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1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                             ...
1/6/2013                 The Stonecrop Family: Crassulaceae                                                               ...
1/6/2013                                                    CAM - observations              CAM plants like Dudleyas are a...
1/6/2013       Dudleya divas – showy accent plants                                                                        ...
1/6/2013               Taxonomic confusion: is that an                                                                    ...
1/6/2013                                                               Dudleyas can also rot from the                    ...
1/6/2013               * Silver Dollar Plant - Dudleya brittonii                                                          ...
1/6/2013                          Why are some Dudleyas so white?                                                         ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013        * Canyon Dudleya – Dudleya cymosa                                                                         ...
1/6/2013                                                                                                               ssp...
1/6/2013                                                         Soils:                                                  ...
1/6/2013   Many-stemmed Dudleya – Dudleya multicaulis                                                           Many-stemm...
1/6/2013Plant Requirements                                                            Soils:                             ...
1/6/2013       *Powdery Live-forever – Dudleya farinosa                                                                   ...
1/6/2013                 Many Dudleyas work well in planters                                                              ...
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
Dudleyas - Notes
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Transcript of "Dudleyas - Notes"

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Delightful Dudleyas C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants March 3 & 6, 2012 Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Live-forevers: genus Dudleya We already know that California (and Baja California) plants are special…  Named for William Russel Dudley (1849- 1911), first professor of botany and head of the Botany Department at Stanford  Our Mediterranean climate requires that University plants adapt to summer drought.  ~ 40 species; native to the arid western  One common adaptations is succulence. United States (in particular, Southwest/ Modified tissues store large amounts of Northern California and Oregon), Baja water, making the plant part appear California. fleshy, succulent, or swollen.  Very similar in appearance to other  Species in various plant families and Stonecrops (sempervivum; sedum; genera have independently evolved echeveria). succulence as a mechanism for conserving http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Rus water and survival in arid environments.  Often grow in stone crevasses or sand sell_Dudley_(1849-1911).jpg dunes with little or no organic soil.  There are an estimated 10,000 succulent plant species throughout the world  Long-lived (to 100+ years for some species) hence the common name © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 The Stonecrop Family: Crassulaceae Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)  ~ 1500 species  Most genera exhibit some leaf succulence  Found in 3-4% of plant species;  Many species are used widely as garden and at least 26 angiosperm families house plants Examples:  Nearly all are “succulents”  The genus Crassula includes the well-known Jade (thick, fleshy leaves and Plants and other small sub-shrubs, choicehttp://www.southampton.bcss.org.uk/images/image145.jpg minatures and mat-forming plants. stems) Echeverias  Cotyledon includes interesting shrubby species  Nearly all are from deserts or with succulent stems and leaves. Some species have showy tubular yellow, orange or red flowers. other hot-summer areas  Echeverias are often used in rock gardens and  Is an extremely important indoor plants. water-conservation strategy  Kalanchoe includes plants with showy flowers. for plants in hot, dry climates  Sedums are well known for hardy mat-forming Stonecrops which provides useful flower color in the garden in late summer and early autumn. Kalanchoe http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2006/02/sedum_spathulifolium.php © Project SOUND Gases and water vapor enter and exit All plants have the ability to convert plants through stomata carbon dioxide to sugars, using energy from the sun The process of photosythesis © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 CAM - observations CAM plants like Dudleyas are adapted to hot, dry climates  Stomates - open at night; closed during  Dudleyas only open their stomata at night to take up carbon dioxide. They keep their stomata closed during day (inverted stomatal the hot days, allowing the plant to conserve tremendous cycle) amounts of water  The plant assimilates the carbon dioxide at night and  CO2 uptake – high at converts it to a variety of organic acids. In the night; low during day morning when the stomata close, the organic acids break down and carbon dioxide is released.  