening is like enjoying wine… © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDYou start out with an unsophisticated palette….. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  • The subtle colors of the native plant cycle  Restraint (sophistication; appropriate; restful; ‘earth- friendly’)  Appreciation for the cycle of seasons and our connection to them  Expressing our S. CA natural heritage – our unique ‘look’ that others so covet  Relieving the pressure of the ‘Disneyland Gardens’ syndrome (a mass of perfect, bright blooms 12 months out of the year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Trick # 1: Choose a workable color scheme – one you like  Helps limit your plant choices  Makes the garden look like it has a plan  Allows you to choose sophisticated combinations  If you desire year- round color, you’ll need to choose a scheme that is feasible © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  • Let’s choose our state colors, and work from there Trick # 2: Plant an evergreen background  The combination of blue and gold as official colors in California  Will look good/green all year long were first used by the University – and may also provide colorful of California, Berkeley in 1875. flowers or fruits  Blue represented the sky and gold  Provides a backdrop for the real the color of the precious metal found by forty-niners in the show – whatever you decide to states hills. plant in front of it  The Secretary of State began  Can be one or several species – using blue and gold ribbons on but all should be medium to dark official documents as early as green for best effect 1913.  Possible choices:  In 1951, the State Legislature  Toyon passed legislation makign blue &  Coffeeberry or Redberry – gold the official state colors. Rhamnus  CercocarpusThis color scheme also has the advantage that there are lots  Even non-native plantsof native plants with yellow & blue flowers © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Remember: fruits/berries and leaves can If you don’t like the idea of a living backdrop, be an excellent source of fall color then use a dark or colorful wall/fence Remember, the goal is to ‘accent’Coffeeberry – Frangula (Rhamnus) californica Holly-leaf Cherry – Prunus illicifolia the colors of your plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  • Trick # 3 : use hardscape for year-round One you have a backdrop, you’re ready to color (even without plants) add some colorful shrubs © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSome of our longest-flowering shrubs and CA Bush Sunflower – Encelia californicaperennials are in the sunflower family… so we decide to use yellow as our primary color © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  • Trick # 4 : extend the bloom season of * San Diego Sunflower – Viguiera laciniata some shrubs with judicious summer water  Choose only plants that can take summer water (Zone 2 to 3)  Water only as much as needed – over watering leads to disease, shortened lifePlants from riparian and  Most S. CA native plantsSonoran Desert need a dormancy period incommunities naturally late summer/fall – but somegrow in late summer/ fall still bloom then– can be used for fallcolor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND San Diego Sunflower – like Encelia but * San Diego Sunflower – Viguiera laciniata more delicate looking  Local endemic: San Diego Co. south to  Size: Baja/Sonora  1-3 ft tall  Arid Diegan Sage Scrub is typically the  1-3 ft wide preferred habitat of this species  Growth form:  Shrubby slopes at lower elevations  Sub-shrub with woody base  Many herbaceous stems – mounded form  Evergreen to semi-deciduous  Foliage:,1962,1963  Medium green  Leaves hairy & resinous;Some believe this species should coarsely toothed & fairlybe Bahiopsis laciniata narrow © 2005 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  • Flowers are pure gold Sunflowers are easy to  Blooms: propagate from seed  May bloom year-round with a little water  Main bloom usually Jan-  Use fresh seed June  Flowers:  Most need no special  Typical sunflower head, but treatment for good delicate looking – to 1” germination across  Color: bright golden yellow  Plant in late winter – ray & disk flowers like the rainwater  Showy and cheery  Seeds:  Seedlings are often  Typical for sunflowers – quite hardy eaten by birds & animals © 2005 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSan Diego Sunflower San Diego Sunflower  Soils: is easy to grow  Texture: just about any – – lots of spring color sandy to clay  pH: any local  As an accent shrub – adds  Light: early color and keeps on  Full sun to part shade – blooming probably best in full sun near the coast  Great on slopes and hillsides – soil stabilization  Water:  Winter: adequate – but no  Fine with native grasses, standing water shrubs, annual wildflowers –  Summer: occasional to choose nice color contrasts regular water will keep it looking nice (Zone 2 to 3) –  Great addition to the good for transition areas. habitat garden – attracts butterflies, other insects & birds  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Bramble Green Hairstreak (Callophyrs© 2005 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND dumetorum) © Project SOUND 7
