1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                             ...
1/7/2013   But most of us have at least one place in our yards                                                            ...
1/7/2013  And can be easy to grow, with minimal effort                                                          We already...
1/7/2013What is a cactus (and how is it different                                             Coastal S. CA has a unique p...
1/7/2013          Chaparral Pricklypear – Opuntia oricola                                                                 ...
1/7/2013          Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera                                                      ...
1/7/2013                                                                              Flowers are fantastic               ...
1/7/2013                                                                                Garden uses for local             ...
1/7/2013                 Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi                                                      ...
1/7/2013                                                                                                             Garde...
1/7/2013  Purchasing native cacti & succulents                                           Local cacti, Yucca & Agaves are g...
1/7/2013                                                                                          Yuccas are pollinated by...
1/7/2013                           *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii                                                          ...
1/7/2013                                                                                                             What ...
1/7/2013                   Agave & Yucca as food and fiber                                                                ...
1/7/2013  Using species from CA & SW desert regions                                                                       ...
1/7/2013                         The Live-forevers: genus Dudleya                                                         ...
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
Native Succulents - notes
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Native Succulents - notes

  1. 1. 1/7/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Simply Succulent C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants June 6 & 9, 2009 Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND It’s easy to fall in love with cacti & succulents This may (or may not) be your idea of heaven on earth http://www.dryscapes.eu/11.html http://www.cactus-mall.com/pictures/pic00024.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/7/2013 But most of us have at least one place in our yards Succulents complement contemporary where cacti/succulents might be the best solution architecture... http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0006/73491/Succulent-Garden.jpghttp://hotels.about.com/od/newmexico/ig/Sierra-Grande-Lodge/Cactus-Garden.htm http://home-and-garden.webshots.com/photo/1476610400079711680tHyVBV © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://image61.webshots.com/161/0/69/53/520706953KNboGn_fs.jpg …and add interesting color & texture to Cacti & succulents can be valuable many types of gardens additions to water-wise gardens http://succulentplants.net/garden.htm http://paradiseenvironments.com/OutdoorLiving/outdoor_living.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/7/2013 And can be easy to grow, with minimal effort We already know that California (and Baja California) plants are special…  Our Mediterranean climate requires that plants adapt to summer drought.  One common adaptations is succulence. Modified tissues store large amounts of water, making the plant part appear fleshy, succulent, or swollen.  Species in various plant families and genera have independently evolved succulence as a mechanism for conserving water and survival in arid environments.  There are an estimated 10,000 succulent plant species throughout the world http://www.ci.poway.ca.us/Modules/ShowImage.aspx?imageid=1146 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSeveral types of succulence: Most, but not all, succulent plants are from hot dry climates  Leaf Succulents: Leaves are almost entirely composed of water storage cells covered by a thin layer of green photosynthetic tissue. Examples: Stonecrop family - Aloe, Dudleya, Sedum, non-native Iceplants  Stem Succulents: Fleshy stems contain water storage cells overlaid by photosynthetic tissue. Leaves are almost or entirely absent, reducing surface area to prevent evaporative loss of water. Examples: most cacti, Euphorbias; Giant Coreopsis.  