1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                             ...
1/6/2013                                                                            Gardens are located in the space      ...
1/6/2013But what if you want/need both shade and water-wise?       http://philipsgardenblog.com/2008/04/                  ...
1/6/2013         The Southern Oak Woodland is our most                                                                    ...
1/6/2013    Oaks are adapted to our Mediterranean climate                                                                 ...
1/6/2013                                                                             The secret of a water-wise garden is ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                                                                               Partial, medium or ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013Possible shrubs for local Oak Woodland                                                                            ...
1/6/2013         Management of Three-lobe Sumac                                                                           ...
1/6/2013 * Bluewitch Nightshade – Solanum umbelliferum                                              * Bluewitch Nightshade...
1/6/2013   One hardy plant…                                        Soils:                                                ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013   California Polypody- Polypodium californicum                                                                   ...
1/6/2013We could fill in with some shade-tolerant annuals                                                                 ...
1/6/2013                                                   Reasons to include Collinsia in yourChinese Houses – Collinsia ...
Woodland Wonders - Notes
Woodland Wonders - Notes
Woodland Wonders - Notes
Woodland Wonders - Notes
Woodland Wonders - Notes
Woodland Wonders - Notes
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Woodland Wonders - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Woodland Wonders: Plants for Dry Shade C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants August 7 & 10, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND For some gardeners, restoration of locally native plant life is of key importance… What is my local Plant Community?  Coastal strand/bluff  S. Coastal Prairie  Coastal shrubland  Coastal Sage Scrub  Chaparral – parts of PV, mostly at higher elevations http://www.planetizen.com/node/23441 ‘Very local’ native plants may be the easiest to grow – literally ‘grow themselves’ Riparian (wetland/streamside) communities © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 Gardens are located in the space between natural and human landscapes Madrona Marsh Preserve gives a good idea of what many local neighborhoods might have looked like in the past © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Riparian Woodland is a source for local shade plants that like water Many gardeners want to create a cool, shady oasis © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.nanscapes.biz/gardens.html 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013But what if you want/need both shade and water-wise? http://philipsgardenblog.com/2008/04/ Or you may just want to make the shady parts of your Perhaps you’re lucky enough to have a mature oak(s) in your garden garden more water-wise © Project SOUND © Project SOUND A few guidelines – choosing appropriate A few guidelines – choosing appropriate plant species for your garden native plant species for your garden  If you live near  If you live in an urbanized area natural areas: you may also:  Choose local native  Choose plants from appropriate areas that are not immediately plants (from locally local, but still are close by: derived sources) –  Inland areas of L.A. Co.; best choice  Local foothills;  ‘Coastal’ (lowland) plants from  Choose other native Orange or San Diego Co. (and non-native)  Choose plants from farther away plants & cultivars that have appropriateConsult with your local Land with great care – characteristics for your garden:Conservancy/Preserve or local native should not invade or  Central/N. CA coastal areasplant experts (CA Native Plant hybridize with local In fact, plants from ‘nearby areas’  S. CA desertsSociety) to make good choices native plants may actually have grown in your neighborhood at one time  Baja CA © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 The Southern Oak Woodland is our most The Southern Oak Woodland of CA obvious source for dry shade plants  Precipitation: 15-25” annually  Elevation: 1500-5000 ft in western S.  