Attractive annuals 2013 - notes

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Attractive annuals 2013 - notes

  1. 1. 4/6/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Attractive Annuals our most attractive annual wildflowers & how to use them C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve October 8, 2013Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND My Gardening Philosophy – circa 2013 What are  Complete their entire life cycle in 1. Knowledge is power ‘Annual plants’? a year or less (one growing season) 2. It’s better to understand how something works rather than to just follow rules  Only the dormant seed bridges 3. It’s easier to work with the physical conditions in a the gap between one generation garden (soil characteristics, light, etc.) than to try to and the next. change them dramatically 4. California native plants from the local area are often  Because they only grow a shorthttp://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/ the best suited for local gardens time, most have an economical 5. Look to Mother Nature and Native Californians for form: short, herbaceous, just gardening advice enough leaves, etc. 6. Make a garden plan – even tho’ it may change over time  Some plants can behave as an 7. Choose plants based on their suitability for your needs annual or a perennial depending on and garden conditions http://www.whiteflowerfarm.com/87191-product.html#.UV4KJ1Pn9D8 local climatic and geographic 8. Save ‘Heritage’ trees and large shrubs – unless there’s In the garden, annuals are growing conditions [examples: a good reason to remove them particularly useful for providing pepper plants; CA Poppies]. 9. Choose plants for their habitat value seasonal color – and food 10. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 4/6/2013 Schematic representation of Arabidopsis seed development and stages of the life cycle usedIt all starts with Pollination and Fertilization Seed development: a complex process for GeneChip analysis. Le B H et al. PNAS 2010;107:8063-8070 ©2010 by National Academy of Sciences The mighty seed: a time capsule into the Notice the last step of future seed development  Loss of water: up to 90-  Seed coat (testa) – 95% of water is lost protection  Important for:  Embryo  Putting embryo into (and keeping it in) suspended  Provisions: animation  Food (cotyledon)  Keeping the seed  Hormones protected – hard,  Other stored protective coat http://generalhorticulture.tamu.edu/hort604/lecturesupplmex07/anatomymorphology.htm chemicals (enzymes & other)  That’s why important to let plants dry out after they set seeds Everything the seed needs in order to be ready for germination © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 4/6/2013 Germination: rapid The annual lifestyle is a good adaptation re-animation to our mediterranean climate  Uptake of water: imbibation  Turning on metabolism  Plants are dormant during long dry  Activating enzymes needed to period – they are in ‘suspended break down food stores animation’ in the seed  All this involves many plant http://images.tutorvista.com/content/feed/tvcs/germination-process-voandzeia.jpeg hormones; may also involve  The plants can weather particularly outside signals (light; temp.) dry years – wait for more favorable rainfall conditions  Plants grow during the season of http://prairierosesgarden.blogspot.com/2010_03_01_archive.html abundant soil moisture; fast growth, timed to rainfall  Set seed as the soil dries out http://www.seedbiology.de/images/hormgerm1web.gif © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDhttp://5e.plantphys.net/images/ch11/we1104a_s.jpg Timing is everything… The schedule of local Annual plants  Seed germination – Fall/Winter (after the first seasonal rains); some require spring warmth; generally quick (1-4 weeks)  Plant growth – Winter (some) Spring, Summer (some) – rapid in warm days of Spring  Flowering – Spring/Summer (a very few in early fall)  Seed production – Late Spring- Summer  Death – Spring (some), Summer (most), Fall (a few) http://occnps.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/front.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 4/6/2013 But how can I use annual wildflowers in Annuals are often used to add a ‘spot of my garden? color’ http://www.gardensbygabriel.com/blog/2011/05/09/plant-of-the-month-lupine/ http://homeguides.sfgate.com/companion-plants-annual-flowers-43553.html http://garden-designs.org/2011/07/04/perennial-garden-design/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Dark background that’s gloomy (or boring) Tidy-tips and Goldfields are old standbys in spring – need something to liven it upA little bit of yellow might addsome cheerful ‘sunshine’ http://gardensofpetersonville.blogspot.com/2012/06/little-heat.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 4/6/2013 But maybe we want something a little The genus Coreopsis: the Tickseeds bigger that is pure golden yellow  Scientific name is derived from the Greek word koris, meaning Bedbug.  Flowers: usually yellow, toothed tips.  Primarily native to North America.  Many cultivars are available for gardens; used world-wide as ‘yellow daisies’.  