  • Viguiera parishii – a desert species Trick # 5: use ‘season extenders’ – shrubs with a long blooming season  Give a sense of continuity through the seasons  Get a lot of bang for your buck - and many are long-lived  Can be used as the ‘backbone’ of your color plan – use other  Full sun plants as accents  Very well-drained soils  Are often readily available in  Low water (Zone 1-2) native plant nurseries/sales – they know what people want! © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Trick # 6: use light/bright colors to add ‘light’ * Canyon Sunflower – Venegasia carpesioides to dark areas – use light/dark contrast  Adds a cheerful note in winter & a cool note in summer  A little color goes a long way in dark areas of the garden © 2002 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  • * Canyon Sunflower – Venegasia carpesioides Canyon Sunflower is like a daintier, perennial version  The single species of its genus of the Annual Sunflower  Size:  Found in Southwestern CA from central Ca to  3-5 ft tall Baja  3-6 ft wide  Locally in the Santa Monica, San Gabriel Mtns.  Shaded canyons, moist wooded slopes &  Growth form: stream banks in southern oak woodland,  Sub-shrub with a woody base chaparral and coastal sage scrub below 3000  Shape mounded to irregular – think ‘chrysanthemum-like’  Drought deciduous  Foliage:  Bright to medium green – very woodsy looking  Leaves shaped like annual sunflower  Some think it has a disagreeable odor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers will light up Canyon Sunflower  Soils:  Texture: very adaptable – clay is the garden likes shade & water fine  pH: any local  Blooms:  Light:  Long bloom period – at least  Likes some shade altho’ OK in full most of spring sun  Usually from Mar/Apr to June,  Excellent choice for high shade then again in cooler fall under tree, N side of structures  Flowers:  Water:  Lovely yellow sunflower heads  Winter: adequate  Large – ‘dahlia-like’ – 2” across  Summer: looks best with some  Color looks spectacular against water (Zone 2 to 2-3) but quite bright green foliage or dark drought tolerant background  Attract many pollinators  Fertilizer: fine with an organic mulch  Seeds: attract seed-eaters  Other: prune back hard (like Encelia)© 2004 Dr. Daniel L. Geiger © Project SOUND © 2010 Anna Bennett after fall bloom period) © Project SOUND 9
  • Canyon Sunflower solves Trick # 7 : use white foliage to give the some garden problems illusion of color in any season  One of our best choices for showy flowers in shady places – consider it for any dark area  Good choice for bank/slope stabilization - excellent for shady ‘creek banks’ – natural or man-made  Great for rain gardens  ? Near the vegetable garden  Great with Melic Grass & shade-loving annuals like Chinese Houses, Baby Blue- eyes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Trick # 8 : Use fall-blooming shrubs/perennials for a boost of color in Sept-Oct  For yellow/white flowers consider:  Goldenbushes  Mock Heather  Rabbitbush  Coyote Bush  Goldenrods  Mulefat  For orange/red  CA Fuschia – several different colors  Buckwheat (seed heads) Viguiera laciniata, Diplacus puniceus, Diplacus aurantiacus, Encelia farinosa © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  • Coast Goldenbush – Isocoma menziesii Two Coastal Goldenbushes Coastal Goldenbush – Isocoma menziesii Sawtooth Goldenbush – Hazardia squarrosa  Similar growth habit and flowers; fall blooming (Aug-Oct)  Coast Goldenbush: foliage lighter; leaves rounder, softer,  Sawtooth Goldenbush: foliage stiffer, prickly © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDGoldenbushes are easy to grow in ourarea…  Soils:  Texture: any, even clay  pH: any, even alkali  Light: full sun best  Water:  Young plants: need some water to get going – plant in fall  Summer: little to moderate (Zone 2); looks better with occasional water  Fertilizer: none (although probably wouldn’t hurt it)  Other: even tolerates seasideCut back yearly in the fall after conditions Yellow-flowered bush sunflowers can add color duringbloom nearly every season © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  • Trick # 9: use masses of color – in CA Prickly Phlox – Leptodactylon californicum selected areas, as accents Mother Nature’s garden:  Massed flowers used as accents – against a background of green or gold  Massed color is not required all year long – it’s often a seasonal treat J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA Prickly Phlox – Leptodactylon californicum Prickly Phlox – the name says it all…  Size:  Outer Coastal ranges from central CA to  < 2 ft tall Orange Co  1-2 ft wide  Locally in Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns  In scrub vegetation - Ceanothus cuneatus,  Growth form: Adenostema fasciculatum – usually on E. or W-  Drought-deciduous perennial facing slopes sub-shrub  Mounded form,5802,5803  AKA *Linanthus