Foothills of S. California CA (including  Common trees/large shrubs: L.A. and other  Coast Liveoak (Quercus agrifolia) - also local counties) Canyon Liveoak (Q. chrysolepis), California Black Oak (Q. kelloggii), Engelmann Oak  Inland valleys (Q. engelmannii ) and Valley Oak (Q. of L.A. County lobata) (Woodland  CA Walnut Hills; Thousand  Blue Elderberry Oaks; Diamond  California Bay Laurel (Umbellularia Bar; Cal Poly californica) Pomona)  Toyon  Lemonadeberry  Sugarbushhttp://www.rivenrock.com/october2007.htm  Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), © Project SOUND  Sourberry/Tri-lobe Sumac © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/communities/southern-oak-woodland Southern Oak Woodland Southern Oak Woodlands have a  Most often on North-facing slopes, shaded canyons and distinctive ‘feel’ – sheltered inland valleys – on dry shadehttp://bss.sfsu.edu/holzman/courses/Fall01%20projects/AcornW.htm well-drained soils  May be intersected by intermittent streams http://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds/Sparoows_towhees_and_buntings/Chipping_sparrow/C hipping_sparrow_in_your_garden.htm  Oaks may grow in dense clusters or more openly – a woodland rather than a forest  Smaller trees and shrubs along with herbaceous plants, ferns and grasses form a vegetative understory which is an important part of thishttp://farm3.static.flickr.com/2289/1594943902_ead554319f.jpg community. http://grounds.stanford.edu/points/significanttrees/quercusagrifolia.htmlOne of the more commonunderstory plants is Poison Oak © Project SOUND http://jamesgonzalez.net/images/trips/pinecreek/quercus_agrifolia.JPG © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Oaks are adapted to our Mediterranean climate Watering mature oak (or other Zone 1-2) trees  Mature CA oaks survive on winter rains and a summer dry period.  Oaks set a deep tap root and have many shallow surface feeder roots.  Shallow oak roots extend beyond the tree’s canopy. Feeder roots are typically 1 to 3 feet below the soils surface.  To keep S. CA oaks healthy you need to replicate the summer dry (Zone 1 or 1-2) water pattern; this means using only plants with the same summer water requirements  Do not water in ‘critical area’ (10 ft from trunk) under oaks.  Water only in dry spring and summer conditions (if at all)  Water no more than once a month; no overhead watering  Regularly watered lawns will kill  Let water soak to depth of 18-24 incheshttp://ic.ucsc.edu/~wxcheng/wewu/quercusagrifolia.htm a native CA oak, usually by  Organic mulch (oak leaves) required, even in critical area – but disease (root fungi)© Project SOUND not touching the trunk © Project SOUND What do we mean by ‘dry shade’? Gardens in Mediterranean climates (including S. CA) have three Water Zones  Zone 1 – no supplemental water; soils are dry in summer/fall.  Zone 2 – occasional summer water; soil is allowed to dry out between waterings. http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Gardening/diggin-it/2009/0917/dry-shade-in-the-garden-a-checkered-solution Watering is slow & deep to replenish the soil water stores. Your definition may be very different  Zone 3 – regular water; soil is usually moisthttp://www.hotgardens.net/santa_barbara_garden_tour.htm from mine to soggy, even in summer. http://ilonasgarden.com/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 The secret of a water-wise garden is to prioritize waterWaterZone Description Picture Result/consequence needs and group plants with similar requirements Many Zone 1 plants (including many native to western L.A. No supplementalZone 1 water county & deserts) become Regular water summer dormant; some shade species remain green Dry; needs Includes ‘CA Natives’ from drought- Occasional water; many plant communities; tolerant soil dries out occasional summer water plantsZone 2 between deep helps many species to remain waterings evergreen – many also extend bloom season Only native riparian and some Regular water;Zone 3 soil moist/ soggy mountain/N. CA species – will kill many local CA natives ‘Water-wise’ ; occasional summer water http://www.taunton.com/finegardening/pages/g00101.asp © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Is it hard to grow plants under oaks (and other summer dry trees)?  