Acid content of cells –  With the energy of the new days sun light, the plant converts the carbon dioxide it has been accumulating highest at dawn; lowest all night into sugars. at dusk  Before being permanent CAM photosynthesizers, CAMs were probably started intermittently switching to CAM  Conclusion: CAM plants photosynthesis during times of drought and low store Carbon as an acid rainfall. Eventually those species evolved into species that solely depended on CAM photosynthesis at night © Project SOUND In terms of their garden potential, you can Dudleyas can be used in several ways in think of Dudleyas as belonging to one of the home garden three categories  The Dudleya divas  Often larger in size  Showy (exuberant) flowers  Very attractive foliage  The groundcover Dudleyas  Medium to small sizehttp://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/2318/  Readily spread, forming a mat  The ‘Pretty in a Pot’ Dudleyas  Medium to small size  Unique flowers or foliage © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Dudleya divas – showy accent plants Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_pulverulenta.htm http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_pulverulenta.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Chalk Dudleya is very Echeveria-like Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Coastal regions from  1-2 ft wide (flower stalks wider) San Luis Obispo south into Baja  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Locally in Santa Monica  Becomes somewhat dry in Mtns., western San summer Gabriels  Foliage:  Rocky cliffs and  Leaves flat, end in sharp tips canyons below 3000  completely covered with a mealy feet white powder - hence "pulverulenta" or "powdery."http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3327,3329  Coastal sage scrub,  Stem (caudex) becomes chaparral thickened with age – more so than other species http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=DUPU © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=1536&account=none 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Taxonomic confusion: is that an Dudleya flowers are slightly different Echeveria or a Dudleya? http://www.collectorscorner.com.au/Cacti/Echeveri a%20main.htm Echeveria Dudleya Quite similar-looking; but with a few important differences  Dudleya flowers arise from somewhere near the bottom of Several local species were formerly included in Echeveria: the rosettes normally (rarely from the rosette center as  Canyon Live-forever – Dudleya cymosa most Echeveria flowers do).  Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta  Ladyfinger Dudleya – Dudleya edulis  Dudleyas & Echeverias do not form hybrids between the 2 genera; Dudleyas only interbreed with other Dudleyas © Project SOUND © Project SOUND So…it’s recommended to NOT combine both in But the real difference – and the most important for the same part of the garden gardeners – relates to their history  Summer watering of Dudleyas  Dudleyas should be very occasional: they are  Native to the ‘Pacific Plate’  Adapted to rainy winters & hot, dry very summer ‘water-wise’ compared summers to Echeverias  Winter-growing; summer dormant  Can kill them with too much summer  Most Dudleyas & Echeverias do best in water well-drained soils; gravelly/sandy  Echeverias  The roots of some Dudleya species do Dudleya virens ssp hassei  Native to the ‘North American Plate’ not absorb moisture well in the high  Adapted to rainy summers & dry winters heat; water simply rots the roots  Summer growing; winter dormant  Can kill them with too much winter (susceptible to root rot fungi). water  Treat as Zone 1-2 (water only several times a summer & not at summer’s end) The two genera have been separated for long enough that each is very well adapted to its  Dudleyas in very well-drained soils own environment (sandy) or in pots should be treated as © Project SOUND http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.as Zone 2 © Project SOUND p?plant_id=538 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013  Dudleyas can also rot from the Give them what crown or leaves, particularly if water is left sitting on the delicate they like… leaves (some are more sensitive than others).  