californicus  Foliage:  Bright green in spring/early summer  Very narrow, sharp leaves – esp. when dry – typical of the native phlox  Roots: deep & vigorous; use a large pot/planter © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  • Flowers are magical… Phlox like it dry  Soils:  Texture: wide variety, but must be well-drained or roots will rot  Blooms: in spring - usually Mar-  pH: any local May in western L.A. Co.; about 1+ month  Light:  Full sun  Flowers:  Look like phlox or Vinca – very  Water: old-fashioned look  Winter: adequate  Color: usually pale magenta, but  Summer: needs summer dry may be very pale pink – even period after flowering – Zone 1 white or 1-2  Plant is covered with flowers – literally a mound of blooms  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Sweet-musty scent in late afternoon-evening  Other: cut back the stems after flowering to keep is compact  Attracts many butterflies, hummingbirds & other insects © 2009 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Place Prickly Phlox wisely Trick # 10: consider using groundcovers or perennials for accent colors  As an attractive and interesting pot plant – move  Often have green foliage for a it during the ‘ugly phase’ long period – especially with a  In a rock garden – as in little summer water nature  Can be used in conjunction with  Mixed with other obligate native bulbs or annual wildflowers summer-dry species  Some have masses of blooms (Penstemons; native (Erigeron glaucus) grasses; annuals)  Others have fewer – but lovely –  Away from edges of paths, flowers, fruit, leaves other traffic areas  Sometimes less can be more – the  Great for dry slopes – other contrast of a lovely flower against ‘dry problem areas’ green foliage © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  • Sticky Cinquefoil – Potentilla glandulosa Sticky Cinquefoil – Potentilla glandulosa  A plant of the West  Much of CA except S. deserts & Great Central Valley  Dryish to moist, open places from seashore to timberline – many plant communities  Many ssp. proposed and/or accepted – quite variable and will no doubt change  Resembles California Horkelia enough to confuse and frustrate, especially when the plants are not flowering.,6824,6838 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Genus Potentilla Sticky Cinquefoil – like a large strawberry plant  Annual, biennial or perennial herb  Somewhat resemble strawberries but  Size: usually having dry, inedible fruit (hence the name Barren Strawberry for  1-2 ft tall some species).  1-2 ft wide  Leaves divided into leaflets arranged palmately like the fingers of a hand (3  Growth form: – 15 leaflets).  Herbaceous perennial  Five-petalled flowers are borne over a  Erect to tufted long period of time from spring to summer.  Dies back to woody root in fall/winter  The flowers are usually yellow, butcan be white, pinkish or red.  Foliage:  Potentilla species are used as food  Medium green – very hairy & plants by larvae of some Lepidoptera sticky (butterflies and moths) species.  Pinnately compound leaves  Some species of Potentilla are grown with 5-9 leaflets as ornamental plants, while some are  Tea or tonic made from leaves © 2007 Michelle Cloud-Hughes used in herbalism © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  • Flowers are usually yellow Cinquefoils are easy..  Soils:  Texture: just about any  Blooms: except very heavy clays  Long bloom season – late  pH: any local spring through summer  Judicious summer water  Light: keeps it blooming May-Aug  Full sun with regular water  Part-shade probably works  Flowers: best  Strawberry-like (or © 2007 California Native Plant Society Horkelia-like)  Water:  Usually a bright yellow  Winter: good winter rains  Bloom pattern like  Summer: very adaptable – strawberries Zone 1-2 to 2-3; Zone 2 or  Good butterfly nectar plant more for long bloom season.© 2006 David McClurg  Vegetative reproduction:  Fertilizer: not picky – would be divisions in spring - easy fine with ½ strength fertilizer© 2007 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © 2007 Matt Below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Garden uses for Sticky Trick # 11 : you don’t need a lot of color at any Cinquefoil one time – just some, strategically placed  As an attractive pot plant – grow like a strawberry  Nice addition to a rock garden – lush-looking with Sedums  Good in mixed groundcovers (with Yarrow, Strawberries)  Along paths and walkways  In a woodland garden  For streamside or bordering a lawn  In the herb garden © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  • Use annual wildflowers for spots of Trick # 12 : use containers for seasonal seasonal color color – the ‘color bowl’ trick  Spring-Summer are the peak  Allows you to showcase plants at their annual wildflower seasons – most peak of flowering – and remove them species bloom 2-4 weeks during their resting season  Wide range of color, size, other  Allows you to have your color up close – characteristics – we are extremely on patio or balcony lucky  Allows you to use bulbs/corms while