Yes, but not impossible  Challenges: summer drought requirement; dense shade; root competition  Solutions:  Choose plants that thrive in dry shade:  Plants from the Southern Oak Woodland  Plants from the Central and Northern Oak Woodlands  Other drought-and-shade tolerant plants (often from Chaparral)  Prune to provide better air http://syllable.rice.edu/LangEx_06_07/WIKI/index.php?title=Presentation_Group_1_with_ circulation, light Andr%C3%A9s&printable=yes&printable=yes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Central & Northern Oak Woodlands Under many drought-tolerant trees you have options/choices  Annual rainfall: 20-35 inches  Dominant large trees/shrubs  Valley Oak (Quercus lobata), Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii), Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Interior Live Oak (Quercus wislizenii)  Gray Pine ( Pinus sabiniana)  Understory:  Manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.)  Coffeeberry and Redberry (Rhamnus spp.)  Currant and Gooseberry (Ribes spp.)  Toyon  In openings:  Grasses & ferns  Annual & perennial wildflowers : Goldfields (Lasthenia spp.), Poppies (Eschscholzia spp.), Lupines (Lupinus spp.) and other forbs in spring. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Oak woodlands in Central & N. CA get more rain – they The key is to group plants with like needs look & feel more lush than those of S. CA togetherhttp://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds/Finches/House_finch/house_finch.html You may find the ‘greener’ look of the more northern Oak Woodland more to your liking/needs http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/communities/central-oak-woodland © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/Natural_Resources/Oak_Woodlands.htm Shade is variable, even in an Oak Woodland © Project SOUND © Project SOUND You need to become a Light shade ‘connoisseur of shade’  Definition: shaded but bright  Examples:  The suns rays blocked by a tree,  Light shade (FS/PS): wall or building for several hours at midday, sunny the rest of the day receives shade for less  Areas that receive filtered or than four hours each day. http://www.rivenrock.com/blogcanyon062006.jpg dappled sunlight for longer periods. (edges of shady gardens or areas under the canopy of lightly branched  Partial or semi-shade trees) (PS): assumes a half day of  Effects on plants: shade.  Provides beneficial cooling/shade during the heat of summer  Full shade (FSH): occurs  Flower and foliage color may be more brilliant where there is no direct  Most sun-loving plants can sun. survive/thrive in light shadehttp://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Loeb/Loeb-Pages/index.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Partial, medium or semi- shade Full (dense) shade  Definition: direct sun rays are  Definition: Little or no direct blocked from an area for at least sunlight reaches the ground at any half the day. time of the day.  Similar to an open glade in the forest  There may be reflected light from or the woods edge sunnier areas of the yard or off light-colored walls.  Examples:  Examples:  Established landscapes with mature trees; area receives some direct sun  Under thick tree canopies (under http://www.nopalcactusblog.com/category/politics/ early or late in the day oaks and pines) or in dense groves of trees  Bright, north- or east-facing exposures, slopes  Areas under stairways, decks or covered patios on the north side of buildings  Effect on Plants:  Protection from harmful effects of  Effect on plants: direct sunlight  Relatively little available light  Less available light – so best to utilize  Plant choice is critical since only plants that require some shade limited plants will perform well in such reduced light. http://wildsuburbia.blogspot.com/2009/11/friends-of-south-pasadena-nature-park.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://longbeachnaturalareas.blogspot.com/2007/06/el-dorado-regional-park.html Oak Woodlands are transitional – include areas that are wetter & sunnier  Seasonal riparian plants  Plants of adjacent plant communities:  Valley Grasslands  Chaparral  Even Mixed Evergreen Scrub http://www.urbanedpartnership.org/target/fragile_habitats/climate.html http://longbeachnaturalareas.blogspot.com/2007/06/el-dorado-regional-park.html Openings in Oak Woodlands increase the variety http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/Natural_Resources/Oak_Woodlands.htm © Project SOUND http://oakesfamily.net/nature.htm © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Let’s say this is your front yard… http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Loeb/Loeb- Pages/index.html  Get to know your shade – throughout the year  Choose plants that naturally growhttp://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Meuris/Meuris-Pages/index.html well under oaks http://www.bringingbackthenatives.net/slides/Richard/Richard-Pages/Image11.