Nature hike


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Nature hike

  1. 1. + Nature Hike BY: Christine Yan, Jessica Lloyd Join us as we embark on a fun adventure in nature! PC: Christine Yan
  2. 2. + The Stars of the Tour PC: Christine Yan  Apples (Malus domestica): Red-ish coloured spherical fruits found on trees. (top left)  Fungi: Can be spotted on other organisms like leaves and tree trunks, and have a rotting and/or “mushroom-y” look. (top right) Slide by Christine
  3. 3. + PC: Christine Yan  White pine (Pinus strobus): A pine tree with 5 needles per bundle. (top left)  Two-Spotted Bumblebee (Bombus bimaculatus): A fuzzy bumblebee with two black dots on yellow. Especially commonly found on flowers. (top right) Slide by Christine
  4. 4. + PC: Christine Yan  American bullfrog (Lithobtes catesbeianus): A pale to dark green frog found near well vegetated shorelines of ponds and other bodies of water.(top left)  Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina): Long-ish compound leaves with flowers that form a cone that contain berries. (top right) Slide by Christine
  5. 5. + PC: Christine Yan  Black-eyed Susan (Redbeckia hirta): Yellow wildflower with long-ish pedals, dark brown/black core. (left)  White birch (Betula papyrifera): A tall tree with a trunk covered in smooth, white bark. (right) Slide by Christine
  6. 6. + Nature of Science-Apples  How can you identify apples?  One way you can identify apples is by their look. They are round in shape, fit into the average person’s hand grasp, and grow on trees. They can range from yellow to dark red (includes green, etc.) PC: Christine Yan  If one has made sure that it is clean, they can test it by eating it. However you must be careful to make sure it’s not poisonous!  Once you take a bite out of this fruit, you can compare the taste of it to those found in grocery stores. If picked off a tree recently, it should kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk taste fresher and be more natural, as kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk agricultural pesticides and modifications will jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj not have occurred. Slide by Christine
  7. 7. + Will an apple a day really keep the doctors away?  Dr. Bahram H. Arjmandi, PhD, RD, Margaret A. Sitton Professor and Chair, Deparment of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences at The Florida State University stated that there are beneficial long term cardioprotective (protecting the heart) affects of a daily apple in postmenopausal women. PC: Google  Two groups of women aged 45-65 were given dried apples or dried prunes daily. At 3, 6, and 12 months, blood tests were taken on these women.  There were “incredible” changes in the women given the apples: They had a 23% decrease in LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol, also known as the bad cholesterol.  They also had an increase in HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)/good cholesterol by 4% Slide by Christine
  8. 8. +  With apples containing more calories than prunes, weight loss was not expected. However, the women who consumed apples lost an average of 3.3 pounds. This was caused by the apple’s pectin.  With this study, we can see the benefits of eating an apple daily. Because it benefited women at generally weak times of health, we can make the conclusion that it will benefit anyone’s health, whether they are already healthy or not. PC: Google Slide by Christine
  9. 9. + Evolution-White Birch  Adaptation:  Twigs and branches are flexible and therefore are harder to snap under the snow during winters. They lose their leaves in the winter (deciduous) which reduces the loss of water. PC: Christine Yan  The leaves are smaller, meaning that water loss by winds is reduced but they are large enough for photosynthesis to occur and for the tree to grow healthily.  The bark that wraps around the trunk protects the inner wood from damage and drying.  Wide roots allow more moisture to be taken in. Slide by Christine
  10. 10. +  The history of birch:  Birches have been important for human survival for many years. The natives in North America used the bark of these trees as shelter in structures such as teepees.  The most common use back then for birches were canoes.  Creative items could also be created with the bark, such as baskets to hold water.  White birch (Betula papyrifera) is native to North America PC: Christine Yan PC: Google Slide by Christine
  11. 11. + Sexual dimorphism-Frogs  Frogs provide an example of sexual dimorphism.  The frogs we saw on our hike (American bullfrog) are an example.  The average snout vent length for male frogs was 130 mm, while for females it was 140 mm.  The two genders can be distinguished by the size of the tympanums in relation to the eyes. Tympanums are the two circular spots found on either side of the eyes. In females the tympanum is approximately the same size as the eye while in males, it can reach twice the size of his eye. The frog in the image to the right is a male since the tympanum is noticeably larger than the eye. PC: J.D. Austin Slide by Christine
  12. 12. + Population Ecology-Fungi  Fungi are found everywhere if you look carefully. It could be the mushrooms you see in the forest, or even the mold on your strawberries. Fungi can grow on both abiotic and biotic places. They are decomposers  Abiotic factors: Soil, dead matter (such as dead logs) often have fungi on them. Fungi growing from the soil PC: Christine Yan Slide by Christine
  13. 13. also be on biotic factors: they can have +  Fungi canrelationsfoundplants, animals, and other fungi. symbiotic with  For example, athletes foot is a disease caused by fungi growing on humans.  Maple leaves in fall often have fungi on them, another example of fungi found on biotic factors. PC: Google PC: Christine Yan Slide by Christine
  14. 14. + Community Ecology- Pollination PC: Jess Lloyd     Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the anthers of another or the same flower. The Bee’s in these photos are the pollinators. By pollination, the bees get the nectar/pollen from the flowers which allows them to meet there energy requirements and to produce offspring. Flowering plants benefit also because the pollination is required for fertilization in order for the flower to develop seeds. Slide by Jess