you are reproducing them – good for rare or  Serial sowing can provide a long expensive bulbs bloom season with some species eciesThree  Works especially well for plants with  Clarkias & Gilias do well with serial requisite summer dry period – bulbs & sowing annual wildflowers  Plant in 2-3 week intervals for color from spring to summer  Use a single species or mix – bulbs and  Be sure that seedlings get enough contrasting color wildflowers are summer water magical! © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Ithuriel’s Spear – Triteleia laxa Ithuriel’s Spear – Triteleia laxa  Foothills of CA  Locally on Catalina Isl. & possibly in Hollywood Hills  Open forests, mixed conifer or foothill woodlands, grasslands on clay soils from sea level to ~ 6000 ft.  Common where it occurs  Highly variable – may be more than one species/ssp  Favorite garden ‘bulb’ for long time;jsessionid=AC136357DA08D01EBB6BF2ED0434206D,8655,8669 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
  • Ithuriel’s Spear in nature – clues to its use Ithuriel’s Spear: perennial from a corm  Size:  < 2 ft tall  < 2 ft wide  Growth form: 05/Slopes_above_Day_Camp_3-30-05.htm  Perennial from a corm  Summer/fall dormant – dies back to the corm – typical of native bulbs  Foliage:  Rather wide, strap-like leaves  Medium-green  Often die back before flowering  Tip: protect foliage from snails/slugs © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers are irresistible! Growing native bulbs  Blooms: from bulbs/corms  Late spring/early summer - usually Apr-June  Order from reputable sources  Far West Bulbs  Varies with rain & temperature  Teleos Rare Bulbs  Rancho Santa Ana fall sale  Flowers:  Clustered on tall (above native  Bulbs usually shipped in fall – grasses) naked stalk – kind of like ready to plant Agapanthus  Easy – just plant about 4-6” deep  Flowers usually light blue to pale (they will reach their own violet but may be dark violet to preferred depth within a year) almost white  Will multiply – generally need to  Funnel-shaped like Brodiaeas dig and replant every 3-4 years to keep them productive  favorite pollen and nectar source  This corm can be eaten raw or for bees & butterflies baked – protect from gophers, etc. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 17
  • Growing bulbs/corm Ithuriel’s Spear is one  Soils:  Texture: any but heaviest clays plants from seed of our easiest bulbs  pH: any local  Let pods/capsules dry on plant  Light: until they start to open; watch –  Full sun to quite shady – best may happen quickly full sun to light shade  Fine under high trees  Generally quite easy with no Tracey Slotta @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database pre-treatment required for  Water: locally – northern/mountain  Winter: adequate while leaves grown may require 1 mo. cold- are actively growing moist treatment  Summer: start tapering off  Sow in late fall in pots or tubs – water when flowering stalks you can even leave in the same appear. Needs summer/fall pot for first 2 years rest – Zone 1  Takes 3-4 years for bulbs to be  Fertilizer: none to light dose (in large enough for flowering pots) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Versatile native bulbs ‘Queen Fabiola’ & corms  Available from native plant sources &  Some of the best plants for Holland bulb companies pots/containers – pair with native annual wildflowers for a  Large, intense blue flowers great show even on patios  Grows well in gardens  Massed as an accent plant – remember that they need summer/fall dry leiaQueenFabiolaFlowerBulbs.aspx  With native grasses in a natural meadow or prairie – remember, our native prairies were not just grasses  In rock gardens or along paths  In pollinator/butterfly gardens queen-fabiola © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18
  • ‘Corrina’ Trick # 13 : use color contrasts to make the most of available color  Violet flowers with violet- purple tips & veins  Very showy in early summer © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Harvest Brodiaea – Brodiaea elegans Complementary colors  Are opposite on the color wheel  Have the most contrast http://www.fiber- m in hue (color) of any color combination  Make a bold graphic statement  Make the brighter hue seem to “advance”  Lively – seem to be constantly in motion © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 19