Root Succulents: Swollen fleshy roots store water underground away from the heat of the sun and hungry animals. Stems and leaves are often deciduous and shed during prolonged dry seasons. Salty Susan - Jaumea carnosa Pickleweed - Salicornia virginica Examples: Manroot (Marah), Abronia, . Combinations of the above types may occur where  Succulence developed for the same reason in more than one organ is used to store water. saltmarsh plants – to allow the plant to conserve Examples: Agave, Heliotropium curassavicum water (Seaside Heliotrope) © Project SOUND http://www.sanelijo.org/saltmarsh.html © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/7/2013What is a cactus (and how is it different Coastal S. CA has a unique plant from other succulents)? community : Southern Cactus Scrub  Cacti are a distinct plant family  Dominated by cacti and coastal sage scrub (Cactaceae). species.  They are plants of hot environments  Must be 20% or more cover of coastal prickly- pear (Opuntia littoralis) and/or Oracle cactus  They are perennial succulent plants with (Opuntia oricola). thick stems usually covered with spines. Spines are not all over the  In coastal areas, coastal cholla (Cylindropuntia/ surface but are borne in felty cushions Opuntia prolifera) may be a common called areoles.  Other common species CA Encelia, California  Sometimes mistakenly called leaves, the sagebrush, buckwheat, black sage (Salvia http://www.flickr.com/photos/liamkestrel/3383069515/ joints of prickly pears are flattened You can use the Cactus mellifera), and Mexican elderberry (Sambucus stems. True leaves, if not completely mexicana). Scrub community as absent, usually are very small and inspiration for your  The understory is frequently composed of inconspicuous and soon fall away. foothill needlegrass, bent grass (Agrostis spp.), garden and a variety of herbaceous forb species.  The more than 1500 different species of cacti are native to the  Occurs primarily on south-facing slopes on low foothills away from the immediate coast. Western Hemisphere, from Canada to Patagonia. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The genus Optuntia Coastal Prickly-pear - Opuntia littoralis  Family: Cactaceae  Opuntia genus has two branches  Prickly Pears "Platyopuntia" (flat joints)  Chollas "Cylindropuntia" (rounded joints)  About three dozen species throughout the United States  Native to every state except Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire  Natural hybridization common  Lifespan <20 years (most short-lived of all cacti)  Main food producing cacti - both pads and fruit. © 2002 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/7/2013 Chaparral Pricklypear – Opuntia oricola Yum – Pricklypears can be used in so many ways!  I’ll send out a http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2391/2383907636_378192341a.jpg?v=0 recipe sheet http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Opuntia_oricola http://www.arizonagift.com/convention_mini_gifts.htm http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_oricola.htm © Project SOUND http://www.sacatomato.com/2008/06/cooking_with_diana_kennedy.html © Project SOUND Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera Cylindropuntia © 2004 Vince Scheidthttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opuntia4_filtered.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/7/2013 Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera Coastal cacti depend on summer fogs  Pacific coast from southern California (USA) to central Baja California (Mexico)  Ocean bluffs, inland coastal sage flats, arid slopes below 600 near the coast, coastal sage scrubhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2702,2726,2749  It’s name (prolifera) describes how it grows – with many offshoots Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Coastal Cholla is a medium-sized cactus But they really are quite drought tolerant  Size:  4-8 ft tall  to 8 ft wide  Growth form:  Tree-like or shrubby cactus  Extensive branching; branches are cylindrical  Branches blue-green when young; covered with darker bark when older  Foliage:  None that is permanent  Spines and glochids typical of http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_prolifera.htm Opuntia-type cacti © 2004 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/7/2013 Flowers are fantastic Cactus flowers: unique and showy  Blooms:  Showy, colorful petals – attract insect  Spring-summer pollinators;  Usually Apr-June or July  many different insects visit the flowers  Flowers open over several  bees are most common pollinators weeks  Sweet-scented (many)  Flowers:  Male (stamen) organs can move toward  Small (for cactus) – 1-2 inches the center of the flowers when touched  Magenta to dark (burgandy) red (thigmotropic).  Very bright & showy  Happens very quickly on a hot day  Seeds:  Explanation:  Often sterile – we’ll learn why  May force pollen onto the bodies of pollinators (bees) to assist in cross in a second pollination  ? Role in getting flowers pollinated quickly  Vegetative reproduction: so excess energy not spent in reproduction?  