  15. 15. +  This is an example of a mutualistic relation, since the flower provides the bee with food while the bee allows the flower to reproduce  Because of the pollination the bees are responsible for, they are very important to the survival of vast amounts of flowers. However, as the usage of pesticides is increasing, the population of bees is decreasing and may cause problems in the future for pollination. PC: Christine Yan Slide by Christine
  16. 16. + Ecosystem Ecology - Mixed forest PC: Jess Lloyd Studies show that forests should contain a variety of trees in order to increase and maintain factors such as; tree growth, carbon sequestration, berry production, food for wildlife, the presence of dead wood and biological diversity in ground vegetation. In the mixed forest that we explored for example, trees such as the white birch tree provide the ecosystem with oxygen through the process of photosynthesis while also providing a feeding place for numerous birds such as yellow-bellied sapsuckers. Jon Bengtsson states that, "Our findings show that both forestry and nature conservation could benefit from promoting more different varieties of trees, thereby providing a greater diversity of ecosystem services.” Slide by Jess
  17. 17. + Human Impacts- Bees Honey bee’s don’t only have a impact on human lives in the agricultural aspect. They pollinate plants that feed animals in order for them to provide other products, such as cows producing dairy. They provide the amount of pollination that humans need for the amount of consumption that occurs on this planet.   Sucrose is converted to glucose and fructose by enzymes that the bee produces.  Most of the water is then evaporated so honey only consists of about 18% water.  PC: Jess Lloyd Bees convert the nectar they have received from pollination, which is similar to a mixture of sucrose and water. Honey is a very stable food, which allows it to naturally resist molds, fungi and other bacteria’s. Slide by Jess
  18. 18. + Human Impacts- Sumac  Sumac is used in cooking in places such as the middle east. It is sometimes used as a substitute of lemons. Sumac has a very nice, fruity-tart flavor which is not quite as overpowering as lemon. In addition to their very pleasant flavor, flakes from the berry are a lovely, deep red color which makes a very attractive decoration.  Sumac can be used to make drinks such as tea and pink lemonade. PC: Jess Lloyd Slide by Jess
  19. 19. Human Impacts- Pollution +  The Yangtze River is located in China, and is the longest river in Asian and third-longest in the world.  The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s biggest dam and is located on the Yangtze River as a power station. It started operating in 2008. Dam at night  PC: Christine Yan Dam during day The Yangtze River Cruise is a popular tourist destination in China nowadays, and on this cruise people, like me, will see the an amount of pollution they have never seen before in their life. Slide by Christine
  20. 20. + PC: Christine Yan  As seen in the example above, pollution floats atop a huge part of the river, and the river is brown in colour because of it.  The amount of sewage and industrial waste released into this river reached 25 billion tons.   92% of nitrogen released into the river is from agriculture. Before the dam was built, there was already a lot of pollution but after, it became much worse. Slide by Christine
  21. 21.  As a result of this pollution, the natural water flow of the river is slowed down. Serious infectious diseases such as Hepatitis A can be caused and E.coli bacteria is “rampant” in the water.  Riverbank collapses and landslides caused by the dam will cause even more pollution.  This is a truly beautiful area of the world and if it becomes too damaged because of the pollution, the world will have lost what in my opinion is one of the greatest wonders. + First gorge at sunset PC: Christine Yan Slide by Christine
  22. 22. + Invasive species- Fungi (Rhytisma acerinum)   This fungi weakens the tree, which makes it susceptible to other diseases and insects.  PC: Jess Lloyd The fungus that appears as black spots on maple leaves is called a tar spot. They are fungi from the genus Rhytisma. The fungus thrives in moist, cold weather. It infects the leaves which results in creating tar spots. The fungi cause the leaves to fall early in the fall. However in the long term, the tree’s health in general is not normally affected. Slide by Jess
  23. 23. Thank you for embarking on this + adventure with us, we hope you learned from it and enjoyed it.
  24. 24. + Resources American Bullfrog. (n.d.). Ontario Nature. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from reptiles_and_amphibians/american_bullfrog.php Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta). (n.d.). Ontario Wildflowers. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http:// Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (2011, May 3). 'Apple a day' advice rooted in science. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http:// /releases/ 2011/04/110412131923.htm Fernandez, A. (n.d.). History of Birch. Herbal Legacy. Retrieved October 17, 2013, from Birch_History.html
  25. 25. + Grey, M. (n.d.). Adaptations of the Birch Tree. EHow. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from list_7552867_adaptations-birch-tree.html Malus domestica. (n.d.). Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from page_id=121 Rhytisma acerinum. (n.d.). Hedgerows of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved October 17, 2013, from http:// Search for the Cause of Equine Atypical Myopathy. (n.d.). Gluck Center. Retrieved October 17, 2013, from http:// Species Bombus bimaculatus. (n.d.). Bug Guide . Retrieved October 18, 2013, from 80615
  26. 26. + The Staghorn Sumac and its Canadian Cousins. (n.d.). Canadian Wildlife Federation. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http:// Threat of Pollution in the Yangtze. (n.d.). World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http:// freshwater_problems/river_decline/10_rivers_risk/ yangtze/yangtze_threats/