  • * Harvest Brodiaea – Brodiaea elegans Brodiaea’s confusing taxonomy  S. OR to N. CA – San Francisco area as  First specimens collected by Archibald Menzies, botanist to the Vancouver Expedition, in 1792. well as the foothills – perhaps also in S. CA (much taxonomic dispute)  The first published reference in James Edward Smiths 1807 An introduction to physiological and systematical botany.  Found on grassy slopes, gravelly prairies, and rocky bluffs overlooking the sea.  The taxonomists have been arguing ever since  Different current systems place the genus in three different families.  The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group place it in family Themidaceae.  Many other modern authors place it in the family Alliaceae.  Older but still widely used sources such as ITIS place the Triplet lilies in the family Liliaceae Gladys Lucille Smith © California Academy o  Brodiaea (or Brodeia) is also used as a common f Sciences name to refer to three genera, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, and Triteleia. The latter two genera were once included as part of the genus Brodiaea,8438,8446 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Harvest Brodiaea – an elegant perennial  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial from a corm  Dies back to corm in summer  Foliage:  Strap-like leaves  Usualy die back before flowering  Roots:  A small corm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND /0/79/binomial/Brodiaea%20elegans.html 20
  • Flowers are sweetly Harvest Brodiaea:  Soils: easy to please  Texture: best in heavy clay soils old-fashioned  pH: any local  Blooms:  Light:  usually in late spring/early  Full sun to part-shade summer – after the grasses have turned dry  Water:  May-June in our area  Winter: needs good moisture when leaves are growing – storing  Flowers: nutrients for next year  Usually pale violet – may be © 2009 Terry Dye  Summer: cut down water as darker or lighter – seem to glow flowering winds down – dry after when contrasted with golden that. grasses or CA Poppies  Very attractive open funnel-  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils form  Good for cut flowers  Other: may need to provide support; thin corms every 3-4 years – when  Seeds: flowers become smaller  Small dark seeds © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Brodiaea – easy color for the garden  Excellent color when massed – really spectacular for 3-4 weeks  In native prairie/grassland plantings – take your cues from Mother Nature  As an attractive pot plant – pair with Clarkias or Red Maids  Along walkways  In a rock garden © 2005 Steven Thorsted  In those ‘small, difficult to water’  Design tip: Bulbs are invisible 6 months of the year, so place them areas with Penstemons, native around existing shrubs, perennials, and bunchgrasses which will grasses command interest when the bulbs go dormant. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 21
  • Tip # 14 : make your own ‘sequence of bloom’ calendar  Note color periods for flowering/ fruiting plants in your garden – do this over several years. You’ll find it fascinating & useful.  If your results differ greatly from our plant information sheets, let me Maintenance tip: In early summer, remove the dried know – I’ll revise the sheets stalks for neatness. Be sure to collect the seeds for propagation or for trading. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Tip # 14 : make your own ‘sequence of bloom’ calendar  Visit local native plant gardens/ preserves throughout the year – bring your camera & notebook  Visit native plant nurseries at times when your garden needs a little color – see what’s blooming  ‘Some of the most reliable plants in my garden are California native bulbs. They bring seasonal color and variety to the garden, and give it a sense of place (“This is California!”) and a sense of time: they are the markers of spring glory.’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 22
  • Trick # 15 : use selected non-native Trick # 16 : learn from Mother Nature – relax species that are compatible with natives and enjoy the differences from year to year  Ones that have special  No two years will be exactly meaning for you alike – rain, temperature & other factors influence  Ones with colors/bloom timing/extent of flowering times not available in natives  Relax – you don’t need to have ‘oceans of color’ all the time  Just be sure they are  Try to correlate differences compatible: in bloom calendar with weather  Color palette patterns, garden conditions, etc. This may be important  Garden requirements: information as we meet  Water climate change conditions  Soil type  Fertilizer © Project SOUND © Project SOUND16 tricks for year-round color in a ‘New S. 16 tricks for year-round color in a ‘New S. California Garden’ California Garden’1. Choose a workable color scheme 9. Use masses of color – in selected areas, as accents2. Plant an evergreen background 10. Consider using groundcovers or perennials for accent colors3. Use hardscape for year-round color 11. You don’t need a lot of color at any one time – just4. Extend the bloom season with judicious summer enough, strategically placed water 12. Use containers for seasonal color5. Use ‘season extenders’ as backbone plants 13. Use color contrasts to make the most of available color6. Use light/bright flowers to add ‘light’ to dark areas 14. Create a ‘sequence of bloom’ calendar for your7. Use silver/white foliage to give the illusion of color garden8. Use fall-blooming shrubs/perennials for a boost of 15. Use selected non-native species to fill in ‘gaps’ color in Sept-Oct 16. Relax and enjoy the differences from year to year © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 23
  • Let’s go see some May color © Project SOUND 24