Plant them in/near rocks  Naturally occurring Dudleya virens ssp hassei  Either avoid getting water on the http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/241664905/  Local boulders brought in to leaves, or plant them at an angle so the Dudleya pulverulenta add interest water runs off.  Plant them on slopes – or  In nature, many species grow naturally plant the rosette at an angle on cliff faces and steep slopes so rather than horizontal water cannot sit on these plants.  Water only occasionally  Excess water also attracts snails and during summer – Zone 1-2 slugs – which love Dudleyas about right http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.as p?plant_id=538  No overhead water in summer Bottom line: best to not combine Dudleyas with succulents that have http://www.flickr.com/photos/93452909@N00/191287029/ very different water requirements (Echeverias; Sedums; etc.) SOUND © Project D. virens ssp. hassei © Project SOUND Flowers are like no Be creative with rocks others: dramatic! & Dudleyas  Blooms: spring/early summer; typical for  Sometimes man-made stone Dudleyas structures are perfect places  Flowers: for Dudleyas  On long flowering stalks – plan accordinglyhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3003/2606066487_0aaaf1ed09.jpg?v=0 http://img4.sunset.com/i/2009/04/dream-gardens-stone-seat-l.jpg  Note hummingbird-plant features:  Red color;  Shape;  Flowers held away from plant to allow access  Heavy duty, sweet nectar http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/Anna%27s_Hummingbird_on_chalk_dudlea.jpg http://www.marrsandersen.com/California-plants/California-http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/dudleyc5.htm © Project SOUND plants-Pages/Image28.html © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/241665013/in/photostream/ 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 * Silver Dollar Plant - Dudleya brittonii Silver Dollar Plant - Dudleya brittonii  Native coastal areas of the Pacific side of Baja California between Tijuana & Ensenada and on Isla Todos Santos  On cliffs and hilly areas in lava rock and other very porous soils. http://home.comcast.net/~ldecola/baja/ http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1509 © Project SOUND http://www.yacht-transport.com/page/autumn2009/Oregon.html © Project SOUND Silver Dollar Dudleya – Nathaniel Lord Britton a larger dudleya  Size:  1+ ft tall  the specific epithet honors  1-2 ft wide Nathaniel Lord Britton (1859-1934), botanist and http://www.bambooandmore.info/2011_10_02_archive.html  Growth form: first Director of the New  Basal rosette – stem (caudex) is very http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Dudleya-brittonii/ York Botanical Garden. Dr. short, so leaves are bunched up Britton is also famous for  40 to 100 leaves, each up to 10 his collaboration with inches long Joseph Nelson Rose of the  Often solitary – not spreading Carnegie Institute on The Moderate lifespan – 30+ yearshttp://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/lefa/Britton.html  Cactaceae, a four-volume work started in 1906 and  Foliage: published in 1924.  Green or (more commonly in trade) very blue-white  Leaves flattened http://sabrinacampagna.tumblr.com/post/2675832454/the-cactaceae-vol-4-descriptions-and © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.soenyun.com/Blog/2010/10/18/my-new-natives/ 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Why are some Dudleyas so white? Flowers are fantastic  Why?  Blooms: in spring – usually Apr-June in our area  Protection against sun damage  Water conservation  Flowers:  Pale yellow  How?  Stout flowering stem and  Leaves are covered with a dusty, bracts are pastel pink http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Jan11.html chalky, mealy white epicuticular (worthy of a diva); beautiful “wax”. contrast with foliage  The wax in its mealy state on the  Attract hummingbirds leaves is attracted to water and coats drops on the leaves and  Seeds: prevents their evaporation.  Dry capsules split open when seeds are ripe  The wax has the highest  Seeds are tiny, many measured ultraviolet reflectivity of any plant. http://www.xericworld.com/forums/members/kelly-griffin-albums-dudleya-picture1145-dudleya- http://image54.webshots.com/154/5/90/28/539959028nsjBLY_fs.jpg brittonii-la-mission.