Most common means of  ? keeps non-pollinators from ‘stealing’ the http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/coastcholla.html reproduction; segments break pollen? http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_prolifera.htm off easily © Project SOUND http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/chollac2.htm © Project SOUNDOpuntia fruits are often fleshy, brightly colored Growth requirements for  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils;  Adapted for hot, dry local Opuntia-type Cacti sandy or gravelly/rocky the conditions best  Keep seed/embryo moist &  pH: any local, including alkali protected during seed development  Light:  Attract birds/animals once  Full sun in most gardens seed is ready to spread  Some afternoon shade fine in  Develop sweet flesh very hot gardens  Color becomes more dark- red/purple once seeds are  Water: fully developed  Winter: winter rains usually  This cholla has sterile seeds adequate  Sterile hybrid – probably  Summer: likes to be fairly dry between several species now found only in Mexico (C. (Zones 1 to 1-2; Zone 2 in pots) alcahes X C. cholla ) http://ucbglcs.blogspot.com/  Note: fruits are green – not  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils red – and not particularly good to eat http://www.cactiguide.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=6342  Other: use a rock mulch, if any © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://www.sanpedrorivervalley.org/old_road_byway.htm 7
  8. 8. 1/7/2013 Garden uses for local Opuntia-type cacti Some people use  Good choice for coastal habitat gardens Opuntia-type cacti  Habitat for coastal cactus wren (rare)  Insects and hummingbirds drawn to for hedges flowers  Birds and mammals eat the fruits  Some mammals/lizards actually live http://www.backtonatives.org/nativelandscapes.htm http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/Syllabus2/factshee t.cfm?ID=792 in/near to cacti for protection  For their food value  In a cactus/desert style garden And they work pretty  In large planters/containers well  As accent plants in dry areas of the garden – placement is key  Excellent choice for hillsides  As a barrier or hedge plant © Project SOUND http://content.ci.pomona.ca.us/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/Frasher&CISOPTR=6863&CISOBOX=1&REC=20 © Project SOUND http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Opuntia_prolifera.htm You may have heard of ‘Jumping Chollas’ Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi  Don’t not really jump.  The barbed spines allow them to seize the passer-by and "disarticulate readily" from the mother plant.  This allows the plant http://www.graci.com/photoday.htm to spread widely by vegetative propagation  Bottom line: consider garden placement of cacti carefully © 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://home-and-garden.webshots.com/photo/1053071767036424719YtiPgK 8
  9. 9. 1/7/2013 Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi In nature: Catalina Island  San Clemente Island, Santa Catalina Island, Coastal Orange Co., southern San Diego Co.  AKA ‘Goldensnake cactus’http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2702,2703,2704 © 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Characteristics of Golden-spined Cereus Flowers are showy  Size:  Blooms:  1-2 ft tall  Late spring – typical for coastal cacti  3-5+ ft wide; spreading  Usually Apr-Jul. in our area  Growth form:  Flowers:  Evergreen cactus  Lovely lemon yellow  Many upright, cylindrical stems  ~ 2” wide  Long bloom period – open  Foliage: over a period of time  No leaves  Showy indeed!  Fragile, glass-like spines - many  Fruits: red, globular, sweet; loved by birds, animals  Vegetative reproduction: yes © 2005 Dieter Wilken © 2007 John M. Taylor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND© 2007 John M. Taylor 9
  10. 10. 1/7/2013 Garden uses forPlant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any local; well- smaller native cacti drained is better  pH: any local  Attractive as pot plants  Light: full sun to light shade  In a cactus/succulent garden  Water:  In a local coastal garden with  Winter: likes good winter it’s natural associates: Coyote rains; supplement if needed Bush, Sticky Monkeyflower, © 2007 Halleh Paymard  Summer: like to be dry in Lemonadeberry, local native summer: Zone 1-2 probably grasses and annual wildflowers optimal  Note: plant is rare in CA, still  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils common in Baja  Other: inorganic mulch  Fire-retardant plant http://cactiguide.com/Bergerocactus.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Propagating cacti from cuttings – easy (at Be careful of all the spiny structures when least in theory) working with cacti  Carefully remove a pad or offset  The glochids get into (cut or pull off) your skin and are very irritating. If you cannot  Let the wound callus over (a get them out, you end up week to up to a month) with something that resembles an infected  Place pad (wounded side down) in mosquito bite. potting mix (I use commercial mix with added perlite or sand)  Preferred method of removal: apply sticky  Place in bright shade tape to them and lift  Water when soil begins to dry them out. Glochids are out generally too fine to be grasped with tweezers.  