Coreopsis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species Family: Asteraceae © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The Asteraceae: the sunflowers Asteraceae – two forms of flowers ©2006 Larry Blakely http://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM  A disk flower, in its most complete form, has five petals fused http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/angiosperm-families/family-asteraceae.php into a tube, with a tube of five fused anthers inside the petal tube The flowers, also called florets, are nearly always clustered  A ray flower (a "petal" of a daisy) is similar, except that some of into heads, with each subtended by a whorl or whorls of the fused petals extend on one side into a flat strap-like ligule. modified leaves called bracts (the involucre).  Flower heads may have only ray flowers or disk flowers, or both. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 4/6/2013 Asteraceae – reproduction & seeds Bigelow coreopsis – Coreopsis bigelovii http://www.anbg.gov.au/PLANTFAM/AUST1F.HTM Flowers may be ‘complete’, unisexual or sterile, lacking either or both "male" and "female" sexual parts. Each functionally "female" flower, whether ray or disk, has a single inferior ovary with a single ovule. If the ovule is fertilized, it will develop into a single seed in a special dry fruit called an achene. ©2005 Brent Miller © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Bigelow coreopsis – Coreopsis bigelovii Bigelow Coreopsis: mostly flowers  Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica Mtns), Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Sierra  Size: Nevada Foothills, Mojave Desert, n  12-18 inches tall Sonoran Desert  12-18 inches wide  Open woodlands, grasslands, deserts, dry  Growth form: gravelly hillsides to about 5000, creosote  Annual wildflower bush scrub, joshua tree woodland, chaparral, pinyon-juniper woodland  Foliage:http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,1008,1009  Leaves mostly in basal rosette  Leaves often divided into linear lobes – likely more substantial in garden  Color: varies with water/light availability  Leaves used extensively as raw/cooked vegetable by CA native desert tribes ©2006 James M. Andre ©2006 Larry Blakely © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 4/6/2013 Flowers are glorious Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any – coarse in wilds  Blooms:  pH: any local  In spring: usually Feb-Mar  Light: to May in our area  Full sun to light shade  Flowers:  Water:  In typical ‘sunflower heads’ –  Winter/spring: to establish usually one per stalk ©2006 Larry Blakely  Summer: taper off after  Both ray & disk flowers flowering ceases yellow – disk often a little darker gold  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Broad liguled ray flowers  Attract a wide range of  Other: insect pollinators  Gravel mulch or none if you want them to re-seed  Seeds: dry achenes typical of  Easy from seed – no pre- sunflowers; wind distributed; treatment edible (mostly by birds) © Project SOUND ©2006 Larry Blakely http://xasauantoday.com/category/diablo-range/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.hazmac.biz/050221/050221CoreopsisBigelovii.html Uses for Coreopsis Coreopsis: where ever a little spring sunlight is needed  In a desert garden or rock garden with other desert annuals, grasses, shrubs  As an attractive container plant http://millernursery.com/image/plantPicFiles/SmallWebPics/coreopsisVerticillataM  And much more oonbeamS.jpg ©2010 Thomas Stoughton http://www.ehow.com/info_8306523_do-marigolds- keep-insects-away.html With desert plants http://www.mahoneysgarden.com/perennial/tickseed- coreopsis-little-sundial http://www.gardennj.com/images/zagreb1.JPG http://www.robsplants.com/plants/CoreoAuric http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3335/4606895484_8a18c3a140_z.jpg SOUND © Project © Project SOUND http://www.delange.org/DesertCoreopsis/DesertCoreopsis.htm 7
  8. 8. 4/6/2013 * Common Madia – Madia elegans Yellow Coreopsis combine well with other bright spring colors Summer bloomer © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College http://wwwrockrose.blogspot.com/2010/05/they-have-to-go.html http://www.flickriver.com/photos/scs_in_nj/sets/72157604353309858/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND We’ve often hyped the ‘blue & gold’ color scheme Mother Nature’s CA wildflower gardens abound with complementary color schemes  Blue/purple with yellow/gold schemes are the most common  Probably because our flowers evolved along with their insect pollinators – many of whom ‘see’ yellows & blues http://www.humanflowerproject.com/index.php/weblog/comments/feral_flowers_cult © Project SOUND ured_eyes/ © Project SOUNDhttp://www.resimsite.com/img144.htm 8