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.succulent-plant.com/families/crassulaceae/dudleya.html  Soils: Give the diva a proper stage! Plant Requirements  Texture: well-drained  pH: any local  In a Baja-themed garden, with it’s natural associates  Light:  Afternoon shade  In a rock or gravel garden –  Dappled shade be sure to consider contrasts  Water:  Often grown as a specimen  Winter: needs normal amount plant in a large container  Summer: best with http://www.flickriver.com/photos/amarguy/3949915856/ infrequent summer water – Zone 1-2; no overhead water  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:http://www.scientificlib.com/en/Biology/Plants/Magnoliophyta/DudleyaBrittonii01.html  tolerates garden conditions better than the similar looking Dudleya pulverulenta http://www.hotgardens.net/cactus%20and%20succulents%20at%20huntington%20desert%20ga © Project SOUND rden.htm © Project SOUND http://www.faroutflora.com/2011/01/08/dudleyas-dudleyas-dudleyas/ 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Use contrast to show divas in their best light Designing with diva dudleyas http://www.plantscomprehensive.com/dudleya-brittonii http://www.southcoastbotanicgarden.org/node/368http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/gXhU4_V-Hhg78Lwpg9OOZQ  Accent plants whether alone or interplanted http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/iiUK9e2RW16pM8msvsmB4g © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.hotgardens.net/succulent_cactus_gallery.htm Many Dudleyas are long-lived Dudleya ‘Palos Verdes’ – a lucky accident  Probably hybrid : D. pulverulenta X D. brittonii  Good characteristics of both parents http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=3232 http://www.flickr.com/photos/morabeza79/favorites/page38/?view=lg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 * Canyon Dudleya – Dudleya cymosa * Canyon Dudleya – Dudleya cymosa  Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia = Santa Monica Mountains Dudleya Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia (threatened species)  Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens also endemic to SMM (endangered) http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3310 http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_d/dudcym.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.xericworld.com/forums/crassulaceae/2906-dudleya-cymosa.htmlMany Dudleyas have small or threatened Canyon Dudleya: a diva, yes, but smaller distribution: some are very rare  Size:  < 1 ft tall (6-8” commonly)  < 1 ft wide  Growth form: Dudleya greenii – a Channel  Basal rosette; Echeveria-like Islands endemic habit  Foliage:  Leaves light green to blue- green; waxy  Shape varies with sub-species; Like many California native plants, dudleyas are now considered flat and spoon-shaped to rare, threatened or endangered, depending on the species. All are protected by law, making it illegal to remove any plants from their lance-shaped. natural habitat.  Leaves cup/hold water More are coming into cultivation – but many still are not available http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dudleya_cymosa_1.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/33818785@N00/2594840898/ 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 ssp. marescens ssp. ovatifolia  Endemic to Santa Monica Mtns  Occur on sedimentary  Grows on shaded, rocky slopes and volcanic rocks of  Rare the western Santa  Flowers yellow, sometimes w/ pink Monica Mountains bracts  Also occurs in a fewhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_cymosa_marcescens.htm Grows on shaded, rocky slopes isolated occurrences in the Santa Ana Mountains of Orange Co.  Rare  Flowers bright yellow with pink stalk http://jay.timetotrack.com/dudlym3.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.callutheran.edu/wf/chap/family/bjc-1781.htm ssp. pumila Flowers are showy  CA endemic  Blooms: in spring – usually Apr-  San Gabriel Mtns; also May in western L.A. Co. found in Kern, Mojave and as far north as  Flowers: Monterey.  Flowers on relatively short ( ~ Ssp. pumila 1 ft) flowering stalks that may  On Rocky outcrops, http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_d/dudcym.html be more simple or many slopes, talus branched (ssp. pumila); arise among older leaves (base of  Flowers yellow with rosette) conspicuous pink bracts  Flowers usually yellow but may be pink; bracts and stems  Likely the one usually pink to orange-pink; available in the trade, often showy as it is the most showy http://www.cnps-sgm.org/gallery/G-Dudleya.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/33818785@N00/2594840898/ http://www.siskiyourareplantnursery.com/index.asp?PageAction=VIEWPROD&ProdID=200 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013  Soils: Showcase a DivaExcellent drainage  Texture: well-drained; sandy or rocky best  Makes an attractive pot plant;  pH: any local neat rosette & showy flowers  Light:  Recommended for rock crevices  Afternoon shade is best; will look or growing out of the base of best and survive better even in hot boulders in the rock garden inland gardens  Full sun only on immediate coast  Pair with local ferns, Monkeyflowers, Nightshades http://www.wildgingerfarm.com/Dudleya.htm  Water:  Winter: adequate; supplement in dry years  Summer: best with occasional (once a month) summer water – Water Zone 1-2http://www.flickr.com/photos/33818785@N00/2594841114/  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils. ¼ strength fertilizer in spring for Use a rock mulch, like container plants Mother Nature does © Project SOUND http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=0284 http://stevewolf.smugmug.com/keyword/crassulaceae/1/1264431629_VzWnxbD#!i=1264431629 &k=VzWnxbD © Project SOUND http://www.wrightmanalpines.com/plant/dudleya-cymosa Be creative – Canyon Dudleya is a versatile addition to the garden http://www.cyndyandjohn.com/Holiday%20Letter%202004.htm http://www.merchantcircle.com/business/Earth.Transformations.303-554-1352/picture/view/1707601 http://www.laspilitas.com/stores/escondido Penstemon heterophyllus, Dudleya cymosa, Mock Heather, and Sulfur Buckwheat seem to do fine in hard, compacted soils http://designerblog.