Wait – may take a while © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/7/2013 Purchasing native cacti & succulents Local cacti, Yucca & Agaves are great for those out-of-the way slopes  Many native species are rare or endangered  Never collect in nature without a permit  Buy only fromhttp://calplants.biz/yuccawhipplei.html reputable dealers © 2006 Vince Scheidt © 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © Project SOUND *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei Yuccas – the genus Yucca  There are at least 50 species of Yucca within the Agavaceae - numerous subspecies, varieties, forms, cultivars and hybrids.  Occur exclusively in the Americas, distributed over a wide area from Canada into Central America and the Carribean  There are species adapted to dry deserts, grasslands and tropical rainforests.  All but one species (Y. whipplei) can flower many times (polycarpic) and produce side-shoots to compensate for loss of the apical growing point by its conversion into a flower bud. http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Yucca_whipplei.htm © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/7/2013 Yuccas are pollinated by The Agaves – genus Agave special ‘Yucca Moths’  Closely related to the Yuccas – both in  Self pollination of Yucca Agavaceae Family flowers of many species is impossible, although a few are  Agaves are not cacti (or even closely self-fertile. related to cacti) - are closely related to the lily and amaryllis families  Most Yuccas are pollinated  Primarily from Mexico, but also occur exclusively by small Yucca in the southern and western United moths with the plant and moth States and central and tropical South totally dependent on each America. other.  Have a large rosette of thick fleshy  Recent research has shown that leaves, each ending generally in a sharp there are at least 16 different point and with a spiny margin; Yucca Moths (Tegeticula  The stout stem (caudex) is usually species) - all are specialized in short - the leaves appear to arise pollinating their "own" Yucca from the root. species.http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/chaparralyucca.html We’ll be talking about Yucca another time http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Agavaceae/Agave_shawii.html G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Agaves – genus Agave *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii  Popular ornamental plants.  Each rosette grows slowly to flower only once. During flowering a tall stem or "mast" grows from the center of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers.  After development of fruit the original plant dies, but suckers are frequently produced from the base of the stem which become new plants.  Agave species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species http://www.oceanoasis.org/fieldguide/agav-sha.html © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/7/2013 *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii Shaw’s Agave in maritime shrub community  Pacific coast from S. San Diego Co. to Baja  Grows immediate to the coast, often in sandy soils  coastal bluffs and slopes  coastal sage scrub community  maritime succulent scrub community  Grows with many of our local native plants, including Golden-http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8349,8350,8352 spine Cereus  Habitat is often quite low & open © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Plant associates include many from our Shaw’s Agave – stunning in the right place coastal shrub & prairie communities  Size:  2-3 ft tall (rosette); flowering stalk much taller (15-40 ft. tall)  3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Clumping evergreen succulent  Spreads by suckering from the caudex (produces ‘pups’)  Very showy & unusual http://www.pitzer.edu/offices/arboretum/scott_lawn/desert.html  Foliage:  Leaf color: varies from dark blue-green to yellow-green  Stout sharp tip-spine as well as curved leaf margin spines – place away from walkways, etc. © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND http://www.geographylists.com/sandiegoplants.html 13
  14. 14. 1/7/2013 What a show when Agaves bloom!!  Blooms:  Variable; almost any time of year in western L.A. Co.  Takes about 15 years to flower  Flowers:  On stout tall flowering stalk  Showy, bright yellow flowers  Attract a number of insects, including moths  Seeds:  Flat, black seeds in thick pod  Can grow agaves from seed – may have many infertile seeds  Vegetative reproduction: usually many ‘pups’ to replace the plant that just flowered. http://www.delange.org/AgaveCoastal/AgaveCoastal.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Growing Agaves  Soils: Agaves make great  Texture: any as long as- well-drained soil drainage is good; love sandy, accent plants rocky soils  pH: any local except low pH (<6)  In very large pots/planters – remember, these are  Light: large plants  Coastal – full sun  Hot, inland gardens – light  Look wonderful in (afternoon) shade hillsides/slopes http://www.delange.org/AgaveCoastal/AgaveCoastal.htm  Water:  Looks equally at home with  Winter: needs good drainage; other cacti & succulents – plant on slopes, or other well- or with coastal drained situations prairie/shrubland plants  Summer: Like to be fairly dry  Good player in a rock (Zone 1-2; water several times per summer); no overhead garden water  Excellent accent against  Fertilizer: none; like poor soils gray-green foliage © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.sbbg.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=livingcollections.plantDetail&plant_id=28 14