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND First let’s replace a shrub that’s gotten too big & old… http://celosangeles.ucdavis.edu/Natural_Resources/Oak_Woodlands.htm Part of what attracts you is the variety of understory plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013Possible shrubs for local Oak Woodland Three-lobe Sumac – Rhus trilobataunderstory  California sagebrush (Artemisia californica)  California blackberry (Rubus ursinus) Nevin’s Barberry  Nevin’s Barberry (Mahonia/Berberis nevinii )  California coffeeberry (Frangula/Rhamnus californica)  Sourberry/Three-lobed Sumac (Rhus trilobata) Coffeeberry USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E. et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU © Project SOUND Extension and Western Area Power Admin., Bismarck, ND. © Project SOUND Three-lobe Sumac – Rhus trilobata Three-lobed Sumac is loved by gardeners because it’s so easy to grow…  Naturally occurring:  Soils: not too particular  Many areas of western N. America –  Any texture; well-drained Canada to Baja  Any pH  Coastal and mountain areas of CA  Light: full sun to part-shade  In S. CA: coastal sage scrub, chaparral and southern oak woodland  Water:  Moist areas including stream-sides,  Very drought tolerant when established seasonal drainages, and canyon bottoms  Can take some summer water – but may become leggy  sand dunes and sand hills  Nutrients: fine with no fertilizer, but can  dry rocky slopes tolerate light doses/organic mulches  In same genus as Lemonade Berry,  Very hardy; takes a frost Sugar Bush & Poison Oak (which ithttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Rhus+trilobata resembles)  Rapid growth first 3-5 years; then moderate  Also known as Basket-brush, Sumac, Sourberry, Skunkbrush  Lives 20-30 years http://weather.nmsu.edu/nmcrops/ornamentals/SUMAC.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Management of Three-lobe Sumac Three-lobe Sumac pleases the palette…  Planting:  Best in fall/winter  Yellow flowers in spring  If planting under oaks,  Butterflies & bees don’t plant within 6 ft. of trunk http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/sdpls/plants/Rhus_trilobata  Red berries in summer .html  Good transplant success  Birds love them (many species) rates  Make a tangy drink  Pruning:  Excellent for jelly  Can even eat them raw (tart)  Can be pruned for shape  Cut back severely (to 6  Even the foliage is eaten inches) to rejuvenate old occasionally by large & small animalsThat’s all – very easy to manage plant plants or produce straight stems (e.g. for basketry)  Remove any unwanted suckers Many parts of the plant are used for natural dyes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Quercus-agrifolia/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 * Bluewitch Nightshade – Solanum umbelliferum * Bluewitch Nightshade – Solanum umbelliferum  Coastal and foothill regions from OR to Baja – locally in the San Gabriel Mtns/foothills.  Dry, brush-covered slopes & valleys – usually in chaparral and low-elevation oak woodlands in http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7625,7682,7699 California  A tough shrub which can grow in rocky and clay soils  Often springs up in areas recovering from wildfires or other disturbances © 2009 Ron Wolf © 2008 Ellen Tatum © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Characteristics of the ‘Bluewitch’ Fabulous flowers  Size:  Blooms:  2-4 ft tall  Mainly in spring-summer,  3-5 ft wide when days are warm  With water may bloom  Growth form: some at other times  Perennial sub-shrub – part woody  Mounded to sprawling  Flowers:J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database (particularly in shade)  Large for the family – 1” +  Fairly open branching  Light blue-purple color with golden stamens  Foliage:  Quite showy – close at  Grayish to blue-green – rather night pretty  Caution: all parts of plant are  Fruits: toxic if eaten  In summer/fall  Green turning to purple;  Roots: branching © 2009 Keir Morse flat seeds like tomato © Project SOUND Brother Alfred Brousseau @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 One hardy plant…  Soils: Use Bluewitch in  Texture: any well-drained; will tough spots even take clays on slopes  pH: any local  Light:  On dry slopes – even  Full sun to part-shade part-shade areas  Water:  Under oaks and other  Winter: adequate http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/solanaceae/solanum/solanum-umbelliferum/ water-wise trees  Summer: very drought tolerant (Zone 1 or 1-2) but looks a little Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  In difficult to water better at Zone 2 (occasional water) areas  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  In a dry mixed bed with grasses and wildflowers  Other: prune to shape © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Cultivar Spring Other perennials for S. Oak Woodland – Frost mostly sprawlers in shade  Slightly smaller (2’ x 2’)  Very light (gray) foliagehttp://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1201  White flowers Diplacus aurantiacus Stachys bullata  Very attractive choice for a white garden – very unique, showy Salvia spathacea Symphoricarpos mollis © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Coast Range Melic Grass - Melica imperfecta Grasses are also an important part of local Oak woodlands – especially in dappled sun & sunny edges http://www.laspilitas.com/California_birds/Sparoows_towhees_and_buntings/Lark_sparrow/Lark_sparrow_in_y our_garden.htm http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Melica-imperfecta/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDCoast Range Melic Grass - Melica imperfecta Melic grass in the garden  Distribution: CA, Baja CA  As a specimen plant in  Habitat: dry, rocky hillsides, small areas, rock gardens, stable dunes, open woodlands deep pots  Delicate-looking cool-season  In natural meadows, perennial bunching rhizomatous grass grassy borders  Height: 1-3 ft Width: 2-3 ft  Good for shaded areas –  Flowers on graceful stems meadows or under trees above leaves – dark brown  Soil stabilizer for slopes fading to gold – Mar-June  Local variation in  Restoring bare areas characteristics http://www.conservaseed.com/Melica%20imperfecta.htm http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Melica-imperfecta/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 California Polypody- Polypodium californicum Characteristics of CA Polypody  Size: 20” tall; individual plants ≈ 25” wide – but often grow in spreading clumps  Leaves:  Simple for fern – many leaflets with serrated edges  Drought deciduous – dies back in summer  No flowers: Sporangia are grouped in round sori on the underside of the leaflets.  Rhizomes (underground stems) – relatively slow- spreading http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/californiapolypody.html http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Polypodium-californicum/ http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/plants/s © Project SOUND dpls/plants/Polypodium_californi © Project SOUND cum.html Growth requirements: not your eastern fern Polypody in the South Bay garden  Sun: part-shade to full shade; can tolerate full sun only right along  Bank cover on North-facing coast, with adequate water slopes  Soils:  On north sides of buildings  Any well-drained  Delicate, small scale fern for  Does not tolerate alkali soils foreground rock walls  Water:  In mossy (winter/spring wet)  Moist in winter-spring – even rock gardens tolerates flooding  Gradually reduce water for  Excellent under oaks http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Polypodium-californicum/ http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/Ferns.htm summer/fall dormancy – must haveProbably the easiest local dormant period  In shaded bedsfern for the garden;  Nutrients: probably benefits from  In a “fern dell” – needs it’slocation is everything organic mulch; not a “big eater” summer drought so place appropriately © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
  17. 17. 1/6/2013We could fill in with some shade-tolerant annuals Miner’s Lettuce – Claytonia perfoliata http://philipsgardenblog.com/2008/03/ © 2001 Steven Thorsted © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Miner’s Lettuce is fine in sun or shade… Growing Miner’s Lettuce from seed  Herbaceous annual; makes a good annual groundcover Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Extremely easy  Size: 6-12 in. high; to 12 in. wide  Sow in prepared soil in fall (best) through spring  Growth period: fall to spring  Germinates with:  Blooms:  Damp soil/fall rains  Small, white  Short days  Feb-May http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/minersl2.htm  Foliage:  Re-seeds  Attractive & unusual  May want to remove plants if  Edible: usually raw in salads or too prolific – will depend on as greens site © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.pacifichorticulture.org/phv66n3.editorial.html 17
  18. 18. 1/6/2013 Reasons to include Collinsia in yourChinese Houses – Collinsia heterophylla shade garden  Easy, reliable annual  Beautiful flowers  Long blooming season  Make great cut flowers  Brighten up shady areas of the garden  Does fine in planters, pots  Looks great with many other flowers in planted beds  Fine under trees © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © Project SOUND But perhaps this is more your style – ‘Central Oak Woodland’ theme © Project SOUND 18