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html © Project SOUND http://gardeninginaustin.blogspot.com/2012/01/project-front-flower-bed.html © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Many-stemmed Dudleya – Dudleya multicaulis Many-stemmed Dudleya – Dudleya multicaulis  Los Angeles Co. to western San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange and San Diego Cos.  Most of its known occurrences are in Orange County, where it lives mostly along the coastal plain in heavy clay soils.  In dry, stony places below 2000 ft. in San Diegan Coastal Sage scrub, Valley Grassland & chaparral. © 2002 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Dudleya multicaulis is somewhat unusual Flowers: almost bulb-like  Blooms: in spring - usually  Size: in April-June  < 1 ft tall & wide  Flowers:  Growth form:  dominated by its erect  Stem/upper root corm-like stems, which are topped (underground vertical with a branching stem); dies back in dry inflorescence bearing up to season 15 flowers on each long, thin  In wild is not readily branch. identifiable except during  The flowers have pointed the late spring and early yellow petals up to a summer when succulent centimeter long, and long leaves and flowers may be stamens. observed.  Flowers age to red  Foliage:  Seeds: many, small in dry  Leaves few, finger-like, capsule that splits open blue-green with pink blush © Project SOUND © 2010 Andrew Borcher © Project SOUNDhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/manystemmeddudleya.html http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya%20multicaulis.htm 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013Plant Requirements  Soils: Bulb-like Diva  Texture: well-drained; rockyDudleya multicaulis best  Grow where its small size will  pH: any local be appreciated:  Light:  Rock walls  Afternoon shade or dappled  Rock gardens sun  Containers  Can also take full sun – dies  Works well in local native back in summer bulb/fern garden  Water:  Winter: adequate moisture  Summer: dry to occasional water – Water Zones 1 or 1-2; let dry out after blooming like a bulb  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils © 2003 Kristin Szabo  Other: inorganic mulch shown with Isocoma menziesii, Hemizonia © Project SOUND fasciculata © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya%20multicaulis.htmhttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya%20multicaulis.htm San Gabriel Mtns. Dudleya – Dudleya densiflora © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/01/cabernet-stone-terracing/ 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 *Powdery Live-forever – Dudleya farinosa *Powdery Live-forever – Dudleya farinosa  Most common along coast from San Francisco and north for about 800 miles to Oregon and some miles up its coast.  Typical coastal species – low-growing with very showy flowers http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3320 © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Powdery Dudleya: a Dudleya groundcovers – the spreading diva spreaders  Super succulent to fill a pot or rock crevice  Can also be used as a succulent groundcoverhttp://www.infojardin.com/foro/showthread.php?t=36822 Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences http://www.faroutflora.com/2011/01/08/dudleyas-dudleyas-dudleyas/ © 2002 Brad Kelley © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 Many Dudleyas work well in planters Dudleyas are so versatile : formal or informal http://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/01/cabernet-stone-terracing/ http://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos2.html  Dudleyas with strict rosettes look quite formal © Project SOUND http://www.ecosalon.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/more-showcase-2009-023-341x455.jpg © Project SOUND Dudleya Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp hassei Groundcovers  Dudleya farinosa  Dudleya virenshttp://marvistagreengardenshowcase.blogspot.com/2012/02/3041-midvale-avenue.html  Dudleya edulis  Dudleya anomala  Dudleya viscida  Dudleya caespitosa http://marvistagreengardenshowcase.blogspot.com/2012/02/12806-stanwood-drive.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
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