  15. 15. 1/7/2013 Agave & Yucca as food and fiber Agave attenuata: a Mexican species available in the U.S. http://www.howka.com/scrapbook/ciba_2005/ http://www.cowboyshowcase.com/glossary%20personalgear.htm http://media.photobucket.com/image/Tequila/ccerna/tequila.jpg  Flowers, leaves & stem are edible http://www.so-utah.com/feature/anasazi/homepage.html http://www.nps.gov/zion/historyculture/yucca-sandal.htm http://www.geographylists.com/sandiegoplants.html http://www.cactusjungle.com/blog/2008/09/30/berkeley-succulent-garden-3/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Agave ‘Blue Flame’ Cacti & succulents from Baja & other parts of Mexico, SW U.S.  Combines the features of its parent species: A. shawii X A. attenuatahttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=2871 http://museum.utep.edu/chih/gardens/succulen/succulen.htm Lots of wonderful species – but are they right for my yard? http://www.huntington.org/BotanicalDiv/ISI2005/isi/2005-06.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/7/2013 Using species from CA & SW desert regions The same advice goes for  Contrary to popular belief, succulents from other places western L.A. county is not ‘a desert’  Know as much as you can about  Challenges for using desert their requirements cacti/succulents:  Be sure that you group  Soil must be well-drained compatible plants – just because  Wet years and fog may kill they are succulent doesn’t mean the plants – fungal http://www.gardeninggonewild.com/?p=3666 they have the same requirements diseases  Some species (from Sonoran Desert – in south) need a ‘summer monsoon’ period – you’ll have to give them it  Advice:  Learn as much as you can about the requirements/ habitat of a species before you purchase it  Be really careful inhttp://www.nps.gov/cagr/forkids/the-sonoran-desert.htm planning your©Water Zones Project SOUND http://sdccs-oasis.blogspot.com/2008/02/bring-your-succulent-cuttings-your-old.html © Project SOUNDhttp://gorp.away.com/gorp/resource/us_nm/top-national-monuments-7.html Our local climate allows us to grow special succulents The Stonecrop Family: Crassulaceae – the Dudleyas  ~ 1500 species  Most genera exhibit some leaf succulence  Many species are used widely as garden and house plants Examples:  The genus Crassula includes the well-known Jade http://www.southampton.bcss.org.uk/images/image145.jpg Plants and other small sub-shrubs, choice minatures and mat-forming plants. Echeverias  Cotyledon includes interesting shrubby species with succulent stems and leaves. Some species have showy tubular yellow, orange or red flowers.  Echeverias are often used in rock gardens and indoor plants.  Kalanchoe includes plants with showy flowers. Dudleyas thrive in our mild,  Sedums are well known for hardy mat-forming Stonecrops which provides useful flower color in coastal-influenced the garden in late summer and early autumn. Mediterranean climate © Project SOUND Kalanchoe © Project SOUND 16
  17. 17. 1/7/2013 The Live-forevers: genus Dudleya Many Dudleyas have small or threatened distribution: some are very rare  Named for William Russel Dudley (1849- 1911), first professor of botany and head of the Botany Department at Stanford University  ~ 40 species; native to the arid western Dudleya greenii – a Channel United States (in particular, Southwest/ Islands endemic Northern California and Oregon), Baja California.  Very similar in appearance to other Stonecrops (sempervivum; sedum; echeveria). Like many California native plants, dudleyas are now consideredhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Russell_Dudley_(1849-1911).jpg   Often grow in stone crevasses or sand rare, threatened or endangered, depending on the species. All are protected by law, making it illegal to remove any plants from their dunes with little or no organic soil. natural habitat.  Long-lived (to 100+ years for some  More are coming into cultivation – but many still are not available species) hence the common name © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Taxonomic confusion: is that an Dudleya flowers are slightly different Echeveria or a Dudleya? http://www.collectorscorner.com.au/Cacti/Echeveri a%20main.htm Echeveria Dudleya  Quite similar-looking; but with a few important differences  Dudleya flowers arise from somewhere near the bottom of  Several local species were formerly included in Echeveria: the rosettes normally (rarely from the rosette center as  Canyon Live-forever – Dudleya cymosa most Echeveria flowers do).  Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta  Ladyfinger Dudleya – Dudleya edulis  Dudleyas & Echeverias do not form hybrids between the 2 genera; Dudleyas only interbreed with other Dudleyas © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 17