  9. 9. 4/6/2013 Phacelias provide a wide range of purples & blues * California Bluebell – Phacelia minor Sticky Phacelia – Phacelia viscida Parry’s Phacelia – Phacelia parryi ©2003 Guy Bruyea Tansey-leaf Phacelia – Phacelia tanecetifoliaCaterpillar Phacelia – Phacelia cicutaria © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA Bluebell: surprisingly large leaves * California Bluebell – Phacelia minor  Size:  S. CA from Santa Monica Mts. to edge  1-2 ft tall of desert  1-2 ft wide  Dry disturbed places like burns and  Growth form: road-sides below 5000, coastal sage  Herbaceous annual scrub, chaparral  Low, dense clump of blue-green,  AKA: Wild Canterbury Bells; Whitlavia scalloped leaves with branched http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4659 flower stalks above ©2004 Larry Blakely  Foliage:  Most leaves in basal rosette  Leaves large – to 4-5 inches  Leaves toothed, crinkly, oval or rounded blades borne on long petioles (leaf stem)  Stiff glandular trichomes (hairs) – cause skin rash in some ©2009 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND © Project SOUND ©2009 Robert Steers 9
  10. 10. 4/6/2013 Flowers are velvety Delicate-looking – but tough in fact purple-blue  Soils:  Blooms: in spring; usually Mar-  Texture: likes a coarse, well- May in S. Bay drained soil – can take others  pH: any local  Flowers:  Fantastic rich blue-purple;  Light: generally no white on petals  Full sun  Relatively large – to 1 ½ inches  Water:  Petals fused into a bell-shaped  Winter/spring: keep moist corolla (petal) tube; fairly while developing broad for Phacelia – may have  Summer: dry after flowering a narrower ‘neck’  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Really beautiful  Other: gravel mulch – like in the  Seeds: many small, hard seeds photograph © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College ©2010 Thomas Stoughton © Project SOUND © Project SOUND CA Bluebell: color & more Choose native annuals for double duty as  Wonderful massed – alone or ‘pollinator plants’ with contrasting yellow or white flowers All other things being equal  As an attractive pot plant  On dry slopes or water-wise 1. Choose plants for their gardens – let it naturalize habitat value©2010 Thomas Stoughton 2. Choose plants for their usefulness (food; dyes; etc.) http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Boraginaceae/Phacelia%20minor.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://blog.anniesannuals.com/tag/phacelia-minor/ http://biology.csusb.edu/PlantGuideFolder/PhaceliaMinor/PhaceliaMinorStand.jpg 10
  11. 11. 4/6/2013 Why are Phacelias such good pollinator plants? The tale of two Phacelias  Many flowers per plant; long bloom period  Make it worthwhile for the pollinators to visit  Open flower structure (some):  Nectar accessible to many types of pollinators  Abundant nectar production  Evolved with insect pollinator species  Note: many have markings to attract pollinators to the nectar (‘nectar lines’)©2003 Kristin Szabo http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phaceliaminor.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Parry’s Phacelia – Phacelia parryi Flowers are lovely…  Waterleaf family (like  Blooms Apr-June in Baby Blue-eyes) South Bay  Named for Charles C.  Flowers bell-shaped, Parry (1832-1890) – with very open, http://www.gardengates.info/Phac.%20par.close.jpg botanist with the Pacific spreading petals, borne Railway Survey on erect stems  Grows in S. CA south to Baja CA  Color: rich purple-blue with five pure-whitehttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4673 spots, white anthers http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/phacpar4.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 4/6/2013 Some CA Bluebell plants appear to have  Introgression with P. parryi; Conclusion? characteristics of both Phacelias i.e., some specimens are hybrids with P. parryi, whereas other specimens are "pure" P. minor.  Phacelia minor  Uniform color – no white spots  It is also possible that this or streaks simply represents intrinsic  Long cylindric corolla tube variation within P. minor.  Phacelia parryi  rDNA evidence : either  White spots hybridization or a recent  Very short/no corolla tube divergence between P. parryi http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html  Often more blue than purple and P. minor  ‘unusual’ P. minor  Occur w/in 10 mi. of P. parryi  Take home message: populations  Evolution is still occurring  Always within P. minor  Role of humans in plant populations evolution  White spots/streaks  Responsibility of gardeners  Shorter tubehttp://tchester.org/plants/analysis/phacelia/minor_with_spots.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia  Mojave Desert & N. and W. Sonoran Desert of California  Open dry, sandy or gravelly places below 4000 ft. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4601 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 12
  13. 13. 4/6/2013Desert Bluebells – an annual desert wildflower Flowers are a bright,  Size: pure blue  1-2 ft tall  Blooms: in spring - usually Feb-Apr. in  1-2+ ft wide our area, but may be later  Growth form:  Flowers:  Annual wildflower  Small-medium size (to 1 inch)  Mounded to somewhat  Bell-shaped – typical for Phacelia sprawling shape - attractive  Bright, intense true blue – iridescent http://www.hortmag.com/article/desertbluebells/  Stems often red-purple in – difficult to photograph color  Seeds:  Foliage:  In dry capsules  Rounded, coarsely-toothed  Relatively easy – no pre-treatment; leaves – somewhat like Heuchera just plant in place in fall/winter – germinate in spring  Whole plant hairy/sticky – may  Serial sow for longer bloom season cause mild skin allergies, so wear gloves to handle  Will reseed – but not extensively –http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1886/phacelia-campanularia-desertbells/ © Project SOUND http://www.delange.org/BlueBells/BlueBells.htm usually must re-seed © Project SOUND  Soils: Annual ‘Pollenator Plants’Plant Requirements  Texture: any well-drained; sandy & gravelly soils great can be tucked in anywhere  pH: any local  Spilling out of pots & planters  Light:  Full sun (best) to light shade  Along garden paths – often short  Water:  Winter/spring: need plenty of  Massed for spring color – pair water during active growth http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2008/06/friday-night-botanical-garden.html with Tidy-tips or CA Poppy for a  Summer: occasional deep water real zing! extends blooming; taper off as flowering ends  Between native shrubs & sub- shrubs  Fertilizer: fine in poor soils, OK with light fertilizer (like any of our  Mixed with native desert annual wildflowers) grasses  Other: seeds need bare soil/light  In a rock or gravel garden gravel mulch to germinate; require dim light as germination cue.  Fine in hot placeshttp://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Phacelia_campanularia_var._campanularia&printable=yes&printable=yes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 4/6/2013 Sticky Phacelia – Phacelia viscida Growing Phacelia is easy  Soil: any well-drained soil  pH: any local  Light: most like full sun to part-shade  Water: average needs; can take irrigation during dry spells  Plant fall/winter - be sure that seeds are lightly covered Good for shady spots (germinate in darkness or dim light) http://home.pi.net/~vries796/plantslides/phac_par.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Other advantages of annual wildflowers: Even the smallest garden has a place for their small size & adaptability wildflowers http://queerbychoice.livejournal.com/643809.html?t hread=4226785 http://www.penick.net/digging/index.php?s=wildflower+center Annual wildflowers are the ultimate ‘tuck-in plants’http://www.gardensbygabriel.com/blog/2011/05/09/plant-of-the-month-lupine/ http://farm1.static.flickr.com/215/502812583_c943310b50.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 4/6/2013 There’s something * Mojave Pincushion – Chaenactis xantiana refreshing about purple & whitehttp://tiltshifttheworld.blogspot.com/2012/04/not-just-belfast-titanic-belfast.html http://www.nihonsun.com/2009/05/22/meiji-jingu-iris-garden/ ©2009 Stephen Dowlan © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Mojave Pincushion: a petit sunflower * Mojave Pincushion – Chaenactis xantiana  Size:  Desert mountains and  1 – 1 ½ ft tall foothills: s. Sierra Nevada, South Coast Ranges,  1-2 ft wide Transverse Ranges, Great  Growth form: Basin Floristic Province, w  Annual wildflower Mojave Desert  Foliage:  Slopes in Chaparral, Pinyon-  Leaves mostly in basal rosette http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,890,912 Juniper Woodland, Sagebrush  Leaves slightly fleshy; deeply Scrub, between 1400 and lobed into very narrow 7000 feet segments  Open, deep, loose sandy  Color blue-green due waxy (rarely gravelly) soils, scales  Foliage often dies back before ©2009 Stephen Dowlan or with flowering in wild © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College 15
  16. 16. 4/6/2013 Flowers are pale Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained best  pH: any local  Blooms: in spring usually Mar- June in western L.A. County  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Flowers:  Flowers in dense, compact  Water: heads that look somewhat  Winter/spring: adequate for©2011 Neal Kramer like a pincushion development  Color: white to pale pink –  Summer: none after hence another common name blooming ‘flesh-color pincushion’  Cute  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Seeds:  Other: gravel mulch  Dry; rather showy  Wind dispersed ©2012 Jean Pawek © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Garden Pincushions Yellow Pincushion (Chaenactis  In mixed ‘color bowls’ - as a contrast plant with other, glabriuscula) – local version more colorful native blooms  In a desert garden  Size: 1-2 ft tall; < 1 ft wide  Tucked into narrow, dry  Blooms: places in the garden  Spring: usually Mar-May for 2-4 wks ©2010 James M. Andre  Composite flower: http://www.callutheran.edu/wf/images/des/des-658.jpg  Larger flowers to outside  Smaller inside  Looks like a pincushion  Color: bright to golden yellow  Usually several head per stem  In wilds are often massed – ‘carpet of gold’  Excellent butterfly plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://166.78.84.170/taxa/57925-Chaenactis-xantiana http://www.nps.gov/archive/pinn/images/flowers/large/yellowpincushion.jpg 16

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